Die englischen Jahre, eds. I was headed to the Stuttgart train station, where one can easily find a whole array of European papers. I bought an armful, even in languages I couldn t read. In the United States it is still too rare a pleasure to find anyone outside of German Studies familiar with Canetti s work. But in Europe his death had made the front pages, not to mention fairly extensive coverage in the arts and culture sections, of virtually all the major papers. When I first planned my errand to the Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof, I did so with the intention of visiting Canetti in the Klosbachstrasse, not of gathering his death notices, or as the Germans more poetically put it, his Nachrufe.
Contrary to the posthumous claim that his death was completely unexpected, 1 I knew or thought I did that Canetti was ill. He had written to discourage my visit, saying that he expected to be under a doctor s care. Yet I was also familiar with the rumors about his vaunted love of privacy, his reclusiveness, and sometime misanthropy. Erich Fried and Claudio Magris both tell how Canetti, before the age of the answering machine, would screen his Hampstead phone by mimicking the voice of the housekeeper.
Others recount how Canetti would simply pretend not to be home if he didn t want to answer the door. So I wasn t sure if the brief note I received was a ploy to evade the intrusions of an overeager academic, or if he was dead serious. I was determined to try my luck, but to no avail: By the time we heard of his death, Canetti had already been buried, as all the newspapers reported, in a Zurich cemetery plot adjacent to James Joyce s grave.
I remember thinking what a coup this was: Canetti had posthumously continued his autobiographical endeavor by arranging an affiliation that would be picked up in even the briefest obituary, thereby ensuring that he would be associated once again with perhaps the century s best known modernist author.
Canetti had begun his career to critical notices that frequently associated Die Blendung with Joyce s novels an observation justified only in the general sense that both Joyce and Canetti are strikingly non-traditional and frankly sometimes demanding. Is this Canetti s effort to manipulate his reception from the grave? Very quickly one concludes that there are competing views of Canetti abroad, and that these disparities can hardly be resolved by referring to the obituaries, which themselves are responsible for some of the confusion.
The point here is not to get at the real Elias Canetti. To the extent that is possible, it would clearly be the task of the critical biographer, rather than that of the sometimes partisan obituarist, and we now have reason to believe that this fundamental desideratum of Canetti scholarship may soon be met. Indeed, the Canetti of academic criticism is rather a different creature and Canetti would not have minded the animal nomenclature than the one presented in the more popular feuilleton.
Subsequent to an overview of the obituary corpus, I want to propose three points that arise from this reading. First, Canetti s death inaugurates a more independent and, I believe, more fruitful phase of criticism. Second, I will lay out the disparity between certain aspects of Canetti scholarship and what I am calling the feuilleton perspective, with the suggestion that the former may have something crucial to learn from the latter. Finally, while the obituaries clearly perpetuate some fantasies about Canetti such as his improbable embodiment of a grand era in European letters they form on balance an instructive and intriguing guide to his viability.
In valorizing the feuilleton Canetti as the Canetti with the most life left in him, I am in part, I must admit, taking the obituaries as an opportunity to reflect on the current state of Canetti scholarship with the unabashed goal of promoting future directions. There is something inescapably ironic about turning to obituaries to get a better picture of Canetti. Is this famed enemy of death an appellation no obituary omits now to be approached from the perspective of death?
Not only that, but by someone and I trust I am not alone in this curiously addicted to obituaries? It may well be that an appetite for this genre merely confirms Canetti s notion that the experience of survival implicit in this illicit reading practice provides a covert pleasure that constitutes an expression of power. In combing through what has become a fairly exhaustive collection, including every German-language newspaper or magazine of note as well as a rich sampling from the British, American, French, Spanish, Italian, Mexican, and Israeli press, I do not pretend to have escaped the inevitable snares of reception criticism.
Often caricatured as mere bean-counting, this distinctly unfashionable critical pursuit certainly does not supplant our need to interpret. Even in restricting myself to an exploration of Canetti s appeal to a broader readership, I remain cautious. For whom do these cultural elites. I do not stake a major claim on their representative status. For my purposes, their value lies more in the challenge and sometimes the solution they pose to the academic agenda. To fundamental questions of method, some obituaries, precisely in their attempt to come to grips with what is worth holding on to in the Canetti oeuvre, offer productive answers.
And even when they fail they are, for example, notoriously unreliable and inconsistent on certain facts these weaknesses can be turned to the good; for we thereby learn what needs to be set aright. Canetti himself warned against a static, mechanistic positivism: Of course, not all obituaries are equal or of equal interest.
The leading American and Canadian newspapers took dutiful notice of the Nobel laureate s death, but uniformly relied on the bare bones data provided by the Associated Press, and typically printed a brief story in the obituary pages only. The New York Times, which typically publishes well-researched and wellwritten obituaries, reported that Masse und Macht was published in , an error repeated here and there throughout the North American press. The obituaries of substance are without exception European.
Le Monde gave Canetti full front-page coverage, including fairly detailed discussion of his works. With few exceptions, these authors obituarists, as I will dub them here evince an intimate and impressive familiarity with the Canetti oeuvre and at this level alone are more compelling than many derivative academic articles. Extensive coverage in all the major French dailies reflects the fact that Canetti, who was compared to activist writers Sartre and Simone de Beau-.
Although the British papers took no less notice of the author s passing, they were less gushing, noting that while Canetti rates as an original thinker and author, he remains one of the most puzzling figures of world literature. The Austrians were hard put not to claim Canetti as one of their own. Chancellor Vranitzky remarked candidly on this, but still found reason to celebrate Canetti s important connection to Austria.
To put it a bit polemically, one could say that Canetti scholarship divides, at its worst, into two parties: We know these two groups: The latter can easily be found between the pages of that unfortunate book Experte der Macht. Of course Thomas Bernhard, too, famously managed to break free well before Canetti s actual demise recall Bernhard s maliciously entertaining Leserbrief.
But for those of us dependent on the author for access, for interviews actual or hoped for , for correspondence, or to simply be connected by the bonds of friendship or admiration, Canetti s death has proven liberating. Surely such a thought is anathema to orthodox Canetti disciples how could the arch Feind des Todes approve such a notion? Yet I find it confirmed in my own experience. Having received Canetti s imprimatur for my book on Die Blendung, I came under his sway and began to write with this approval in mind. Although I don t think it was wrong to defend his novel against facile and anachronistic charges of misogyny such as those that reduce the novel to Kien s transparently misogynistic ranting one needn t do so, as one critic pointed out, by portraying Canetti as a poster boy of the post feminist agenda.
My lack of distance, at least in the early drafts, caused me to sacrifice critical nuance for what now appears to be an obviously misguided notion of loyalty. From today s perspective this attitude may seem exceedingly slavish, but it was not perceived so at the time. Recall that the first monograph on Die Blendung Dieter Dissinger s Vereinzelung und Massenwahn of opens with the author s proud declamatory preface title Statt eines Vorworts, which introduces a letter from Canetti that praises the book in some detail.
This pride in getting it right is understandable, for we found ourselves in the difficult though not impossible position of commenting upon an author whose erudition often vastly exceeded our own. Iris Murdoch begins her review of Masse und Macht with this. I am not the polymath who would be the ideal reviewer of this remarkable book.
To deal adequately with Crowds and Power one would have to be, like its author, a mixture of historian, sociologist, psychologist, philosopher and poet. If a novelist and philosopher of the caliber of Murdoch felt outflanked intellectually, how much more so many of us. Then, too, there was Canetti s wrath with which we might have had to contend.
As Erich Fried relates in Ein Dichter gegen Macht und Tod, the German television documentary made in the wake of Canetti s receipt of the Nobel Prize, Canetti could be harsh and voluble with those who dared to criticize or as Canetti deemed it, to misunderstand his work. Fritz Arnold, who served for many years as Canetti s editor at Hanser and only twice succeeded in getting him to change his text, puts it plainly: Dagmar Barnouw, as is well known, provided the first comprehensive treatment of Canetti s oeuvre, the immensely useful Metzler handbook.
In her post work, however, one notices a more sovereign, less reverential attitude. Here Barnouw more decisively challenges Canetti s rendition of his break with Karl Kraus, and more freely confronts the performability of his dramas than ever before. One can trace this development logically enough to the obituaries.
DE:BUG by Lars Hammerschmidt - Issuu
Claudio Magris, professor of literature and philosophy, and long-time Canetti friend, wrote eloquently in of the fundamental break between the formally more radical early works he especially loves the novel and the later best-selling autobiography. Though he makes no bones about the gentle and smooth surface of the autobiography, which stands in such contrast to the angularity of Die Blendung and which deceptively appears to tell all, Magris goes to some lengths in this essay The Writer in Hiding to justify these more popular texts, telling us that the autobiography, when properly considered, harbors the same via negativa that is characteristic of the earlier works.
At this juncture Magris appears almost ready to baptize the autobiography as modernist: At the center of the [autobiography] is a void, a vortex, an implosion that sucks up its own innards and that appears to destroy the ordered material of the narrative. Like every book of real substance, Canetti s autobiography must be read with both fascination and suspicion; it must be examined for what it says and also for what it does not say. In a splendid passage from The Torch in My Ear Canetti remarks that in the face of reality we all resemble Samson, blinded and shattered, as he looks upon the world for the last time, a world that is fading and sinking.
Perhaps Canetti also feels this fear, but he masters it brilliantly in his autobiography. It was indeed Canetti s death that set free his tongue. In , three years before Canetti s death, Ritchie Robertson observed, We still need to distinguish what is living and what is dead in Canetti s thought.
Indeed, they evince a laudable and balanced sovereignty in considering the relative merits and potential future of the novel, dramas, aphorisms, and social thought. They honor Canetti by taking him seriously, rather than uncritically. If Magris is to be credited with the original two Canettis thesis the more radical and uncompromising young author of Die Blendung, Hochzeit, and Masse und Macht as opposed to the elderly, crowd-pleasing author of the autobiography the obituaries suggest, as I have indicated above, a rather different division, namely the Canetti of academic literary criticism versus the feuilleton Canetti.
This bifurcation is perhaps best exemplified in. Whereas it appears to be taken as an article of faith among academics that Masse und Macht fell upon deaf ears when it appeared in , 30 the obituaries paint a more differentiated picture. While some observers grant that es fand bei Fachleuten wenig Beifall, as Der Spiegel put it, 31 others, including the Austrian author Robert Schneider, remember it quite differently. Roland Jaccard, writing the front page article for Le Monde, refers to Masse und Macht as one of the cult classics of the century, and he is joined by numerous other commentators in remarking on this work s ongoing appeal and relevance.
Of course both parties may be correct to some extent since it depends greatly upon whose attention is deemed to count. Masse und Macht has indeed failed to gain a bridgehead among mainstream sociologists and anthropologists, 34 yet it has garnered the fascination and admiration of journalists and cultural commentators. Peter von Matt, writing for Die Zeit, explains that this inverse relationship is perhaps no accident.
Though he refers to the autobiography in the following remark, von Matt s impatience with what he deems sterile academic paradigms is centrally relevant to the discussion of Masse und Macht: Interestingly, he not only defends Canetti, but is equally eager to demonstrate his full knowledge of the epistemological issues at stake. In portraying Canetti as a supra-disciplinary intellectual, von Matt is joined by Martin Halter of Der Tages-Anzeiger, who celebrates the hallmarks of Canetti s work as seine universale Neugier, sein Hang zum Fragmentarischen und Unfertigen, which, in turn, amount to die radikale Abkehr von einer Mechanik des Denkens, die falsches Pathos und fixe ideologische Gewissheiten verabscheut.
This might well remind us of the hilarious spoof on academic overspecialization contained in Die Blendung, where Peter Kien insists that real discipline-specific learning depends on excluding everything else in the world. Solange man ihn als Dichter abtun kann, he observes, geht es noch an. For von Matt, the value of Canetti s study resides in its ability to interrogate other disciplines. He demonstrates this point with reference to an aphorism from Die Fliegenpein that asserts Die chinesische Geschichte wimmelt von fetten Rebellen.
Obese rebels do not make any sense in the face of the typical conception of revolutionary motivation deriving from the French Revolution and taught in the standard Western school curriculum. And thus we are forced to rethink fundamental assumptions about society and power: We are implicitly told not to worry so much about the precise status of the study s various and sundry truth claims, for this perspective treasures Canetti s universal curiosity as a way of transcending and dissolving the particularities and limitations of the social sciences.
Scholars have long wrestled with the tension between Canetti the poet and Canetti the intellectual. Neither do we lack, thanks to Hansjakob Werlen s Stanford. The implicit dispute between these two groups, who sometime appear to be talking past each other as ineffectively as any two parties in Canetti s Hochzeit, has more to do with the scholarly assumption that readers need to be protected, so to speak, from the work s deceptive narrative strategies.
For example, in his more recent study Destiny s Herald, Werlen goes to some length to explain that, despite the author s self-assured tone, Masse und Macht does not really have the authority of science. The feuilleton writers suggest that this kind of warning misses the mark.
The obituary view, however, suggests that the Canetti with real longevity is not one who elevates anti-systematic thinking, pastiche, and playfulness to first principles though all this is to be found in Canetti but one who works with an open, evolving, and self-critical system. In one of Canetti s last reflections, first published in conjunction with the FAZ obituary, one sees that the system-builder is present until the very end, only overwhelmed and humbled by his frankly unmanageable topic.
Here Canetti compares himself to the great theorist of power, Machiavelli, commenting: His catalogue of national symbols the German forest Wald as intrinsically militaristic, for example lays claim to this same privileged semiotic status. This literary function is never made fully explicit even in Canetti s theoretical writings yet it would be a great mistake to take any one of these images as mere illustration of a fully elaborated theory. For Canetti they demonstrate but also extend in some inexplicit manner a prior thesis; as such, they do not simply supply explanation, but also demand interpretation.
In endorsing the prospect of achieving a relatively more integrated view of culture by means of the literary, these critics are telling us that they understand and accept the fundamentally provisional, provocative, and speculative nature of Canetti s social analysis. Writer Hugo Loetscher confesses in a reminiscence: Es blieb ein Buch einzelner Kapitel. Ritchie Robertson s masterful explication of Canetti s reliance on the outmoded paradigm of evolutionary anthropology is exemplary in this regard.
Appreciating Canetti as a useful gadfly to academic criticism who can sore above disciplinary boundaries and yet dive in for a well-targeted sting need not impede our progress toward finding Canetti s place within twentieth-century intellectual history. Despite von Matt s binary and entertainingly inflammatory rhetoric, we should view this feuilleton Canetti as complementary rather than opposed to scholarly endeavors.
Meaning of "naturfarben" in the German dictionary
It can serve as a corrective to the needless compartmentalization and arid reductionism characteristic of some Canetti scholarship; but it cannot replace scholarship at its best. One could conceivably make progress toward overcoming this dichotomy simply by keeping this broader cultivated feuilleton readership in mind as the target audience of our own scholarly pursuits.
Furthermore, we can not credit the obituaries exclusively with this more capacious approach to Canetti. Michael Mack s recent study, Anthropology as Memory: Elias Canetti s and Franz Baermann Steiner s Responses to the Shoah, is one of the very few scholarly treatises that boldly and by no means uncritically inserts Canetti into the very intellectual, philosophical, and religious debates that his work engages and provokes. The Europa Myth Canetti was remembered in many ways, but above all for possessing a perhaps idealized image of the feuilletonists themselves.
In the great feuilleton tradition, Canetti s oeuvre juxtaposes a rich array of styles, topics, genres, and often with enviable erudition, usually with a sense of urgency, and not infrequently with a dose of wicked humor. There is a hint of nostalgia in many of the obituaries, owing in part to the fact that Canetti was the last of a great generation of authors, poets, and artists the last son of that central European culture, according to Giorgio Pressburger Corriere della sera.
In this remark, not untypical, by the way, we see Canetti valued as the synthesizing witness to the greatness of others rather than for any of his own particular accomplishments. And yet these writers are also bidding farewell to the last thinker who seriously used the term Dichter, to one who cared deeply about vastly disparate issues, read widely and in numerous languages, and mastered almost every literary genre. Zurich city president Josef Estermann was moved to assert: Er will durch die Geschichte seiner Kindheit Europa vereinigen. But globalization was already then afoot, the bipolar world already dissolved, and a united Europe already high on the political agenda.
So the image of Canetti as the enlightened European may belong as much to the future as to the past. Whatever illusions and self-gratifying images contained in the obituaries, one finds among them a Canetti who was cherished for who he in fact was: Notes My sincere gratitude to Geoff Baker and Daniel Skibra for patiently and relentlessly gathering these many obituaries and related materials from disparate sources and for providing many crucial translations. The bulk of the Germanlanguage essays were provided by the Innsbrucker Zeitungsarchiv. Canetti, in a interview with Swiss writers Paul Nizon and Ippolita Pizzetti, denied the possibility of any direct influence; he would not read Joyce until later.
Nevertheless, one senses the possibility that he is flattered by the comparison. Joyce makes an appearance in volume three of the autobiography, Das Augenspiel: Hanser, , , Joyce ohne Spiegel. Canetti relates here that Joyce attended one of his readings in Zurich, but left early because he couldn t understand the Viennese dialect Canetti read from Hochzeit and Die Blendung.
The interview is reprinted along with the obituary in Corriere della sera, August 19, , The article Elias Canetti Seine Heimat war die deutsche Sprache contains an excerpt of a letter in which Canetti apparently requests to be buried in Zurich. Warum man mit Elias Canetti hierzulande meist doch so recht nichts anfangen konnte, die tageszeitung, August 22, Kurt Bartsch and Gerhard Melzer, eds.
Adrian Stevens and Fred Wagner Stuttgart: Elegy for Iris refers to the affair but remains fairly coy. A Life New York: After this article went to press, Hanser published the posthumous Party im Blitz Munich: Hanser, , in which Canetti gives among many other things his account of the affair with Murdoch, including a rather harsh judgment of her intellectual accomplishments. I never received an acknowledgement.
Of course Canetti may have had other reasons for disregarding this essay. David Darby New York: Hall, , Here: Magris also expresses some of the same ideas in an interview with Antonio Gnoli of La Repubblica, August 19, , 26; this interview appears in English in Salmagundi. Although Hansjakob Werlen, Destiny s Herald: Elias Canetti ou le territoire de l homme: Gerald Stieg, Nimm und lies!
Elias Canetti, The Guardian, August 19, , sec. G, p Italo A. August 26, Die chinesische Geschichte wimmelt von fetten Rebellen. Quoted from Canetti s Fliegenpein: Warum man mit Elias Canetti hierzulande meist doch so recht nichts anfangen konnte, die tageszeitung, August 22, In: Gass, The Road to the True Book: David Denby, Learning to Love Canetti: Canetti perhaps carried with him as well the key to a great secret of European civilization, his mysterious capacity to reconcile origins and ends, antiquity and modernity, the West and the Middle East, the Mediterranean and the Central European, the Bible and Quevedo, Ibn Gabirol and Voltaire.
Dismissing all analytical approaches to the process of remembering especially the psychoanalytic version as some kind of unnecessary surgical operation, the narrator makes the case for the integrity of all memories. By transposing Luther s invocation of the sacred nature of the word onto the remembering process, the narrator assumes a defiant posture that aims at safeguarding the authenticity of the individual s memories in the age of multiple and fragmented identities.
The confessional and slightly heroic tone of this passage has had considerable influence on many of Canetti s critics who write about him as if they needed to defend an anachronistic narrative that appears out of step with most leading paradigms that have shaped the reflection on self and other in the latter half of the twentieth century. A case in point is Martin Bollacher s analysis of the above-mentioned passage from Die Fackel im Ohr. Bollacher reads it as a prime example of Canetti s authoritative poetics, which aims to defend both the unbroken power of the poetic word that makes the world legible and the individual s right to favor a literal reading of one s life.
What appears to be a traditionally closed narrative that tells the story of the genesis of the self is in fact a story about the son s painful and largely unsuccessful struggle to set himself free from a stifling maternal hold. The site of this battle between mother and son is the German language that as we will see is in quite a literal sense his mother tongue. Canetti dramatizes this battle in his three-part autobiography, which consists of Die gerettete Zunge , Die Fackel im Ohr , and Das Augenspiel While the first part relates the profound effect of the acquisition of German as mother tongue, Die Fackel im Ohr and Das Augenspiel tell the story of the son s attempted liberation.
In this process the German language is turned from a site of love into the site of a contest that concerns the boundaries between the self and the other, the mother. The son must free himself from the mother to develop a proper sense of self. Language, particularly the German language, becomes the battleground in this painful struggle for selfhood. Focusing on shifting images of orality and reading in Die gerettete Zunge, the essay explores first the eroticization of the German language. German is a highly libidinized object in the parental relationship and, as such, the object of the child s Oedipal envy.
Forcing the boy to learn German after the father s sudden death, the mother also forces him into a symbiotic relationship from which the son later struggles to escape. Second, this essay then analyzes the various stages of the son s struggle for independence in Die Fackel im Ohr and Das Augenspiel. Here I will attempt to demonstrate that the son s decision to become a writer does not resolve the deadly battle against and for the mother. Conceived as the site of liberation from the maternal hold, the son s writing only traps him further in a classic double bind where each work is the simultaneous expression of the son s rebellion and obedience.
Language as a veritable battlefield where self and other thrash it out enmeshes not only mother and son but all representatives of divergent social forces. We will see how Das Augenspiel portrays a compromise between maternal demands on the one hand and the need for independence on the other.
Canetti s struggle for independence involves the mapping of a utopian space that is not defined by ownership of the mother, the primary other. Sonne can transcend social and linguistic antagonisms. Against the backdrop of the social satire of Karl Kraus, which is a central theme in Die Fackel im Ohr, the narrator now conceives the voice of the other as the domain of alterity and reciprocity. In contrast to the Canetti of Die Blendung and the early plays who uses the human voice for satirical purposes, the Canetti of the autobiography celebrates the elusive quality of the pure voice as a way of transcending battles for power, success, and knowledge.
Toward the end of the trilogy he envisages a utopian kind of orality that is devoid of all desire, in other words a new language that transcends the deadly battle between mother and son. What amounts to a split between Stimme and Schrift allows the son to continue to serve his mother and, at the same time, create a space that is other than mother. The fact that this is at best a precarious compromise that is divorced from concrete reality makes Canetti a complex modern writer whose works display the very cracks and fissures that they attempt to cover up.
That the tongue is a dominant leitmotif in Die gerettete Zunge is so selfevident that many critics have stopped short of a more detailed analysis of its symbolism. The opening scene, which, with its powerful iconography, reenacts the existential threat of castration, a threat that is even more powerful by virtue of its deferral, is the first in a series of childhood memories that deal with sexual aggression and the fear of being devoured.
The narrator tells us that the red tongues of the wolves come so close to her that the mother is haunted by this memory for years GZ, When the father who is the sheep in wolf s skin, takes off his mask and tries to explain that both wolf and threat were imaginary, the child is inconsolable GZ, For weeks, we are told, the wolf returns in his sleep. The overtness of the iconography of these episodes has acted as an effective smoke screen that has prevented critical engagement with Canetti s founding myth.
In all three episodes the red tongue is clearly associated with a male threat that is deferred from the boy to the mother and then back to the boy. The scenario is, however, further complicated by virtue of the complex cross-stitching of opposing functions of the tongue: As both target and agent of the threat, the tongue is a highly libidinized object, a site of desire that, however, paralyzes its speech function: This is fully brought to the fore in the chapter titled Die Zaubersprache, the magic language, which introduces not only the motif of German as the parental secret code but also the notion that language can be a powerful carrier of desire GZ, 33 In clear contrast to the aggressively sexualized images of the early passages, the narrator depicts the relationship between husband and wife as a magical discourse that is only temporarily interrupted by the demands of the mundane world.
We are told that when the father came home from work, he would instantly speak to his wife in German. These talks revolve around their happy school days, the world of the Vienna Burgtheater, and their unfulfilled passion for acting GZ, For Canetti s parents, talking and loving are not only inseparable, but the world of fiction is also the very core of their relationship.
Feeding their secret love at first through endless conversations in German, their marriage eventually legitimizes this continuous role-play. The narrator even implies that their marriage was an act of compensation for their missed careers on stage. For the boy who at this point has no word of German, the sound and intonation of the ongoing parental babble is so fascinating that he associates the language with a world of magic: Wenn ich lange vergeblich gebettelt hatte, lief ich zornig davon [ GZ, 34 Canetti rewrites the Oedipal drama here in that the passage transposes the child s anger at being excluded from the parent s love for each other into his sense of exclusion from the code of this love.
The result of this transference of love to language is the libidinization of the German language, or to be more precise, the libidinization of the non-semantic quality of spoken German. As pure sound without meaning, the language acquires an erotic quality that the boy registers as magic. It is therefore not surprising that the son. Insofar as the entire episode revolves around the transference of desire onto language, it highlights that within the parental relationship desire is, to a large extent, desire for the libidinized word.
It is the parental identification with German and Austrian literature that prepares the groundwork for the famous episode in which Canetti s mother teaches the boy German after her husband s sudden death. Her brutal teaching method with its emphasis on the spoken word and a reign of terror that involves the verbal degradation of her son whenever he makes a mistake has been commented on by generations of readers.
Reflecting on the impact of this episode, the narrator points to his mother s profound need to speak German with her son after her husband s sudden demise. Because her marriage had taken place in German, she attempted to substitute this loss of intimacy as fast as possible by putting the son in his father s place: In dieser Sprache hatte sich ihre eigentliche Ehe abgespielt.
GZ, 90 The narrator s final observation that German was a late and painfully implanted mother tongue should be taken quite literally. What is at stake here can be explored by comparison with the opening scene in which the boy s ability to speak was symbolically threatened by the man with the knife.
Here, however the mother induces a second language by forcing the son to swallow her tongue. Remember that in the previous episode the son perceived the parental love talk as some magical babble that derived its desirability from the purity of the sound pattern. Forcing these sounds down his throat, the mother commits a brutal act that violates the boundaries between self and mother to such an extent that it is doubtful that the violated boy can ever occupy a space of his own.
From now on mother and son are not only inextricably linked, but the mother will, as a kind of ventriloquist, speak through her son. We can see how the introjection of the mother tongue leads to a fateful maternalization of the German language: Furthermore, the brutal implantation of what is literally a mother tongue results in a symbolic matrix that both desymbolizes language and fictionalizes desire. As we will see later on, from the mother s point of view, the ensuing literary conversations between mother and son allow her to continue her relationship with her husband.
To explore this further, it may be useful to remember the significance of accession to the symbolic order. Before we are speaking subjects in a world of coherent objects, we all inhabit a space without proper boundaries and borders. Kristeva refers to this space as the chora, a self-contemplative, conservative, self-sufficient haven that is shared by mother and child and precedes the mirror stage.
It needs a third party, the father or the paternal metaphor, to pursue this struggle to demarcate and divide, and to ensure that the subject will find its place in the symbolic order. The paternal metaphor enables the struggling not-yet-i to make the transition and to give up the good maternal object 8 in favor of finding its place within the symbolic order. The implication here is that the symbolic order as the domain of language, reason, positions, rules, and so forth functions only because of the repression of the maternal. Elizabeth Grosz comments that civilization, the symbolic order, the coherent text, then are possible only at the cost of the silencing, the phallicization, of the maternal chora.
Canetti s autobiography, however, reverses this process through the story of his dramatic rebirth in German. Instead of freeing the child from the devouring mother, the German language locks him even further into a narcissistic dependence that will eventually result in a battle for life and death. One might argue, however, that the actual resolution of the teaching episode runs somewhat counter to my interpretation: When Miss Bray notices that the son lives in a constant state of terror, she plots to save the boy from a crazy teaching method that relies exclusively on an aural technique.
It is hardly surprising that, after some initial success, the son cannot remember all the sentences the mother has taught him.
- Synonyms and antonyms of Grillhähnchen in the German dictionary of synonyms?
- Die dunkle Saat (German Edition).
- GRILLHÄHNCHEN - Definition and synonyms of Grillhähnchen in the German dictionary?
Whenever he makes a mistake, she spits verbal abuse on him, calling him an idiot. Eventually, Miss Bray ends his suffering by suggesting to the mother that he would like to learn Gothic script GZ, The argument that he will need to both speak German and write Gothic script when he enters school in Vienna persuades the mother to give him at last the much coveted grammar book. The resolution of the teaching episode suggests that the world of books can provide a safe haven from the violence of the maternal grip.
Reading would thus reinstate the symbolic order and achieve the eventual repression of the maternal. However, since the world of literature has already been associated with the eroticized love babble of the parents, this solution is doomed to failure. This is borne out by the ensuing Leseabende evenings spent reading where the boundaries between loving and reading are constantly blurred, and the mother confuses son and husband. Instead of opening up a space for the third other, reading reinforces the maternal hold.
From the safe distance of old age Canetti comments on the maternalization of German as follows: Immerhin, in Lausanne [ GZ, 94 This overt identification of the language and the mother is the foundation of the mother s and son s frenzied narcissistic co-dependence, which results in the violent rejection of all potential agents of the Law of the Father. Canetti, who detested psychoanalysis more than any other paradigm of the twentieth century, seems to write a text book of psychoanalysis when he describes the boy s violent hatred of the Herr Dozent who courts the mother in Vienna.
Watching how the mother and Dozent take tea on the balcony of their apartment, he fantasizes that the balcony collapses and buries the rival. The murderous fantasy ends with the proud admittance of the deed: When the rival is finally defeated, mother and son celebrate the return to their dyadic unity by falling into each other s arms GZ, What has rarely been commented on is that this literal definition of the mother tongue cuts language effectively off from the symbolic order that allows the individual to negotiate a compromise between the excessive demands of the self and those of the other.
From now on mother and son indulge in a series of powerful narcissistic projections that are channeled through literature. Reading Shakespeare and Schiller with her son, the mother returns to her alte Liebe, the world of the stage and the memory of her dead husband. Although these evenings begin with a didactic exploration of their reading, they eventually turn into an imaginary dialogue that.
Instead of introducing the space for the third other, literature is unwittingly turned into a narcissistic fetish that feeds into projections of grandeur and the eroticization of language. The price for this undisturbed unity between mother and son is the derealization, or vice versa, the fictionalization of sexual desire. As a result of this configuration, literature becomes the only permitted locus of desire. Reflecting on the mother s great sacrifice for her children, the narrator states: The taboo of sexuality is extremely powerful GZ, Although the title Die gerettete Zunge points the reader to the iconography of the opening scene, the ensuing chain of images runs counter to its powerful symbolism: But the maternalization of language that is at the heart of the mother-son relationship also means that the son s tongue has not been set free.
Die gerettete Zunge ends with the image of the expulsion from paradise. This prepares the ground for the full-scale battle for independence in Die Fackel im Ohr, at the core of which is the son s recognition of the social dimension of language against the mother s continued hold over his life.
The transition from the stifling dyadic relationship toward the social sphere is already implied in the title s reference to the great Viennese social satirist Karl Kraus. The remaining pages will not once again stress the importance of literary figures such as Kraus, Musil, and Broch for the development of Canetti the writer; instead they will focus on two episodes of central importance for the eventual freeing of the son s tongue: Finally, I shall explore Canetti s idealization of the voice with reference to the figure of Dr. The blowup referred to in the chapter title is caused when his mother refuses to allow Canetti to go on a long-planned hiking tour in the Karwendel Mountains.
She declares that she does not have enough money for such luxury and tells the son that he should deem himself happy that he would be. The son, however, understands very well that the mother uses an artificially induced economic pressure as a pretext to maintain a firm hold over his life. Grabbing a note pad, he begins to frantically fill one sheet after the other with the words Geld, Geld und wiederum Geld, until the floor is covered with paper.
This frantic activity is only interrupted when the family doctor appears and prescribes the desired walking trip as an appropriate cure. What is striking about this episode is not so much the vehemence of his counter-attack but the medium through which it is carried out. By choosing the written word and thus evoking the world of writing that was at the heart of the symbiotic relationship between mother and son, he repudiates the notion that his mother and his language are one and the same.
What appears to be a traditionally closed narrative is in fact a story about the self s struggle to salvage a space of its own. The third part of the autobiography indicates the possibility of such a space by prioritizing the voice over all writing. Strange as this may sound after all Canetti was a writer Canetti s poetics favors the human voice for its capacity to create a space for reciprocity between self and other.
This is most evident in his relationship with Veza and, in Das Augenspiel, his conversations with Dr. Let me first turn to Veza: Comparing her twice to a Persian miniature FO, 72, , the narrator introduces her as a precious and exotic figure that has hardly a bodily existence. Having observed her from a distance in Karl Kraus s lectures, he eventually musters up his courage and visits her at home.
Interestingly, their first extended conversation revolves around the figure of Shakespeare s Lear: The young man is most impressed with how she. The demarcation of a space of her own demonstrates that Veza, unlike Canetti, has succeeded in mapping the boundaries that are necessary for the constitution of the self and the other. This is further underlined in their ensuing literary conversations, where Veza demonstrates her superior intellectual independence: Examples like this are numerous they all show that in Veza s asylum Canetti finds more than a simple refuge from the mother.
Through Veza he discovers that real dialogue is based on the recognition of the difference between self and other. Interwoven in this portrait of Veza is, however, a curious episode in which the narrator relates how Veza speculates as to whether Canetti s mother is a secret writer. For the informed reader who knows that Venetiana Taubner-Calderon published her own works in the early thirties under a variety of pseudonyms and that she was writing for the Arbeiter-Zeitung in Vienna, this inquiry about the mother s writing must appear like a willful displacement through which Canetti disavows Veza as a writer.
Although this may play a role in the omission, I believe that there is more to this displacement: That the written word is the site of an ongoing contest between mother and son can be shown with reference to her reception of Die Blendung: GZ, 77 The curious formulation that the book and not the son is flesh of her flesh reveals her claim that she has actually authored both the son and his writing. It is relevant to note here that the son uses the subjunctive when relaying what amounts to a classic projection that she would have liked to write exactly like that.
The subjunctive opens up a certain distance from a claim that reflects the mother s inability to distinguish between self and writing. She is clearly unable to accept any kind of symbolic agency and the notion of representation. As a result of this disavowal of the symbolic, the mother views writing as flesh of her flesh, in other words as a domain that is completely non-transcendental.
In Das Augenspiel the narrator explains that this led to regular confrontations which both of them loved as a token of their mutual truthfulness and integrity A, 14 At this point it may be helpful to say a few words about the interdependence of the school of hearing and Karl Kraus, a crucial connection that is already highlighted in the book s title Die Fackel im Ohr.
When in the above-mentioned chapter the narrator describes Kraus as a satirist whose mastery consisted in accusing people with their very own words, he introduces the notion of the acoustic mask FO, As a keen listener of Karl Kraus s famous public lectures, Canetti develops the idea that it is the spoken word with its variations in pitch, tone, rhythm, and other paralinguistic modes of expression that forms a person s acoustic mask.
For Canetti, the acoustic mask betrays a person s true character without any reference to the content of the speech act; it therefore becomes an essential satirical tool in many of his writings. The characters of Die Blendung are a good example of this in that they expose themselves and their social origins through the way in which they speak. But satire presupposes a superior moral point of view and, by implication, a hierarchical relationship between self and other. This raises the question of how Canetti s concept of the acoustic mask sits with the idea that the voice can transcend the sphere of representation, ownership, and social contest.
Isn t there a basic contradiction between satirical exposure on the one hand and the notion of a non-hierarchical, reciprocal relationship on the other? In order to address this question, I would like to analyze the figure of Dr. Sonne in Das Augenspiel. Through Veza, Canetti already experienced dialogue as a mode of communication that is passionate but free from dominance. The portrait of Dr. Sonne radicalizes this idea substantially. What Canetti presents here is an extended apotheosis that turns the figure of Dr.
Sonne into the paradigm of pure voice that disavows or from Canetti s point of view transcends the physicality of life. The first thing we learn about Dr. Sonne is that he never talks about his personal life A, Unlike Musil who, according to the narrator, maintains a connection to the world through his own strong physical presence, Sonne has renounced all such worldly attachments. A man without personal qualities, he is all mind and no body. Separating him from any attachment to physical reality, the narrator even confesses that he forgot.
A voice without bodily needs, he solely consists of the sentences that he produces in the free flow of speech: Es lag nichts von ihm herum, wie bei allen anderen Menschen, auch keine Krankheit und Klage. A, Clearly, this apotheosis of a voice that does not need to be housed in a body is founded on Canetti s willful disavowal of the murky underside of life, of the body s physical needs and desires that make life terminable. It may be fruitful at this point to dwell a little longer on Canetti s strong aversion to the physical demands of the body, in particular the need to eat, which is the theme of several of his aphorisms and annotations.
Three entries in Die Provinz des Menschen are of particular interest in that they point to a connection between Canetti s aversion to food and his fear of incorporation. Reporting that he has seen a human stomach and that it looked exactly like a lump of meat, in fact a Schnitzel, the self of the annotations wonders why the incorporation of flesh Fleisch is the condition of life PM, A third entry develops this theme further with reference to the dual function of the mouth as a shredder of foodstuffs and the speech organ.
It is worthwhile to quote the entire entry: PM, Drawing upon the conventional opposition of mind and body, Canetti clearly re-inscribes himself here in the Western philosophical tradition.
Synonyms and antonyms of naturfarben in the German dictionary of synonyms
While mind is correlated with reason and spirituality as a measure of human achievement, the body is perceived as a brute animalistic force that stands in. However, it seems to me that the powerful iconography of the passage, with the detailed images of the human cavity, exceeds a simple binary opposition between mind and body.
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The fact that the mouth is not just an organ of speech but also an apparatus that devours other organisms defiles for Canetti the purity of language. His psycho-social horror at the body s need for nourishment is a classic example of what Kristeva calls the abjection of the maternal. Having had to swallow the mother s tongue as a boy, he now projects his fear of introjection onto food as something that violates the boundaries between self and other, purity and impurity, the sublime and the abject. Oral disgust is an expression of the self s refusal to accept its own mortality since the need to incorporate food keeps reminding the self that it is housed by a body that will die.
Recoiling from the body as a living organism, Canetti attempts to sublimate his oral disgust by poeticizing a pure voice that is detached from all bodily manifestations of life. It is in line with this and this brings me back to the autobiography that Sonne is a writer who has transcended writing. Toward the end of the chapter, we eventually learn that the figure of Sonne refers to Abraham ben Yitzchak, a poet who had helped to regenerate Hebrew poetry but had stopped writing after the publication of a small number of refined poems.
The narrator evaluates this as an act of pure renunciation: A, Bernd Witte reads Sonne as an allegory of discourse that allows Canetti to realize his utopia of metamorphosing life into language. The marriage of writing and Geltung recognition in the above-cited passage underlines once more that for Canetti writing is enmeshed in the sphere of representation, social recognition, and ownership, in short, the world of power that had been defined for him by the ongoing battle for and against his mother.
Set against this is the notion of the voice that cracks open the unity, certainty, and closure associated with the discursive word. While in Das Augenspiel Dr. Sonne still talks about things, thus remaining tied to the world of discourse and power, Canetti takes this idealization of the pure voice a step further in Die Stimmen von Marrakesch. This narrative, which evokes an abundance of sounds and aural impressions,. Borne by vocalic and kinetic differences, the voice with its transient quality transcends discursive language in favor of a utopian receptiveness that for Canetti recovers the dignity of all life.
The title Die Stimmen von Marrakesch reflects the primacy that Canetti attaches to the non-semantic dimension of experience. It emphasizes those prelinguistic sensual impressions that appeal to an intuitive understanding but ultimately preserve a sense of strangeness. Favoring auditory over visual impressions, Canetti detaches himself from the politics of ethnography that has systematically privileged the eye as the primary agent in the discovery and colonization of the other.
In contrast to this, Canetti favors the aural sense, which, because the traveler does not understand Arabic, is cut off from the semantic dimension of language and thus from the power relations implied in the symbolic order. I will finish with the call of the unseen in the final chapter of Die Stimmen von Marrakesch.
Here the voice is reduced to a singular sound emitted by a brown bundle that cannot be discerned behind a shield of cloth. At the same time as interpreting the bundle as a symbol of life, Canetti voices his respect for its dignity and otherness: Der Sinn seines Rufes blieb mir so Dunkel wie sein ganzes Dasein: So in the end Canetti arrives at a utopian vision where it is not the tongue that is set free but the voice that is liberated from the dominance of the tongue. Because the mother of the autobiography had force-fed her son with her tongue, the son now rids himself of this introjected ventriloquist by authoring a voice that does not need a mother tongue.
In a manner of speaking, by cutting the tongue off the voice, the son reintroduces the transcendental dimension of all language and writing that his mother had so forcefully tried to repress. Although Die Stimmen von Marrakesch is an expression of Canetti s poetics of otherness, the three-part autobiography traces the genesis of his poetics back to the deadly battle between mother and son.
In an ironic twist. However, the question that remains is to what extent this conception of a disembodied voice can liberate the son. Clearly, the utopian idea of the pure voice as an agent of another language that escapes the deadly power play of discourse can only be realized in and through poetic fiction. Further references are abbreviated as FO and page number in parentheses. Rombach Litterae, , The following publications are examples of the dominant tradition of Canetti criticism: Kurt Bartsch and Gerhard Melzer Graz: Droschl, , Bollacher, [ In recent years a more critical strand of commentary has emerged that attempts to challenge Canetti s self-representation by exposing the power play in the narrative.
For example, while Joseph Strelka engages with Canetti s portraits of male writers, Gerhard Melzer focuses on Canetti s implicit rhetoric of power that, according to Melzer, silences and devalues otherness. This is also a theme in Friederike Eigler s book that provides, among other things, a critical analysis of Canetti s misogynist portraits of women, ranging from his scathing attack on Alma Mahler-Werfel to his representation of Frau Weinreb and Ruzena in the tradition of Weininger.
Internationales Symposium, Russe Oktober St. Elias Canetti, Die gerettete Zunge: Geschichte einer Jugend Munich: Abbreviated as GZ and page number in parentheses. An Essay on Abjection New York: Three French Feminists Sydney: Rejecting this proposition the mother explicitly equates her own with her son s desire: Du bist mein Ritter.
Ich will s auch nicht! Abbreviated as A and page number in parentheses. The want for ion and water homeostasis is usual to all existence. For fish, ion and water homeostasis is a particularly very important problem simply because they stay in direct touch with water and due to the big edition within the salt content material of common waters varying via over five orders of magnitude.
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