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Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Internet resource Document Type: Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Similar Items Related Subjects: Steinbrink have set the hypothesis that the rank-size distribution of urban built clusters changes in the course of time toward becoming a Pareto distribution. If this hypothesis is confirmed, the conclusion would be that a Pareto exponent indicates the development stage of a city and that the deviations from a Pareto distribution indicates potentials for future urban developments.
Yet some empirical research results have infirmed this hypothesis. Several scholars have also studied the evolution of fractal dimensions of cities in the course of time. Although the comparison of values of fractal dimension obtained for different studies is not possible since the data used and the calculation methods involved are different, we note similar general tendencies.
Frankhauser calculated an increase of fractal dimension of Berlin Germany in the course of time: Shen calculated an increase of fractal dimension of Baltimore USA , from 1.
Yet if the evolution of city shapes evolves according to a fractal growth process, their fractal dimension should not change in the course of time, which studies quoted above contradict. An objection can be that these studies consider each city within a spatial extent that is fixed in the course of time and that comprises on the one hand the urban area itself which expands gradually, and on the other hand, its periphery.
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They have shown that the growth differed for each part of the metropolitan area: First, rules that determine the location and the shape of new urban developments change in the course of time. Third, an urban built pattern can be deeply modified through destruction and reconstruction for instance, the re-shaping of Paris during the 19th century, the reconstruction of cities after massive destructions resulting from bombing or natural disasters, or the massive destructions of old built neighbourhoods and the construction of large buildings and skyscrapers in contemporary Chinese cities.
Fractal geography / Andre Dauphine. - Version details - Trove
Last, we can observe creations ex nihilo of new towns in the periphery of large cities. Nothing proves that fractal urban forms are optimal by nature Starting from the statement that a fractal order can emerge at a meso- or macroscopic level from self-organising processes, fractality is sometimes seen as a desirable equilibrium state. Thus, if self-organised fractal forms are satisfying even optimal , urban planning becomes useless and even annoying because top-down constraints may engender deviations from fractality Genre-Grandpierre Subsequently, deviations from fractality can be seen as signs of dysfunction.
Yet we have previously seen that shapes of cities and urban built patterns are not fractal. Nonetheless they are not all in decline neither are they all degenerated. Fractals are then raised to a universal aesthetic principle, see e. Besides the fact that such a principle falls under belief more than science, its adoption leads most often to give more importance to emerging forms than to their generative mechanisms. Resulting models are essentially structural: The fact is that functional advantages of realistic fractal urban developments starting from an existing urban pattern with respect to non fractal developments are still poorly known because they have rarely been studied until now.
However, a shape is not intrinsically optimal: Moreover, the absolute does not exist in the case of spatial distributions of human settlements because of the diversity of contexts social, political, economic, natural, etc. No value of fractal dimension can serve as universal norm for urban planning. Even so, it is possible to fix a fractal dimension for the development greenfield or brownfield development of a given built pattern. But this fractal dimension has to be chosen and justified regarding well-defined planning goals as well as the specific characteristics of the built pattern under consideration and the nature of data used for modelling it.
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Bibliographic references Benguigui L. When and Where Is a City Fractal? Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 27, pp. The Dynamics of the Tel Aviv Morphology. Planning and Design, 33, pp. Multifractal Characterization of Urban Form and Growth: The Case of Beijing. Planning and Design, 40 5 , pp. Defining urban and rural regions by multifractal spectrums of urbanization. Fractal cartography of urban areas. Scientific Reports, 2 , www. Aspects fractals des structures urbaines. Fractals geometry of urban patterns and their morphogenesis.
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, 2, pp.