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I may never learn to love the dark days of winter, but the wonderful thing about horticulture is that there is always a silver lining, particularly if you are a veg grower. Even as many plants around us slide into dormancy, there is a range of winter veg that can be planted now and which will look after itself for months at a time. Not only are these arguably the easiest of all seasonal crops to grow, but with a simple five-minute trick of mine you could also make them measurably tastier and more nutritious than most of what you can buy in the shops.

Autumn-planting onion and shallot sets are in stores everywhere right now and, once planted according to packet instructions in a well-tended bed, should require almost zero intervention from you until harvest. The same deal applies to garlic and a little known fourth member of the family, the echalote grise, also called rather confusingly the French grey shallot. Although neither French nor a shallot, this is in my opinion the finest flavoured of all the onion family. Spring onions can, likewise, be sown now from seed for harvesting from late winter to early spring.

Aside from crops in the onion family, a diverse range of cabbages can be planted now, too. Plug plants of sprouting broccoli and winter cabbage should still be available and more niche crops such as land cress, mustard and mizuna are really easy to grow from seed. Aside from their rugged, cold-tolerant constitution which makes both crops in the onion and cabbage family great winter veg, these species also have another thing in common, a love of sulphur.

Drawn up from the soil via their roots, the plants use this naturally occurring mineral as a building block to create defence compounds to help ward off pests and diseases. A decade of effort had produced little for him and his associates; like Dugua, he had his fill of this Acadian business, gave up, and returned to France, taking his younger son and most of the men with him.

But Charles de Biencourt and a handful of other Frenchmen refused to abandon the venture. They had seen the rich potential of the trade in furs and were determined to supply the wealthy merchants of La Rochelle with the precious commodity. The hardy young Biencourt "lived much like an Indian, roaming the woods with a few followers, and subsisting on fish, game, roots, and lichens. They also made frequent contact with the region's many cod fishing posts, from whence they could ship their furs to France via fishing vessel.

Without the cod fishermen and especially the local Indians, the efforts of Biencourt and the La Tour s to maintain the Acadian fur trade would not have been possible. At first the French were no more impressed with the local Algonquian-speaking tribes than with any of the other natives they encountered. Contacts throughout the previous century, chiefly through fishermen, had prepared them for trading relationships with the French," but they were little acculturated to French habits and attitudes when Dugua and his associates first encountered them.

The Mi'kmaq numbered about 3, over the roughly 30, square miles of their territory. Lawrence settlements, or the English colonies to the south. These ties were maintained assiduously by missionaries largely based on Quebec" who belonged to the order of Franciscan Recollets. Biencourt died near Port-Royal in , and only the La Tour s remained to carry on the Acadian fur trade. Charles La Tour claimed that Biencourt had bequeathed to him his rights to the colony, but it almost did not matter anymore.

The English reappeared in greater force, and this time they came to stay. Virginia, too, had endured its share of troubles after its founding in From the beginning, the English colonists exhibited a remarkable ineptness in dealing with the Algonquian-speaking natives who lived in the vicinity of Jamestown. In the first years of the settlement, mostly as a result of incompetent leadership and Indian depredations, the death toll among the settlers was astonishingly high.

The introduction of tobacco cultivation as a profitable venture and the conversion of Princess Pocahontas to Christianity after her kidnapping by the resourceful Argall were lucky strokes for the hard-pressed English during the administration of Thomas Dale. In , the princess married John Rolfe, the colony's secretary and the fellow who had introduced tobacco cultivation to the colony. By , the Englishmen at Jamestown managed to export the institution of representative government to Virginia and allowed a cargo of Africans who had arrived on a Dutch ship to become indentured servants.

By then, English Separatists had founded a colony of their own at Plymouth, near Cape Cod, in , 15 years after Dugua and Champlain had explored the area. Plymouth lay only miles south of Port-Royal, closer to Acadia than to Virginia. These "Pilgrims" were more adept at relations with the Indians than the Virginia pioneers had been. And now two English colonies offered a potential threat to the tenuous French hold on Acadia. In and , Sir William Alexander, First Earl of Stirling and a prominent member of the House of Lords, ventured to the territory granted to him, which he called "Nova Scotia," that is, New Scotland, but he did not make landfall at today's Nova Scotia.

During the first expedition, he established a fisheries settlement in Newfoundland, which he visited the following year. On his way home, he sailed along the south coast of present-day Nova Scotia, but, again, he did not make landfall there. Not until or , after his associate, David Kirke, had captured Port-Royal, did Sir William establish a Scottish settlement across the basin from the old French habitation there.

The story of French Acadia, and French Canada for that matter, could have ended in , only a quarter of a century after it had begun, but the French, despite years of bad luck and neglect, were unwilling to give up their holdings in North America. French Captain Charles Daniel, sailing under the behest of the newly-formed French Company of New France, attacked the English fort on Cape Breton Island as it was being built and carried its inhabitants to France as prisoners of war.

The Treaty of St. In the meantime, life had become dangerously complicated for the hard-pressed La Tour s. Claude, the father, was captured in the Gulf of St. Lawrence by one of the Kirkes and taken to England. Sir William rewarded him and his son titles of nobility in exchange for the outposts they controlled in Acadia. This meant nothing to Charles, who seldom remained in one place. They diligently pursued the trade in furs that sealed the relationship between the worlds of their parents. Heading the venture would be Richelieu's cousin, Isaac de Razilly of Touraine, a former associate of Champlain and a naval commander who had lost an eye in the siege of La Rochelle.

After 18 years of neglect and English interference, French suzerainty in greater Acadia finally was restored. Razilly next had to deal with the troublesome Charles La Tour , who considered himself master of all Acadia and had considerable influence with the local Indians as well as powerful officials in France. Razilly was forced to compromise with his clever compatriot. La Tour was interested primarily in the fur trade; the forts at Cap-Sable and on the St.

Razilly brought with him two associates who also would play prominent roles in Acadian history. Nicolas Denys de la Ronde was age Razilly granted them concessions also, continuing the New World modification of what the French called the seigneurial system, whereby a land holder with sanction from the King could charge rent to the inhabitants of his seigneurie , as it had been done in France since the Middle Ages.

As before, the agricultural component was secondary to the commercial one, "intended only to provide a supply base for the fur trade or the fishery," not "for colonization in the usual sense. Razilly and d'Aulnay chose to keep the agricultural settlement on the Atlantic side of the peninsula for several compelling reasons.

Nearby were the fisheries and also villages of friendly Mi'kmaq, who could help sustain the venture until it became self-sufficient. And then there was a characteristic of the Bay of Fundy, on the other side of the peninsula, that seemed to preclude any sustainable agriculture along its shores.


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Its origin lies in the extraordinarily high tidal range of the Bay of Fundy area The ranges are still higher when gales are combined with spring tides Denys, a tireless entrepreneur, had little interest in agriculture other than as a source of sustenance for his many enterprises. His concessions extended along the south shore of the Gulf of St. In the s, he built a post at Miscou, at the entrance to the Baie des Chaleurs in present-day northeastern New Brunswick, and his holdings eventually included Cape Breton Island, where he built Fort St.

Peter's, in the early s. Under Razilly's vigorous leadership, the resurrected Acadian colony held every promise of success. But two incidents during his short time at the helm of the Acadian venture threatened the colony's survival. The founders of this colony were dour, exceedingly righteous, extraordinarily hardworking Puritan dissidents whom the new English king, Charles I, was glad to be rid of.

He granted them a charter to establish their "City upon a Hill. Other English settlements had appeared in the area--Wessagusett, now Weymouth; Merry Mount, now Quincy; and Naumkeag, now Salem--and were subsumed into the Massachusetts Bay colony after Boston was established in New England was there to stay.

It was only a matter of time before these good Puritans clashed with their papist neighbors up the coast. This left that post, Machias, the Ste. In , ignoring the minister's restrictions, Thomas set up his own operation near Canso and began a lucrative fur trade with the Mi'kmaq, who could care less about European points of law. Even worse, "Thomas incited the Indians through talk and plying them with wine to attack and pillage the fort," which they did at the end of July. Holding Thomas in confinement, Razilly held two inquiries, in which he grilled members of Thomas's crew and residents of Canso about the fisherman's activities.

Adjudged guilty, Thomas was hustled back to France and imprisoned at La Rochelle. In September, Thomas, who probably had friends at court, secured an early release on bail. Wisely, he did not return to Acadia, where only a fool would have had the temerity to challenge Razilly's interests there. Isaac, who was only age 49 when he died, had never married, so his brother, Claude de Launay-Rasilly, inherited his shares in the family's trading company. Denys continued to develop the flourishing fisheries and the fur and lumber trades on his concessions.

Pierre Comeau , a cooper, was 34 years old and still a bachelor when he came to Acadia in Razilly's trusted lieutenant, Germain Doucet , sieur de La Verdure, of Couperans or Conflans en Brie, was married and the father of two or three children when he came to Acadia, but he probably did not bring his family with him, at least not on the first voyage. Aboard were the first recorded French families in Acadia. According to Acadian historian Bona Arsenault, several other settlers came to the colony in c Although their names do not appear on the role of the St.

These sturdy Frenchmen had been recruited by Razilly or his brother to enhance the colony's agricultural efforts, and they also joined d'Aulnay at Port-Royal. By most accounts, Pierre Martin 's fourth and youngest son Mathieu, born at Port-Royal in c, was "the first Frenchman born in Acadia"; during the late s, Mathieu would pioneer the Acadian settlement at Cobeguit. He and La Tour quarreled bitterly over who was in control of the colony.

Virtual civil war erupted in Acadia and lasted for nearly a decade. The tables then turned on La Tour back in France. It was during this trip that d'Aulnay sealed his financial and personal relationship with Claude Launay-Rasilly and established a financial partnership with Emmanuel Le Borgne , sieur du Coudray, a wealthy merchant from La Rochelle "who became at the same time the man responsible for fitting out [d'Aulnay's] ships, his banker, and his business agent. Lawrence now were his. La Tour strengthened his fort on the St. Under cover of night, La Tour , his wife, and some of his men slipped past d'Aulnay's blockade and sailed to Boston.

The ship La Tour used to make his escape, the St. D'Aulnay's ship withdrew to Port-Royal, and La Tour and his contingent followed, but the English commander, an officer named Hawkins, realizing he had gone too far in assisting La Tour , refused to attack Port-Royal. Meanwhile, 20 of d'Aulnay's men had taken shelter in a mill near the fort. La Tour and his men, with Puritan volunteers, attacked the mill, "wounded several men, killed three others and took one captive. They killed a quantity of livestock and took a ship loaded with furs, powder and food.

D'Aulnay was more determined than ever to vanquish his rival. He built a new fort at Port-Royal and then struck back, this time with words, not bullets. After gathering statements from the colony's Capuchins and other supporters attesting to the treachery of La Tour , d'Aulnay returned to France "to request further help. With an even larger force, including the ton frigate Grand Cardinal , carrying 16 guns, d'Aulnay hurried back to Acadia. The object of his wrath was not only La Tour but also the outlaw's wife. She had gone to France to plead for her husband's cause, failed, and managed to return to Acadia via England and Boston despite orders from the King to remain in France.

D'Aulnay and his associate, Bernard Marot, blockaded the St. The moment came in April , when they learned that La Tour was in Boston, intriguing with his old friends. She died in May, probably from injuries suffered in the assault. La Tour "roved the Gulf of St.

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Lawrence as a privateer, before taking refuge in Quebec with Governor Montmagny. In , d'Aulnay seized Miscou, on the southern end of the Baie des Chaleurs. Lawrence all the way to Virginia. Keeping one eye on the fur trade and its promise of even greater wealth, d'Aulnay turned his attention to other enterprises, including lumbering and seal-fishing. And he now could pay more attention to one of his original ventures, improving the agriculture settlements around Port-Royal.

Using an innovative device the transplanted Frenchmen called aboiteau-- "a sluice fitted with a clapet that was forced shut by the rising tide on the seaward side, then pushed open as the tide fell by water draining from the fields"--in a few years time this marvel of engineering could leech the sea salt from the soil behind the dyke and turn tidal marshes into hay fields and then into fields of golden grain or whatever else the farmers chose to grow there.

During the time it took the aboiteaux to leech the sea salt from the reclaimed soil, the dyked fields could serve as rich pasturage for the settlers' sheep and cattle, as well as a source of salt for the cod fisheries. Somehow his canoe foundered over a wide, deep mudflat, and he died of exhaustion trying to extricate himself from the icy mire. A few hours later, Indians came upon d'Aulnay's body and the still-breathing valet.

They brought the valet and the governor's body to the north shore of the river and sent word to the fort of what had happened. Suddenly the colonists had lost their most important leader. To be sure, his ambition, greed, and aggressiveness had caused chaos throughout Acadia when he attacked first La Tour and then his other associates.

He had encouraged families to put down roots in the Port-Royal basin to create an agricultural foundation on which to build a commercial enterprise that would endure. Ironically, because of his indispensability to the colony, his sudden death left Acadia in great confusion. His leadership was gone. His creditors were many. In February , he secured not only a pardon for his misdeeds but also the governorship of Acadia, such was the fickle nature of the young French king and his chief minister Mazarin.

Le Borgne , still in France, was determined to recoup what the estate still owed them. Denys and a brother were at the fort. Learning that d'Aulnay's widow, at the behest of the Capuchin fathers, had secured a powerful patron in France in return for two Acadian seigneuries, Le Borgne 's men seized Port-Royal in They imprisoned two Capuchins and the widow's agent's wife before taking them to France, but they left the widow d'Aulnay alone. But financial matters are seldom solved so easily. Le Borgne himself came to Acadia in and, in July, compelled the widow d'Aulnay, now Madame La Tour , to verify his claims to her late husband's estate.

But all of Le Borgne 's efforts were for naught. In the summer of , the English re-appeared in force, and, again, they came to stay. Much had transpired on the isle of Great Britain since the English and Scots last held Acadia in In the s, civil war erupted in England, pitting King Charles I against his recalcitrant Parliament, whose forces eventually were led by the dour Puritan, Oliver Cromwell.

Charles, however, was a stubborn Scotsman and refused to follow the reforms that Parliament had exacted from him. He was arrested, tried, and convicted as an enemy of the state! His heirs, sons Charles and James, fled to France to escape a similar fate. England became a Commonwealth, the monarchy was abolished, and by , Cromwell had become England's Lord Protector. Meanwhile, war had broken out between the English and the Dutch, which Cromwell ended successfully in During that struggle, in , an English seaborne expedition under Robert Sedgwick of Boston, a former lieutenant of Cromwell, was ordered to attack the Dutch colony at New Amsterdam, south of New England.

But before he could attack New Amsterdam, Sedgwick learned that the war against the Dutch had ended. He sailed north, instead, to Acadia, where, in August, he seized Fort St. Doucet designated Bourgeois as a hostage to insure that he fulfilled the articles of surrender, and then Doucet , as ordered by the English, returned to France. Emmanuel Le Borgne , who claimed the seigneurie of Port-Royal, also signed the surrender document. Sedgwick left Port-Royal in charge of a council of inhabitants headed by syndic Guillaume Trahan. La Tour and Denys made deals with their new English overlords and continued their operations unmolested.

The fort on the St. Denys operated from Fort St. Two years later, in , Fort St. He did not remain there long. Meanwhile, Emmanuel Le Borgne used two of his sons first to placate and then to harass the English conquerors. Leverett and Sedgwick "enforced a virtual trade monopoly on French Acadia for their benefit, leading some in the colony to view Leverett as a predatory opportunist. Leverett funded much of the cost of the occupation himself, and then petitioned Cromwell's government for reimbursement.

Although Cromwell authorized payment, he made it contingent on the colony performing an audit of Leverett's finances, which never took place. Meanwhile, Sir Thomas Temple, heir to the Alexanders of Stirling, was named governor of Nova Scotia in , replaced Leverett in May , and consolidated his claims in the colony, including posts claimed by the Le Borgnes. Temple hurried to Acadia from Boston, counterattacked, wounded the young Le Borgne , captured him, and sent him to London as a prisoner of war, where he was "held captive for some years.

He retook the fishing settlement of Port Rossignol, on the Atlantic coast, but, after learning that England's King Charles II had instructed Temple not to surrender the colony just yet, Alexandre returned to France. As their numbers grew by natural increase, the settlers at Port-Royal moved farther up the basin and into the valley above it, creating new farm land from the marshes along the river with their sturdy dykes and clever aboiteaux.

While being held as a prisoner at Port-Royal in , Nicolas Denys observed the remarkable growth of the settlement: It bears now fine and good wheat. All the inhabitants there are the ones whom Monsieur le Commandeur de Razilly had brought from France to La Have; since that time they have multiplied much at Port Royal, where they have a great number of cattle and swine.

Certainly their new masters, whether from New or old England, had not the slightest interest in settling or actively developing the part of Acadia they controlled: This was their home now. They had begun the unconscious process of becoming Acadians, not just Frenchmen. Their sons and daughters grew up and found suitable mates among their neighbors. Married sons moved even farther upriver and, with the help of family and friends, wrested from the salt marshes new plots of ground on which to raise food for families of their own.

The older folks looked forward to the birth of grandchildren and the blessings of an extended family. A spirit of independence and self-sufficiency had taken hold of these French farmers. France, in spite of herself, had planted sturdy roots in the troubled soil of Acadia. Sixteen years of English occupation was over.

The colony was finally back in French hands, this time under royal governance; the often chaotic rule of the proprietors and concessionaires was over. The years of English occupation, ironically, had been beneficial ones for the Acadians. During the time of English control, a lucrative trade had sprung up between Acadia and New England, and there had been a notable growth of settlement in the Port-Royal basin. One historian records that "there was a substantially larger number of settlers up the Port Royal River above the fort than there had been sixteen years earlier; in Acadian terms almost a generation had grown up.

It has been inferred that after many of the French settlers moved on to Quebec or returned to France. For those who remained and they were, we think, the majority , we have to assume the gradual but inexorable increase of numbers and expansion of agriculture, the planting and reaping of grain, peas, flax, and vegetable crops, and the tending of sheep, swine and cattle.

If the period is largely a tabula rasa in the historical record, it was nevertheless one of consolidation and expansion of this nucleus of the Acadian population. With the full resumption of French control in Acadia under Governor Grandfontaine, immigration into the colony resumed in earnest, and the Acadians' illicit trade with New England merchants continued unabated.

Other settlers arrived from Canada. Here was created a list of the First Families of Acadia, including families that had lived in the colony for over three decades. Few of the men who fathered these first families were fur traders or fishermen, as in the early days.

Some were artisans, laborers, soldiers, sailors, clerks, and even high officials. Most, however, were farmers, labourers , as the French called them, sturdy members of the peasant class who put down deep roots in the rich soil of Acadia--soil that they themselves literally created with their dykes and aboiteaux. In the first census could be found the names of two families whose progenitors had come to the colony with Razilly in the early s: Germain Doucet , sieur de La Verdure, had come to Acadia in his middle age and may have been alive in he would have been in his late 70s , but he was not in Acadia.

After the English seized the colony in , they compelled the "captain at arms" to return to France, and they would not have welcomed him back as long as they controlled the colony. Counted in the census, however, were Germain's two grown sons, Pierre and Germain, fils , who had remained in the colony when their father returned to France. Pierre was 50 years old at the time of the census, and Henriette was With them were five children, three sons and two daughters.

They lived on 4 arpents of land along the basin and owned 7 cattle and 6 sheep. Henriette gave Pierre 10 children, including five sons who created families of their own. Germain, fils was 30 years old at the time of the census, and Marie was They had three children, all sons, and lived on 3 arpents of land with 11 cattle and 7 sheep. Marie gave Germain, fils nine children, including five sons who created families of their own.

Pierre Comeau the barrel maker was still alive in and still working as a cooper at age He had married year-old Rose Bayon in c, when he was Rose may have come to the colony as a child aboard the St. Father Molin did not give her age, but she would have been about 40 years old in Living with them on 6 arpents of land along the basin were seven unmarried children, five sons and two daughters. They owned 16 cattle and 22 sheep. Rose gave Pierre nine children, including five sons who created families of their own. They were living with one child, an infant daughter, on "no cultivated land," but they did own 7 cattle and 7 sheep.

A few of the passengers who had come to Acadia aboard St. Pierre Martin of St. They lived on 2 arpents of land along the basin and owned 7 cattle and 8 sheep. Older son Pierre, fils , age 45, and his first wife, an Indian named Anne Ouestnorouest dit Petitous, age 27, whom he had married in c, were living with four sons on 8 arpents of land and owned 11 cattle and 6 sheep. Anne would give Pierre, fils nine children, including two sons who created families of their own. Mathieu married in the early s, in his early 50s, but he and his wife, whose name has been lost to history, had no children.

By the early s, they were living on his seigneurie at Cobiguit in the Minas Basin. One of their two daughters was counted in the census--Jeanne, age 40, married to Jacques dit Jacob Bourgeois , age Guillaume, too, had remarried in the colony, to Madeleine, daughter of Vincent Brun , in c; Guillaume was 65 years old and his bride only 19 at the time of the wedding; she was age 25 in Living with them on 5 arpents of land along the basin were three young sons, ages 4, 3, and 1.

Guillaume and Madeleine owned 8 cattle and 10 sheep. She gave Guillaume seven children, including the three sons, all of whom created families of their own. Oldest son Guillaume, fils married Jacqueline dite Jacquette, a daughter of Martin Benoit and widow of Michel de Forest , at Port-Royal in c; she gave him eight children, including five sons who created their own families. Second son Jean-Charles married Marie, a daughter of Charles Boudrot , at Port-Royal in c; she gave him a dozen children, including six sons who created families of their own.

Jean Gaudet 's son Denis, who had come to the colony with his parents and two sisters in the s, was 46 years old in He had married Martine Gauthier , six years his senior, in c; she was 52 years old at the time of the census. Living with them were three unmarried children, two sons and a daughter, on 6 arpents of cultivated land along the basin. They owned 9 cattle and 13 sheep, with "more lambs than mature sheep," Father Molin noted. Martine gave Denis five children, including two sons who created families of their own. Also in the census were two of Denis and Martine's married daughters: Anne, age 27, counted with husband Pierre Vincent , age 40; and Marie, age 20, with husband Olivier Daigre , age His first wife had died, and he had remarried to Nicole Colleson , probably a young widow, in c; she was 64 years old in They lived "on 3 arpents of land at two locations," with 6 cattle and 3 sheep.

He was 62 years old in , and she was Living with them were seven unmarried children, two sons and five daughters, on 4 arpents of land along the basin. They owned 12 cattle and 8 sheep. Antoinette gave Antoine 11 children, including fives sons who created families of their own. Also in the census were Antoine and Antoinette's three married sons and a married daughter: They owned 15 cattle and 5 sheep. Marie, age 26, was married to Vincent Breau , age Jean, age 24 or 25, was married to Marguerite, daughter of Pierre Martin ; she was Living with them on 15 arpents of land were two young daughters.

They owned 3 cattle and 5 sheep. Marguerite gave Jean nine children, including two sons who created their own families. They lived with a daughter, age unrecorded she was still an infant , on "no cultivated land, " and owned 6 cattle and 9 sheep. Charles, who preferred to call himself a Gottreau , was 34 years old in He does not appear with his father in the first Acadian census though his name and age are recorded as belonging to the family because he no longer lived in the colony.

He was 58 years old in , and she was Marguerite, age 17, was counted with husband Jacques dit Jacob Girouard , age 23; they, too, were newly wedded. Living with them on 6 arpents of cultivated land were four children, two sons and two daughters. They owned 13 cattle and 3 sheep. Marie gave Claude 14 children, including three sons who created families of their own. Jean's third son Bonaventure dit Venture, age 27, was counted with wife Jeanne, age 26, a daughter of Michel Boudrot.


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Living with them on 2 arpents of land was a young daughter. They owned 6 cattle and 6 sheep. Jeanne gave Venture four children, none of them sons, but three of their daughters married. Jean's older daughter Jeanne, age 27, was counted with husband Pierre Thibodeau , age Living with them on 2 arpents of land was a young son.

They owned 5 cattle and 2 sheep.

Jean's younger daughter Catherine, age 20, was counted with husband Pierre Guilbeau , age Jean's second son, Jean, fils , who would have been age 32 in , does not appear in the census; he may have taken his wife, who he had recently married, to Canada her name, as well as the names of their children, if they had any, have been lost to history. He was age 50 and she was 38 in Living with them on 6 arpents of land were eight unmarried children, three sons and five daughters, the youngest a daughter who was only a year and a half old.

They owned 4 head of cattle and no sheep. Germain married Marie, daughter of Vincent Breau , in c; she gave him a dozen children, including five sons who created families of their own. They lived on 10 arpents of land along the basin with six unmarried sons and owned 18 cattle and 26 sheep. Vincent Brun , like most of the bachelors who had come to the colony during the Razilly years, returned to France.

They were living on 5 arpents of land with two unmarried children, a son and a daughter. They owned 10 cattle and 4 sheep. Also in the census were three married daughters: Madeleine, age 25, was the second wife of Guillaume Trahan , age He was 50 years old and she was 40 in They were living on 8 arpents of land with two unmarried children, a son and a daughter. They owned 16 cattle and 6 sheep. Also in the census were three married children: They owned no land, but they had an infant son, 7 cattle, and 3 sheep. Marguerite gave Jacques dit Jacob 14 children, including nine sons who created families of their own.

They, too, owned no land but had an infant daughter, 7 cattle, and a sheep. Younger daughter Marie-Madeleine, called Madeleine, age 17, was counted with her husband, Thomas Cormier , a carpenter, age She gave him only three children, one of them a son who created a family of his own. They were living on 12 arpents of land along the basin with three unmarried children, a daughter and two sons. They owned 10 cattle and 6 sheep.

Two of their married daughters were counted in the census: Marie, age 24, with her husband Germain Doucet , fils , age 30; and a second Marie, age 23 or 24, with her husband Laurent Granger , a seaman, age He married Huguette Lambelot in c He was 50 years old and she was 48 in They were living on 6 arpents of land along the basin and owned 10 cattle and 6 sheep.

They had no children. He was age 50, and she was 56 in They were living on "no land" with two unmarried children, a son and a daughter, and owned 11 cattle and 8 sheep. His two wives gave him seven children, including four sons who created families of their own. Vincelotte was 40 years old and Marie was 26 in They lived on 4 arpents of land along the basin with four young children, two sons and a daughter. They owned 9 cattle and 7 sheep. Marie gave him a dozen children, including five sons who created their own families. Settlers from other parts of France who were counted in the first census had come to Acadia in the s, during the years of struggle between La Tour and d'Aulnay: Abraham Dugast or Dugas of Chouppes, Poitiers, a gunsmith, came to the colony in c and married Marguerite, a daughter of Germain Doucet , sieur de La Verdure, in c In , Abraham was 55 years old and Marguerite, called Marie-Judith by census taker, was They lived on 16 arpents of land with six unmarried children, three sons and three daughters.

They owned 19 cattle and 3 sheep. Also counted in the census were two married daughters: All three of Abraham's sons married and created families of their own. Martin, who was 15 in , married Marguerite, a daughter of Claude Petitpas , in c; she gave him only two children, including a son who created a family of his own.

Youngest son Abraham, fils , who was only 10 in , married Jeanne, a daughter of Pierre Guilbeau , in c; she gave him six children, including a son who created his own family. They lived on 6 arpents "of cultivated land at two locations" with three unmarried children, two sons, both grown, and a teenage daughter. They owned 18 cattle and 7 sheep. Two of their children, a daughter and a son, created families of their own. Son Jean, the second with the name, married Marie-Anne, a daughter of Pierre Doucet , in c; she gave him 14 children, including seven sons who created families of their own.

Marie was 38 years old in and lived on 3 arpents of cultivated land with eight unmarried children, five sons and three daughters, the youngest a son who was only a year old. Also counted in the census was her oldest daughter, Marie, age 20, with her husband Michel originally Gereyt de Forest , age 33, a Dutchman who had converted to Catholicism to marry his Acadian sweetheart.

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Younger daughter Marguerite, age 19, had recently married Frenchman Jean-Jacques, called Jacques, LePrince , who would have been in his mids in , but they were not counted in the census; Jacques probably had taken her to another part of the colony where Father Motin did not venture, or perhaps they had gone to Canada no matter, they returned to Acadia by the s and settled near her younger siblings in the Minas Basin. Jacques dit Jacob became a surgeon and married, Jeanne, daughter of Guillaume Trahan , in c; this made him a brother-in-law of Sieur Germain.

Jacques was 50 years old in , and Jeanne was They lived with nine unmarried children, two sons and six daughters, on "more or less 20 arpents of cultivated land at two different locations" along the basin. They owned 33 cattle and 24 sheep. Oldest son Charles, age 25, was counted with wife Anne, age 17, a daughter of Abraham Dugas.

They lived with a young daughter on 2 arpents of land and owned 12 cattle and 7 sheep. Anne gave Charles four children, including two sons who created their own families. Also in the census was Jacques and Jeanne's married daughter Marie, age 18, who was counted with her first husband Pierre Sire or Cyr , a gunsmith, age Jacques dit Jacob and Jeanne's two younger sons, Germain and Guillaume, ages 21 and 16 in , also created families of their own. Germain married Madeleine, a daughter of Antoine Belliveau , two years after the census; she gave him three children, including a son who created a family of his own; Germain remarried to Madeleine, a daughter of Abraham Dugas , in c, and she gave him 10 more children, including two more sons who created their own families.

Guillaume married Marie-Anne, a daughter of Martin d'Aprendestiguy de Martignon , in the late s; she gave him a daughter who married a grandson of Daniel LeBlanc. Jean Poirier , a fisherman, also had come to the colony aboard the St. Jean died in c, 17 years before the first census was taken, but not before fathering a daughter and a son, both of whom appeared in the first census. Jean and Jeanne's son Michel was a year-old bachelor in He lived alone on "no cultivated land" but owned 2 head of cattle. Michel married Marie, a daughter of Michel Boudrot , in c, and she gave him 11 children, including seven sons who created families of their own.

Meanwhile, his mother Jeanne remarried to colonist Antoine Gougeon soon after his father Jean had died and gave Antoine a daughter, who would marry a son of Jean Blanchard in c Michel, who served as one of the first syndics at Port-Royal, was 71 years old in , and Michelle was They lived on 8 arpents of land with eight unmarried children, six sons and two daughters.

They owned 20 cattle and 12 sheep.

She gave him eight children, including three sons who created families of their own; Charles remarried to Marie, a daughter of Jean Corporon, in c, and she would give him a dozen more children, including five more sons who created their own families. All of Michel's six younger sons created families of their own. He was 60 years old, and she was 42 in They lived on 5 arpents of cultivated land with three unmarried children, two sons--Guillaume, age 21, and Bernard, age and a daughter, age Jean and Radegonde owned 12 cattle and 9 sheep.

Also in the census were three of their married children: Oldest child Madeleine, age 28, was counted with husband Michel Richard dit Sansoucy, age They lived on 15 arpents of land with no children, but they owned 5 cattle and 2 sheep. Martin's younger brother Guillaume married Huguette, a daughter of Antoine Gougeon , two years after the census, and she gave him a dozen children, including five sons who created their own families. Brother Bernard survived childhood but did not marry.

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They were living on 12 arpents of land with five children, including Anne-Marie's son Philippe Pinet , born at Port-Royal in c, who was being raised by his stepfather and using the Rimbault surname in but he go by his biological father's surname, Pinet , probably after her married. She gave him a dozen children, including six sons who created their own families. Robert Cormier , a master ship's carpenter from La Rochelle, signed an indenture for three years with an associate of Nicolas Denys in early After Robert fulfilled his contract, he evidently took his family to Port-Royal, but he did not remain there.

He likely returned to La Rochelle with his wife and son Jean in the s, perhaps to escape the turmoil then brewing in the colony. Robert's older son Thomas, however, who was a teenager in the early s, remained in the colony, where he, too, worked as a carpenter. Thomas was 35 years old in and still being described as a carpenter; Madeleine was only Father Motin counted only one child, a daughter, in their household.

They owned 6 arpents of land along the basin with 7 cattle and 7 sheep. Madeleine gave Thomas 10 children, including four sons who married granddaughters of Daniel LeBlanc and created families of their own.

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In , Claude was 45 years old, and Catherine was Living with them on 30 arpents of land were seven young children, four sons and three daughters. They owned 26 cattle and 12 sheep. Catherine gave him 13 children, including three sons who created families of their own. Pierre Lejeune dit Briard of Brie, as his name reveals, came to Port-Royal by c, when he married a daughter of Germain Doucet whose name has been lost to history. Father Motin counted none of them at Port-Royal in They either were living in another Acadian settlement, or they were living outside of the colony.

Pierre dit Briard, fils married Marie, a daughter of Pierre Thibodeau , at Port-Royal in the late s, and she gave him nine children, including four sons who created families of their own. Two soldiers who had come to the colony in the early s with Emmanuel Le Borgne remained in Acadia, married, and became prominent settlers.

Also establishing a family in the colony was Le Borgne 's second son, who had come to Acadia with his father in the s; because of his actions against the English, however, the young Le Borgne was forced to return to France, but, unlike his brothers, he did not remain there: Father Motin did not count him in the census, though he had returned to the colony in Evidently he did not get along well with some of Acadia's royal governors. When drunk he was capable of granting the same piece of land to several settlers at once, which could not but cause the farmers considerable vexation.

During most of that time, heirs of d'Aulnay and Charles La Tour contested Alexandre's and his family's claims in Acadia. Marie gave him seven children, including two sons who created families of their own. In , Pierre was age 40 and Jeanne age They were living on 7 arpents of land with six young children, a son and five daughters; the son was only a year old.

They owned 12 cattle and 11 sheep. Jeanne gave Pierre 16 children, including seven sons who created families of their own. Pierre founded the Acadian settlement at Chepoudy, on the upper Bay of Fundy, in c In , Michel was age 41 and Marguerite They were living on 14 arpents of land with seven children, including a set of twins who were only a few weeks old.

They owned 15 cattle and 14 sheep. Madeleine gave him 10 children, including four sons who created families of their own. In c, Sancoucy remarried to Jeanne, a daughter of Antoine Babin , and she gave him two more sons, who also created their own families. Many of the Acadians who were counted in had come to the colony during the English occupation of , when immigration to Acadia from France and Canada was supposed to have been curtailed.

At least two of them were Englishmen, one was a Dutchman in English service, one an Irishman, and another from Flanders.

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In , Antoine was age 45, and Jeanne was 45 also. They were living on 10 arpents of land with their only child, daughter Huguette, age They owned 20 cattle and 17 sheep. Huguette married Guillaume, younger son of Jean Blanchard , in c, when she was only 16 years old. She gave him a dozen children. In the late s, Guillaume helped pioneer the Acadian settlement at Petitcoudiac. Their sons settled there, too, at what became known as Village-des- Blanchard s. Pierre Melanson dit La Verdure, a French Huguenot in English service, came to the colony in the spring of with his English wife Priscilla and three sons, who had been born in England.

Evidently Pierre dit La Verdure served as tutor of former govneror d'Aulnay's children. When the English abandoned the colony in , Pierre dit La Verdure, his wife, and their youngest son John retreated to Boston, but the two older sons remained at Port-Royal, where they had converted to Catholicism and taken Acadian wives.

In , Pierre was age about 39 and was listed as a tailor, and Marguerite was However, Father Molin noted, Pierre and his wife refused to answer any questions about their farm or their family. Pierre and Marguerite would have been living with their three oldest children, two sons and a daughter, but the size of their farm in remains a mystery. Marguerite gave him 11 children, including four sons who created families of their own.

Charles was a little more cooperative with the census taker than his older brother. He was 28 years old in , and Marie was They lived with four small children, all daughters, but they did not give the size of their farm. They did admit that they owned 40 cattle and 6 sheep. Marie gave Charles 14 children, including five sons who created families of their own. In , Laurent, listed as a seaman, was age 34, and Marie was They were living on 4 arpents of land with two small children, a daughter and a son, the youngest only 9 months old.

They owned 5 cattle and 6 sheep. Marie gave him nine children, including five sons who created families of their own. Jean Pitre , an edge tool maker probably from Flanders, came to the colony in the late s. In c, he married Marie, a daughter of Isaac Pesseley , former major of Port-Royal who had been killed during the civil war between La Tour and d'Aulnay.

In , Jean was age 35 and Marie age They were living on "no land" with three young children, a son and two daughters, the youngest one only 9 months old. They owned no sheep, but they did own 1 cow. Marie gave him 11 children, including four sons who created families of their own. In , Anne was 26 years old and living with those children, three daughter and two sons, the youngest one, a son, only 2 years old, on 6 arpents of cultivated land.

She owned 6 cattle and 3 sheep. In Acadia, the "de" in his name did not survive, nor did his given name. In , Michel, as he was called in Acadia, was 33 years old, and Marie was They were living on 2 arpents of cultivated land with three young children, all sons. They owned 12 cattle and 2 sheep. Marie gave him six children, including four sons who created families of their own. In c, Michel remarried to Jacqueline dite Jacquette, a daughter of Martin Benoit , and she gave him another daughter who also survived childhood.

Other colonial records, including later censuses, provide their ages and the number of their children when the first census was taken. They would have been living with 6 children, four sons and two daughters, the youngest a newborn. In , they owned 22 acres of land and 20 cattle, so their farm in probably was larger than most. Marie gave him 15 children, including eight sons who created families of their own! The result would be an even larger branch of the Landry family in Acadia. In , Antoine was age 45, and Marie was They were living on 2 arpents of cultivated land with five young children, two sons and three daughters, the youngest only a year old.

Another daughter was born to them soon after the census was taken. They owned 6 cattle and 8 sheep. Marie gave Antoine 11 children, including three sons who created families of their own. In , Pierre was age 40 and Anne age They were living on 16 arpents of land with four young children, two sons and two daughters. For some reason, their younger daughter, who would have been only 3 years of age and who survived childhood, was not counted. Like all of his older siblings, he, too, survived childhood, and, like two of his older brothers, he created a family of his own.

They were living on 6 arpents of cultivated land with three young children, two sons and a daughter, the youngest, a son, only 3 months old. Also living with them was year-old Marie Potet from Marie's first marriage. Michel and Marie owned 5 cattle and 1 sheep. Marie gave him five children, including three sons who created families of their own. He left and told his wife that she was not to tell me the number of his livestock or land.

They would have been living with three young children, two sons and a daughter, the youngest one, a son, only 2 years old. In , however, he owned 1 acre and 19 cattle, so his farm was small, but the number of his animals was respectable. They lived on 1 arpent of land with three young children, all daughters, the youngest only 2 days old. They owned 1 sheep. Guyon and Jeanne were not listed in the census because they had moved to Mouchecoudabouet, now Musquodoboit Harbor, near present-day Halifax, soon after they married, and they were still there in late Jeanne died at Chignecto in the early s.

His four sons were by his first wife. They all created their own families. The two older sons settled at Chignecto, but his younger sons, one of whom called himself a Giasson , settled in Canada. Olivier Daigre came to the colony by c, when he married Marie, a daughter of Denis Gaudet. In , Olivier was age 28, and Marie was They lived on 2 arpents of cultivated land with three young children, all sons. Marie gave Olivier 10 children, including two sons who created families of their own.

They owned 3 cattle and 2 sheep. Pierre Lanoue , a "young scion of a noble Huguenot family in France," after converting to Catholicism, came to Acadia in c as a cooper and settled at Port-Royal. When asked his age, Pierre told Father Molin that "he felt fine but would not give an answer. In , Pierre would have been only 23 years old. He was still a bachelor, so he may have owned no property.

She gave him only one child, a son, Pierre, fils , who married Marie, a daughter of Laurent Granger , at Port-Royal in November ; Marie gave Pierre, fils nine children, including six sons who created families of their own. Their daughter, "6 weeks of age," the priest noted, was "not yet named. Little Marie survived childhood and married a son of Michel Boudrot.

In , Pierre was age 32, and Catherine was They lived on 15 arpents of land with a 2-year-old daughter and owned 6 cattle and 5 sheep. Catherine gave Pierre seven children, including a son, Charles, who married Anne, a daughter of Bernard Bourg , at Port-Royal in c; she gave him nine children, including four sons who created families of their own.

Roger dit Jean Caissie , an Irishman, came to the colony probably during the late s as a soldier in English service. Roger , whom Father Molin called a Kuessy , was 25 years old in , and Marie was They lived on "no cultivated land" with a 2-year-old daughter, but they did own 3 cattle and 2 sheep. Some of Roger 's descendants would use his given name as a dit , which would evolve into the surname, Roger. Pierre Cyr , an armurier or gunsmith, came to the colony by c, when he married Marie, a daughter of Jacques Bourgeois. Pierre, who Father Molin called a Sire , was age 27, and Marie was 18 in They lived on 5 arpents of land with their 3-month-old son, Jean.

They owned 11 cattle and 6 sheep. Marie gave Pierre only two more children, both of them sons. However, they and their oldest brother created families of their own.