Services on Demand Article. Spanish pdf Article in xml format Article references How to cite this article Automatic translation Send this article by e-mail. The ideological division brought about by the conflict was evident wherever there were Spaniards, and pressure groups arose in favor of one side or the other. This scenario was common among the communities of Spanish immigrants to Latin America. This article analyzes the case of Argentina by reviewing several of the many associations, publications, groups, and institutions created by the Spanish community in Argentina, and providing an overview of its positions with respect to the parties in conflict.
The article 's main objective is to examine the support provided to Spanish fascism by Spaniards residing in Argentina, in order to show how the quantity and the quality of that support have often been underestimated. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Servile and even ceremonial forms of speech had temporarily disappeared. Across the border from Catalonia in the nominally Republican eastern portion of the divided Aragon, the republican state was similarly powerless. The CNT militias , which occupied Lower Teruel and Huesca , established defense committees that replaced the old city councils.
In zones that had more anarchist presence before the war, collectivization of the land was carried out with great success. These first collectivizations were voluntary and were established from the lands that belonged to the members and those which had been requisitioned from those who were fugitive or missing. Those property-owners who wanted to keep possession of their land were not allowed to hire outside their families, and those lands they could not farm passed under community control.
I had dropped more or less by chance into the only community of any size in Western Europe where political consciousness and disbelief in capitalism were more normal than their opposites. In theory it was perfect equality, and even in practice it was not far from it. There is a sense in which it would be true to say that one was experiencing a foretaste of Socialism, by which I mean that the prevailing mental atmosphere was that of Socialism.
Many of the normal motives of civilised life— snobbishness, money-grubbing, fear of the boss, etc. The ordinary class-division of society had disappeared to an extent that is almost unthinkable in the money-tainted air of England; there was no one there except the peasants and ourselves, and no one owned anyone else as his master. These institutions would be destroyed by the Nationalist troops during the war.
The Committee held an extraordinary regional plenary session to protect the new rural organization, gathering all the union representatives from the supporting villages and backed by Buenaventura Durruti. The Civil War era also showed a spirit of sexual revolution. The anarchist women's organization Mujeres Libres established an equal opportunity for women in a society that traditionally had held women in lower regard. Women acquired power they had not previously had in Spanish society, fighting at the front and doing heavy jobs, things that had been forbidden to them until then.
Free love became popular, although some parents' distrust produced the creation of the revolutionary weddings , informal ceremonies in which the couples declared their status, and that could be annulled if both parties didn't want to continue their relationship. When this proposal was declined, the CNT decided not to join the government.
For the first time, three members of the CNT were also members of the government. The leadership of the CNT requested the finance and war ministries, as well as three others, but were given four posts, the ministries of health, justice, industry, and commerce. Shortly afterwards, despite the disapproval of the anarchist ministers, the capital was moved from Madrid to Valencia.
It was a revolutionary body which represented anarchists as much as socialists and republicans. Halfway through February , a congress took place in Caspe with the purpose of creating the Regional Federation of Collectives of Aragon. At a plenary session of the CNT in March , the national committee asked for a motion of censure to suppress the Aragonese Regional Council. The Aragonese regional committee threatened to resign, which thwarted the censure effort. Though there had always been disagreements, that spring also saw a great escalation in confrontations between the CNT-FAI and the Communists.
The 8 April issue of Solidaridad Obrera opined, "We have made too many concessions and have reached the moment of turning off the tap,"  while the 2 May issue urged workers to prevent the government from disarming them. On 3 May, Assault Guards of the government attempted to take over the CNT-controlled telephone exchange building in Barcelona, but were held off by gunfire. The assault guard laid siege to the building, and fighting between the anarchists and POUM on one side, and Communists and the government forces on the other began.
Leaders of the CNT attempted to acquire the resignation of the Communists they felt were responsible for the conflict, but to no avail. The next day CNT's regional committee declared a general strike. CNT militias disarmed more than members of the security forces at their barricades, allowing only CNT vehicles to pass through. On 5 May, the Friends of Durruti issued a pamphlet calling for "disarming of the paramilitary police… dissolution of the political parties…" and declared "Long live the social revolution!
However, neither the PSUC or the Assault Guards gave up their positions, and according to historian Antony Beevor "carried out violent reprisals against libertarians"  By 8 May, the fighting was over. The offices of the CNT were destroyed, and all the equipment belonging to its collectives was redistributed to landowners. At this point, many in the CNT leadership were critical of participation in the government, seeing it as dominated by the Communists. According to one estimate, roughly ,—, members of the CNT were killed by the Franco government. The CNT acted clandestinely inside Spain during the Franco years, as well as conducting activities from exile, and some members kept on fighting the Spanish State until through the guerrilla actions of maquis.
Confederación Nacional del Trabajo
There was much disagreement amongst factions of the CNT during these years. There was a major split after the National Committee inside Spain chose to support members of the Republican government in exile, while members of the Libertarian Movement in Exile MLE basically the CNT-in-exile stood against further collaboration with the government. Even Federica Montseny, who had joined the Republic as Minister of Health changed her stance on collaboration, describing the "futility of By this point, a great majority of the CNT-in-exile had given up on political action as a tool, and one of the main goals of the DI was to assassinate Franco.
These divergent attitudes combined with Franco's repression to weaken the organization, and the CNT lost influence among the population inside Spain. After Franco's death in November and the beginning of Spain's transition to democracy , the CNT was the only social movement to refuse to sign the Moncloa Pact ,  an agreement amongst politicians, political parties, and trade unions to plan how to operate the economy during the transition.
Views put forward in this congress would set the pattern for the CNT's line of action for the following decades: An explosion killed three people in a Barcelona night club. It was evident that the police weren't looking for anything nor anyone— they already had the culprits— it was just about intimidating the cenetistsa and scaring away from the organization thousands of affiliate workers that, although they identified with the syndical line of the anarcho-syndicalists, they weren't determined to go a long way in their support, let alone to defy such police repression. Things weren't a joke, the news of new arrests created an insecurity atmosphere among great part of the members.
On the other hand, the certainty of the implication of the CNT in the attack kept consolidating in the public opinion, which caused serious deterioration in the organization's image, and thus the anarchists'. If we add news of aggressions and assaults by fascist groups, which considerably increased those days, we can more or less picture the situation.
- The Cambridge Handbook of Creativity (Cambridge Handbooks in Psychology);
- Pearl: A sweeping love story of 1920s Ireland;
- When Answers Arent Enough: Experiencing God as Good When Life Isn’t.
Being an anarchist those days turned very unpleasant. The media made it unpopular; the police and ultra-rightwing groups made it dangerous. After its legalization, the CNT began efforts to recover the expropriations of Since then the CNT has been claiming the return of these properties from the State. In an agreement was reached between the CNT and the District Attorney's Office, through which all charges were dropped against the hundred prosecuted for this occupation. The number of members currently in the CNT is not known.
Madrid’s hungry years | In English | EL PAÍS
The CNT, owing to its interests in the radical transformation of society, has sought to make free knowledge and culture accessible to workers, a task which has been developed through the support of the anarchist academies. The School of Anarchist Militants was an institution which, by means of anarchist pedagogy , sought to ensure that "groups of teenagers could acquire the knowledge and the personal responsibility essential to work in collectives such as those of entertainers and accountants.
Also, some sections of the CNT have supported and promoted Esperanto. The flag of the CNT is the traditional flag of anarcho-syndicalism, which joins diagonally the red color of the labour movement and the black color of anarchism, as a negation of nationalism and reaffirmation of internationalism. In the ninth chapter of his book, Orwell commented that "As far as my purely personal preferences went I would have liked to join the Anarchists.
In , the film industry was collectivized  and produced short films such as En la brecha In the Gap , The CNT has been portrayed in recent Spanish filmmaking by the Vicente Aranda's film Libertarias , which shows a group of militiamen and especially militiawomen at the Aragon front during the Spanish Civil War.
Anarcho-syndicalism is internationalist; it sees the world as a whole in spite of racial, language or cultural differences. In this sense, it opposes the oppression that the states exert over the people. We are against the Spanish state oppressing the Basque people , in favor of the Basque, Catalan , Palestine , Saharan , Tibetan , or Kurdish people being responsible for their own destinies, settling on more or less delimited territories, participating in the richness of the society as a whole, federating as they like, becoming independent from the states; but we would oppose just as strongly the creation of a Basque, Palestinian, Saharan or Kurdish state, with its police, army, currency, government and repressive instrument.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions. Anarchism Anarcho-syndicalist symbolism Co-operative economics Direct action General strike Industrial unionism Syndicalism Wage slavery Workers' cooperative Workers' council Workers' self-management. Anarcho-Syndicalism book Anarcho-Syndicalist Review. Anarchist schools of thought Anarcho-communism Collectivist anarchism Council communism Libertarian socialism Mutualism Zapatismo.
Spanish Revolution of and Revolutionary Catalonia. A trial against anarcho-syndicalism. Accessed online 6 January Archived from the original on 9 February Un sector minoritario que es partidario de las elecciones sindicales se escinde y pasa a llamarse CNT congreso de valencia en referencia al Congreso alternativo realizado en esa ciudad y posteriormente, perdidas judicialmente las siglas, a CGT. Un proceso contra el anarcosindicalismo , "The Scala Case.
El proceso "Second part: El canto del Grillo "Third part: Grillo's song" 31 January What would you eat right now if you could have anything you wanted? Housewives came up with solutions that included making omelets with orange peel or sausage out of breadcrumbs, while breaded fried onion rings had to make do for fish. A book originally published in and titled El hambre en el Madrid de la Guerra Civil or, Hunger in Madrid during the Civil War provides valuable insight into the solutions that women found to the food shortages.
Laura and Carmen Gutiérrez Rueda collected recipes from survivors of the city’s siege
So the pair began talking to friends and family, and started visiting visiting nursing homes. Madrid, which already had a population of around one million people, was also filled with refugees from other war zones. The city was protected by trenches manned by Republican forces and volunteer militias. But getting food supplies into the capital became increasingly difficult. A black market soon began to flourish, and shortages were made worse by rivalries between different factions within the Republican administration, which was obliged to issue ration cards.