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In his letter Humboldt had gained Jefferson's interest by mentioning that he had discovered mammoth teeth near the Equator. Jefferson had previously written that he believed mammoths had never lived so far south. Humboldt had also hinted at his knowledge of New Spain. Arriving in Philadelphia , which was a center of learning in the U. After arriving in Washington D.

C, Humboldt held numerous intense discussions with Jefferson on both scientific matters and also his year-long stay in New Spain. Jefferson had only recently concluded the Louisiana Purchase , which now placed New Spain on the southwest border of the United States. The Spanish minister in Washington, D. Humboldt was able to supply Jefferson with the latest information on the population, trade agriculture and military of New Spain.

Jefferson was unsure of where the border of the newly-purchased Louisiana was precisely, and Humboldt wrote him a two-page report on the matter. Jefferson would later refer to Humboldt as "the most scientific man of the age". Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the treasury said of Humboldt, "I was delighted and swallowed more information of various kinds in less than two hours than I had for two years past in all I had read or heard. After six weeks, Humboldt set sail for Europe from the mouth of the Delaware and landed at Bordeaux on 3 August Humboldt kept a detailed diary of his sojourn to Spanish America, running some 4, pages, which he drew on directly for his multiple publications following the expedition.

Following German reunification, the diaries were returned to a descendant of Humboldt. For a time, there was concern about their being sold, but that was averted. Humboldt's decades' long endeavor to publish the results of this expedition not only resulted in multiple volumes, but also made his international reputation in scientific circles.

Humboldt came to be well-known with the reading public as well, with popular, densely illustrated, condensed versions of his work in multiple languages. Bonpland, his fellow scientist and collaborator on the expedition, collected botanical specimens and preserved them, but unlike Humboldt who had a passion to publish, Bonpland had to be prodded to do the formal descriptions.

Many scientific travelers and explorers produced huge visual records, which remained unseen by the general public until the late nineteenth century, in the case of the Malaspina Expedition, and even the late twentieth century, when Mutis's botanical, some 12, drawings from New Granada, was published. Humboldt, by contrast, published immediately and continuously, using and ultimately exhausting his personal fortune, to produce both scientific and popular texts. Humboldt's name and fame were made by his travels to Spanish America, particularly his publication of the Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain.

His image as the premier European scientist was a later development. For the Bourbon crown, which had authorized the expedition, the returns were not only tremendous in terms of sheer volume of data on their New World realms, but in dispelling the vague and pejorative assessments of the New World by Guillaume-Thomas Raynal , Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon , and William Robertson.

The achievements of the Bourbon regime, especially in New Spain, were evident in the precise data Humboldt systematized and published. This memorable expedition may be regarded as having laid the foundation of the sciences of physical geography , plant geography , and meteorology. Key to that was Humboldt's meticulous and systematic measurement of phenomena with the most advanced instruments then available.

He closely observed plant and animal species in situ, not just in isolation, noting all elements in relation to one other. He collected specimens of plants and animals, dividing the growing collection so that if a portion was lost, other parts might survive. Humboldt saw the need for an approach to science that could account for the harmony of nature among the diversity of the physical world.

For Humboldt, "the unity of nature" meant that it was the interrelation of all physical sciences —such as the conjoining between biology , meteorology and geology —that determined where specific plants grew. He found these relationships by unraveling myriad, painstakingly collected data, [87] data extensive enough that it became an enduring foundation upon which others could base their work. Humboldt viewed nature holistically , and tried to explain natural phenomena without the appeal to religious dogma. He believed in the central importance of observation, and as a consequence had amassed a vast array of the most sophisticated scientific instruments then available.

Each had its own velvet lined box and was the most accurate and portable of its time; nothing quantifiable escaped measurement. According to Humboldt, everything should be measured with the finest and most modern instruments and sophisticated techniques available, for that collected data was the basis of all scientific understanding. This quantitative methodology would become known as Humboldtian science. Humboldt wrote "Nature herself is sublimely eloquent. The stars as they sparkle in firmament fill us with delight and ecstasy, and yet they all move in orbit marked out with mathematical precision.

His Essay on the Geography of Plants published first in French and then German, both in was based on the then novel idea of studying the distribution of organic life as affected by varying physical conditions. It was a fold-out at the back of the publication. These detailed the information on temperature, altitude, humidity, atmosphere pressure, and the animal and plants with their scientific names found at each elevation.

Plants from the same genus appear at different elevations. The depiction is on an east-west axis going from the Pacific coast lowlands to the Andean range of which Chimborazo was a part, and the eastern Amazonian basin. The map was the basis for comparison with other major peaks. By his delineation in of isothermal lines, he at once suggested the idea and devised the means of comparing the climatic conditions of various countries. He first investigated the rate of decrease in mean temperature with the increase in elevation above sea level, and afforded, by his inquiries regarding the origin of tropical storms, the earliest clue to the detection of the more complicated law governing atmospheric disturbances in higher latitudes.

His discovery of the decrease in intensity of Earth's magnetic field from the poles to the equator was communicated to the Paris Institute in a memoir read by him on 7 December Its importance was attested by the speedy emergence of rival claims. His services to geology were based on his attentive study of the volcanoes of the Andes and Mexico, which he observed and sketched, climbed, and measured with a variety of instruments.

By climbing Chimborazo, he established an altitude record which became the basis for measurement of other volcanoes in the Andes and the Himalayas. As with other aspects of his investigations, he developed methods to show his synthesized results visually, using the graphic method of geologic-cross sections. Humboldt was a significant contributor to cartography, creating maps, particularly of New Spain, that became the template for later mapmakers in Mexico.

His careful recording of latitude and longitude led to accurate maps of Mexico, the port of Acapulco, the port of Veracruz, and the Valley of Mexico, and a map showing trade patterns among continents. His maps also included schematic information on geography, converting areas of administrative districts intendancies using proportional squares. Humboldt conducted a census of the indigenous and European inhabitants in New Spain , publishing a schematized drawing of racial types and populations distribution, grouping them by region and social characteristics.

He presented these data in chart form, for easier understanding. Humboldt observed that "the most miserable European, without education and without intellectual cultivation, thinks himself superior to whites born in the new continent. Humboldt's assessment was that abuses royal government and the example of a new model of rule in the United States were eroded the unity of whites in New Spain. One scholar says that his writings contain fantastical descriptions of America, while leaving out its inhabitants, stating that Humboldt, coming from the Romantic school of thought, believed ' Views of indigenous peoples as 'savage' or 'unimportant' leaves them out of the historical picture.

He often showed his disgust for the slavery [] and inhumane conditions in which indigenous peoples and others were treated and he often criticized Spanish colonial policies. Humboldt was not primarily an artist, but he could draw well, allowing him to record a visual record of particular places and their natural environment. Many of his drawings became the basis for illustrations of his many scientific and general publications.

The editing and publication of the encyclopedic mass of scientific, political and archaeological material that had been collected by him during his absence from Europe was now Humboldt's most urgent desire. After a short trip to Italy with Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac for the purpose of investigating the law of magnetic declination and a stay of two and a half years in Berlin, in the spring of , he settled in Paris.

His purpose for being located there was to secure the scientific cooperation required for bringing his great work through the press. This colossal task, which he at first hoped would occupy but two years, eventually cost him twenty-one, and even then it remained incomplete.

Statue to Humboldt in Alameda Park, Mexico City, erected on the two hundredth-anniversary of the beginning of his travels to Spanish America. During his lifetime Humboldt became one of the most famous men in Europe. He was elected to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in The Royal Society , whose president Sir Joseph Banks had aided Humboldt as a young man, now welcomed him as a foreign member. After Mexican independence from Spain in , the Mexican government recognized him with high honors for his services to the nation.

Importantly for Humboldt's long term financial stability, King Frederick William III of Prussia conferred upon him the honor of the post of royal chamberlain, without at the time exacting the duties. The appointment had a pension of 2, thalers , afterwards doubled. This official stipend became his main source of income in later years when he exhausted his fortune on the publications of his research. Financial necessity forced his permanent relocation to Berlin in from Paris.

In Paris he found not only scientific sympathy, but the social stimulus which his vigorous and healthy mind eagerly craved. He was equally in his element as the lion of the salons and as the savant of the Institut de France and the observatory. On 12 May he settled permanently in Berlin, where his first efforts were directed towards the furtherance of the science of terrestrial magnetism.

In , he began giving public lectures in Berlin, which became the basis for his last major publication, Kosmos — For many years, it had been one of his favorite schemes to secure, by means of simultaneous observations at distant points, a thorough investigation of the nature and law of " magnetic storms " a term invented by him to designate abnormal disturbances of Earth's magnetism. The meeting at Berlin, on 18 September , of a newly formed scientific association, of which he was elected president, gave him the opportunity of setting on foot an extensive system of research in combination with his diligent personal observations.

His appeal to the Russian government, in , led to the establishment of a line of magnetic and meteorological stations across northern Asia. Meanwhile, his letter to the Duke of Sussex , then April president of the Royal Society , secured for the undertaking, the wide basis of the British dominions. In , the th year of his birth, Humboldt's fame was so great that cities all over America celebrated his birth with large festivals. Scholars have speculated about the reasons for Humboldt's declining renown among the public. Sandra Nichols has argued that there are three reasons for this.

First, a trend towards specialization in scholarship. Humboldt was a generalist who connected many disciplines in his work. Today, academics have become more and more focused on narrow fields of work. Humboldt combined ecology , geography and even social sciences. Second, a change in writing style. Humboldt's works, which were considered essential to a library in , had flowery prose that fell out of fashion. One critic said they had a "laborious picturesqueness".

Humboldt himself said that, "If I only knew how to describe adequately how and what I felt, I might, after this long journey of mine, really be able to give happiness to people. The disjointed life I lead makes me hardly certain of my way of writing". Third, a rising anti-German sentiment in the late s and the early s due to heavy German immigration to the United States and later World War 1.

In , and again in , projects of Asiatic exploration were proposed to Humboldt, first by Czar Nicolas I 's Russian government, and afterwards by the Prussian government; but on each occasion, untoward circumstances interposed. It was not until he had begun his sixtieth year that he resumed his early role of traveler in the interests of science.

Humboldt was not encouraging about a platinum -based currency, when silver was the standard as a world currency. But the invitation to visit the Urals was intriguing, especially since Humboldt had long dreamed of going to Asia. He had wanted to travel to India and made considerable efforts to persuade the British East India Company to authorize a trip, but those efforts were fruitless.

For Humboldt, the Russian monarch's promise to fund the trip was extremely important, since Humboldt's inherited , thaler fortune was gone and he lived on the Prussian government pension of 2,, thalers as the monarch's chamberlain. The Russian government gave an advance of chervontsev in Berlin and another 20, when he arrived in St Petersburg. Humboldt was eager to travel not just to the Urals, but also across the steppes of Siberia to Russia's border with China.

Humboldt wrote Cancrin saying that he intended to learn Russian to read mining journals in the language. He also invited Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg to join the expedition, to study water micro-organisms in Lake Baikal and the Caspian Sea. Humboldt himself was keen to continue his studies of magnetism of mountains and mineral deposits.

As was usual for his research, he brought scientific instruments to take the most accurate measurements. Humboldt's title for the expedition was as an official of the Department of Mines. As the expedition neared dangerous areas, he had to travel in a convoy with an escort.

Physically Humboldt was in good condition, despite his advancing years, writing to Cancrin "I still walk very lightly on foot, nine to ten hours without resting, despite my age and my white hair. Humboldt and the expedition party traveled by coach on well maintained roads, with rapid progress being made because of changes of horses at way stations. The party had grown, with Johann Seifert, who was a huntsman and collector of animal specimens; a Russian mining official; Count Adolphe Polier, one of Humboldt's friends from Paris; a cook; plus a contingent of Cossacks for security.

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Three carriages were filled with people, supplies, and scientific instruments. For Humboldt's magnetic readings to be accurate, they carried an iron-free tent. The Russian government was interested in Humboldt finding prospects for mining and commercial advancement of the realm and made it clear that Humboldt was not to investigate social issues, nor criticize social conditions of Russian serfs.

In his publications on Spanish America, he did comment on the conditions of the indigenous populations, and deplored black slavery, but well after he had left those territories. The itinerary was planned with Tobolsk the farthest destination, then a return to St Petersburg.

Humboldt wrote to the Russian Minister Cancrin that he was extending his travel, knowing that the missive would not reach him in time to scuttle the plan. The further east he journeyed into wilder territory, the more Humboldt enjoyed it. The journey though carried out with all the advantages afforded by the immediate patronage of the Russian government, was too rapid to be profitable scientifically. The correction of the prevalent exaggerated estimate of the height of the Central Asian plateau, and the prediction of the discovery of diamonds in the gold-washings of the Urals, were important aspects of these travels.

One writer claims that "Nothing was quite as Humboldt wanted it. The entire expedition was a compromise. In , he completed the three-volume Asie Centrale , [] which he dedicated to Czar Nicholas, which he called "an unavoidable step, as the expedition was accomplished at his expense. Nevertheless, it gave Humboldt comparative data for his various later scientific publications.

Kosmos was Humboldt's multi-volume effort in his later years to write a work bringing together all the research from his long career. The writing took shape in lectures he delivered before the University of Berlin in the winter of — These lectures would form "the cartoon for the great fresco of the [K]osmos ". The first two volumes of the Kosmos were published between the years and were intended to comprise the entire work, but Humboldt published three more volumes, one of which was posthumous. Humboldt had long aimed to write a comprehensive work about geography and the natural sciences.

The work attempted to unify the sciences then known in a Kantian framework. With inspiration from German Romanticism , Humboldt sought to create a compendium of the world's environment. The third and fourth volumes were published in —58; a fragment of a fifth appeared posthumously in His reputation had long since been made with his publications on the Latin American expedition. There is not a consensus on the importance of Kosmos.

One scholar, who stresses the importance of Humboldt's Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain as essential reading, dismisses Kosmos as "little more than an academic curiosity. As with most of Humboldt's works, Kosmos was also translated into multiple languages in editions of uneven quality. It was very popular in Britain and America. In a German newspaper commented that in England two of the three different translations were made by women, "while in Germany most of the men do not understand it.

In a letter Humboldt said of it: All the charm of my description is destroyed by an English sounding like Sanskrit. The other two translations were made by Elizabeth Juliana Leeves Sabine under the superintendence of her husband Col. These three translations were also published in the United States. The numbering of the volumes differs between the German and the English editions.

Volume 3 of the German edition corresponds to the volumes 3 and 4 of the English translation, as the German volume appeared in 2 parts in and Volume 5 of the German edition was not translated until , again by a woman. Less well known in Germany is the atlas belonging to the German edition of the Cosmos "Berghaus' Physikalischer Atlas" , better known as the pirated version by Traugott Bromme under the title "Atlas zu Alexander von Humboldt's Kosmos" Stuttgart In Britain its connection to the Cosmos seems not have been recognized.

Alexander von Humboldt published prolifically throughout his life. Many works were published originally in French or German, then translated to other languages, sometimes with competing translation editions. Humboldt himself did not keep track of all the various editions. Many of the original works have been digitally scanned by the Biodiversity Library. In the original edition, the publication was in a large format and quite expensive. Humboldt was generous toward his friends and mentored young scientists.

He and Bonpland parted ways after their return to Europe, and Humboldt largely took on the task of publishing the results of their Latin American expedition at Humboldt's expense, but he included Bonpland as co-author on the nearly published 30 volumes. Bonpland returned to Latin America, settling in Buenos Aires, Argentina, then moved to the countryside near the border with Paraguay. The forces of Dr. Bonpland was accused of "agricultural espionage" and of threatening Paraguay's virtual monopoly on the cultivation of yerba mate.

He was released after nearly 10 years in Paraguay. Humboldt and Bonpland maintained a warm correspondence about science and politics until Bonpland's death in Subsequently, Humboldt acted as a mentor of the career of this promising Peruvian scientist. Another recipient of Humboldt's aid was Louis Agassiz — , who was directly aided with needed cash from Humboldt, assistance in securing an academic position, and help with getting his research on zoology published. Agassiz sent him copies of his publications and went on to gain considerable scientific recognition as a professor at Harvard.

Humboldt carried on correspondence with many contemporaries and two volumes of letters to Karl August Varnhagen von Ense have been published. Charles Darwin made frequent reference to Humboldt's work in his Voyage of the Beagle , where Darwin described his own scientific exploration of the Americas.

In one note, he placed Humboldt first on the "list of American travellers". Darwin's sister remarked to him "you had, probably from reading so much of Humboldt, got his phraseology and the kind of flower French expressions he uses. When Darwin's Journal was published, he sent a copy to Humboldt, who responded, "You told me in your kind letter that, when you were young, the manner in which I studied and depicted nature in the torrid zones contributed toward exciting in you the ardour and desire to travel in distant lands.

Considering the importance of your work, Sir, this may be the greatest success that my humble work could bring. Humboldt would later reveal to Darwin in the s that he had been a fan of Darwin's grandfather's poetry. Erasmus Darwin had published the poem "Loves of the Plants" in the early s. Humboldt praised the poem for combing nature and imagination, a theme that permeated Humboldt's own work.

A number of nineteenth-century artists traveled to Latin America, following in the footsteps of Humboldt, painting landscapes and scenes of everyday life. His paintings of Andean volcanoes that Humboldt climbed helped make Church's reputation. His 5 foot by 10 foot painting entitled Heart of the Andes "caused a sensation" when it was completed.

emile verhaeren fischer klassik plus 18 german edition Manual

Church had hoped to ship the painting to Berlin to show the painting to Humboldt, but Humboldt died a few days after Church's letter was written. George Catlin , most famous for his portraits of North American Indians and paintings of life among various North American tribes also traveled to South America, producing a number of paintings.

He wrote to Humboldt in , sending him his proposal for South American travels. Humboldt replied, thanking him and sending a memorandum helping guide his travels. Ferdinand Bellermann, Colonia Tovar. The Prussian royal family returned to Berlin, but sought better terms of the treaty and Friedrich Wilhelm III commissioned his younger brother Prince Wilhelm with this. Friedrich Wilhelm III asked Alexander to be part of the mission, charged with introducing the prince to Paris society. This turn of events for Humboldt could not have been better, since he desired to live in Paris rather than Berlin.

In Humboldt accompanied the allied sovereigns to London. Three years later he was summoned by the king of Prussia to attend him at the congress of Aachen. Again in the autumn of he accompanied the same monarch to the Congress of Verona , proceeded thence with the royal party to Rome and Naples and returned to Paris in the spring of Humboldt had long regarded Paris as his true home.

Thus, when at last he received from his sovereign a summons to join his court at Berlin, he obeyed reluctantly. Between and Humboldt was frequently employed in diplomatic missions to the court of King Louis Philippe of France, with whom he always maintained the most cordial personal relations. Humboldt knew the family, and he was sent by the Prussian monarch to Paris to report on events to his monarch. He spent three years in France, from to Humboldt's brother, Wilhelm , died on 8 April Alexander lamented that he had lost half of himself with the death of his brother. Indeed, the new king's craving for Humboldt's company became at times so importunate as to leave him only a few waking hours to work on his writing.

Because Humboldt did not mention God in his work Cosmos , and sometimes spoke unfavourably of hypocritical religious attitudes, it was occasionally speculated that he was a materialist philosopher, or perhaps an atheist. Ingersoll , who went so far as to use Humboldtian science to campaign against religion, [] Humboldt himself denied imputations of atheism. In a letter to Varnhagen von Ense he emphasized that he believed the world had indeed been created, writing of Cosmos: And did I not, only eight months ago, in the French translation, say, in the plainest terms: It has been argued that "although Humboldt emphasizes the basis of morality in the nature of man, he does acknowledge that a belief in God is linked directly to acts of virtue" and therefore "the dignity of man lies at the centre of Humboldt's religious thought.

Humboldt also believed firmly in an afterlife. Humboldt remained distant of organized religion: Humboldt showed religious tolerance towards Judaism, and he criticized the political Jews Bill , which was an initiative intended to establish legal discrimination against Jews. He called this an "abominable" law, since he hoped to see Jews being treated equally in society. Much of Humboldt's private life remains a mystery because he destroyed his private letters.

While a gregarious personality, he may have harbored a sense of social alienation, which drove his passion for escape through travel. As a student he became infatuated with Wilhelm Gabriel Wegener, a theology student, penning a succession of letters expressing his "fervent love". Humboldt once wrote, "I don't know sensual needs. Humboldt inherited a significant fortune, but the expense of his travels, and most especially of publishing thirty volumes in all , had by made him totally reliant on the pension of King Frederick William III.

He lived with the Court at Sanssouci , and latterly in Berlin, with his valet Seifert, who had accompanied him to Russia in Four years before his death, Humboldt executed a deed of gift transferring his entire estate to the dominating Seifert, [] [] who had by then married and set up a household near Humboldt's apartment.

Humboldt had become godfather to his daughter. On 24 February , Humboldt suffered a minor stroke , which passed without perceptible symptoms. His last words were reported to be "How glorious these sunbeams are! They seem to call Earth to the Heavens! Humboldt's extended family, descendants of his brother Wilhelm, walked in the procession. Humboldt's coffin was received by the prince-regent at the door of the cathedral.

He was interred at the family resting-place at Tegel , alongside his brother Wilhelm and sister-in-law Caroline. The honours which had been showered on Humboldt during life continued after his death. More places and species are named after Humboldt than after any other human being. Numerous monuments were constructed in his honour, such as Humboldt Park in Chicago , planned that year and constructed shortly after the Chicago fire.

Newly explored regions and species named after Humboldt, as discussed below, also stand as a measure of his wide fame and popularity. Humboldt described many geographical features and species that were hitherto unknown to Europeans. Species named after him include:. Humboldt penguin , native to Chile and Peru. Humboldt squid found in the Humboldt Current. Quercus humboldtii , an Andean oak. Features named after him include: The following places are named for Humboldt: Humboldt University of Berlin.

Alexander von Humboldt also lends his name to a prominent lecture series in Human geography in the Netherlands hosted by the Radboud University Nijmegen. It is the Dutch equivalent of the widely known annual Hettner lectures at the University of Heidelberg. After his death, Humboldt's friends and colleagues created the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Stiftung in German to continue his generous support of young academics. Although the original endowment was lost in the German hyperinflation of the s , and again as a result of World War II, the Foundation has been re-endowed by the German government to award young academics and distinguished senior academics from abroad.

It plays an important role in attracting foreign researchers to work in Germany and enabling German researchers to work abroad for a period. Edgar Allan Poe dedicated his last major work, Eureka: Humboldt's attempt to unify the sciences in his Kosmos was a big inspiration for Poe's project. She was operated throughout the North and Baltic Seas until being retired in Subsequently, she was converted into a three masted barque by the German shipyard Motorwerke Bremerhaven and was re-launched in as Alexander von Humboldt.

His depth, his sharp mind and his incredible speed are a rare combination. Just like my wife! We are all his family. Ingersoll wrote that "He was to science what Shakespeare was to the drama. Hermann von Helmholtz wrote that "During the first half of the present century we had an Alexander von Humboldt, who was able to scan the scientific knowledge of his time in its details, and to bring it within one vast generalization.

At the present juncture, it is obviously very doubtful whether this task could be accomplished in a similar way, even by a mind with gifts so peculiarly suited for the purpose as Humboldt's was, and if all his time and work were devoted to the purpose. A postage stamp from the Soviet Union. Bust of Humboldt at the University of Havana. Statue at Humboldt University of Berlin , describing him as "the second discoverer of Cuba". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Alexander von Humboldt disambiguation. Alexander von Humboldt by Joseph Stieler , This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Pico Humboldt , Venezuela. List of schools named after Alexander von Humboldt. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. It destroyed the entire infrastructure in a large radius around the epicenter and leveled about , accommodations and 30, businesses.

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Sayga plans to construct a total of three feed mills in three stages. A new building structure was erected for housing the first stage. At the same time, the foundations were laid for the second stage. In a sub- sequent phase, production in the first plant will be limited to poultry feed. Plants two and three will then manufacture the cattle feed. Under the direction of Daoud Abdel Latif, the Group experienced sharp and sus- tained growth. DAL is made up of a large number of companies operating in the consumer goods, industrial, and real estate markets.

In addition, the existing bran bagging line was also relocated from the flour mill to the new feed mill section in the first stage. To date, Sayga has sold the bran obtained in the flour milling process to outside companies.

Now that it has its own feed production plants, most of the bran will be processed into animal feed. Only a small proportion will be bagged for sale. The final construction stage will also include a new complete feed laboratory. Swiss standard The new feed mills of Sayga will be based on Swiss standards. The raw materials will be received in bulk trucks and Big Bags. The ingredient bins are designed to hold grain, corn maize , oilseed extraction meal, bran, minerals, and premixes.

Grinding is done on hammer mills of type Vertica. The ground raw materials are then transferred to a batch mixer, where the minor ingre- dients and liquids are added. Following thorough intermixing, the finished animal feed is dried and either placed in intermediate storage bins in the form of meals, or processed into pellets in a pellet mill. The production process ends with the bagging system. And we will continue to build on this basis also in the future.

The first stage of the new feed production instal- lation is running to the full satisfaction of Sayga Flour Mills. Even during start-up of the first stage, Sayga triggered the construction of the second stage. For the first time ever at a pasta seminar, grain processing is- sues were also treated. The focus here was on the effects of the grinding process on subsequent use of the semolina for pasta production. Other subjects of a more basic nature included the physico-chemical fundamen- tals of dough composition, drying and stabilization of pasta, and production of gluten-free pasta.

The Wilmar Group is one of the largest oil, flour, and rice mill ope- rators in Asia. It generated keen interest among the specialist public. This cuts the manpower requirement as well as the operating costs. UFA is a leading Swiss animal feed producer. At its site in Sursee, the com- pany operates a feed mill that has been purpose-designed for making poul- try feeds. Its eleven employees produce some 85, metric tons of poul- try feed a year on one feed manufacturing line in three shifts on five days. New control system and higher capacity The UFA feed mill in Sursee was built in and equipped with a new control system in Peter Hofer, member of the UFA corporate management and head of production, took this as an occasion to review all the mill's operations.

The individual parts were the follow- ing: They have proven their worth in day-to-day pro- duction. Support and maintenance are provided by a single supplier. And all our employees will now work with the identical user interface, which makes it easier to exchange personnel between the individual plants. For this purpose, the feed mill was shut down for two weeks. Urs Steiner, production manager of the UFA factories in Sursee, inside the control room of the feed mill. For fine- tuning the production process and in order to allow the change-over to multistage grinding, which slashes electric power consumption, a new crumbler was installed.

The subsequent change to unattended night-time operation was made possible by thoroughly reconditioning all the existing sensors and incorporating numer- ous new control and monitoring devices. Fenaco, an agribusiness corpora- tion, supplies farmers with production tools and buys, upgrades, and markets their produce. UFA has its headquarters in Herzogenbuchsee near Berne and operates eight production sites and service centers throughout Switzerland. In all, UFA has employees. But one of the challenges that the team faced was to program the system to allow unmanned night-time operation.

UFA specified that the mixing line as well as the pellet mill-expander line were to operate fully automatically during the night shift. This means that the control system would have to switch the plant to a secure mode in the event of operating trouble. All faults detected would have to be automatically acknowledged by the system and corrected. In addition, the automa- tion system would have to ensure production reliability and personal safety at all times. Last, not least, the new control system would have to alert the stand-by staff by SMS, and remote maintenance had to be possible.

A special infor- mation system supplies the fire fighters, the first-aid doctor, and the operators with the nec- essary information in case of an emergency. However, unmanned night-time operation was postponed for some time.

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When we found that everything was running as planned, we got ready for gradu- ally phasing in unmanned night-time service. On the one hand, the company wanted to be sure that the system would work smoothly. On the other hand, the plant opera- tors had to get into shape for fulfilling their new functions and handling the new procedures.

This produces a special pace of living that you cannot simply do away with from one day to the next. For three weeks, the control system was switched to the unmanned operating mode from 9 p. But during this pe- riod, the production manager and his deputy alternately remained in the plant throughout the night in order to monitor automatic operation.

Fine adjustments were made to the automation system on the basis of their experiences. After this three-week test phase, the second step was initiated. During the six weeks that fol- lowed, the operating personnel monitored night-time production in turns as before. This allowed everyone in the eleven-member team to satisfy themselves of the operating reliability of the new system. He then leaves the plant, acting as a standby until the next shift starts in the morning at 5 a. The experiences gained with the new sys- tem are very encouraging.

On average, we receive a fault message every two weeks. These irregularities can typically be corrected by remote access from at home using a laptop. Returning to the old shift operating mode is not an option. It runs kilometers right across the country from Darwin to Adelaide. Everything started a year and a half ago in the Advanced Materials division. Mobility and energy are two key issues guiding the activities of the division. So, what could better embody its strategy than a high-tech solar-powered vehicle that would compete in a race with contestants from all corners of the world?

The Solar Energy Racers project is an leisure-time undertaking. In the project phase, teams were formed which focused on the various issues involved: The Marketing and Finance teams started looking for sponsors to fund the project and to calculate the costs. SER 1 weighs a mere kilograms and is powered by a brush- less wheel hub motor with the power of a hair dryer.

The body consists of carbon-fiber reinforced plastic whose shapes were designed and built by the team members themselves. The solar energy is produced in mono- crystalline silicon solar cells measuring six square meters and stored in lithium-ion batteries. It would have been impossible to realize the project without the support of some 30 volunteers. From apprentice to retiree — everyone helped to make sure that SER 1 would be able to start the race on October 16, It also costs a few sleepless nights.

But all the efforts are now forgotten when the results are considered. Its members struggled with bush fires, a blowout, and extremely nasty weather. Due to days of cloudy weather, the battery was taxed to its limits. Despite all these adversities, SER 1 achieved a respectable ninth place in the provisional overall ranking. This category includes vehicles which are exclu- sively equipped with components readily available in the marketplace. The two facilities together employ persons. Up to now, they have operated for Rieter as manufacturers of assemblies, components, and sheet metal parts.

In addition, they gradually built the third-party business with various industries over the past years. Rieter plans to continue to utilize the factories as suppliers for textile equipment construction. Moreover, it will also allow room to be created to fur- ther improve cycle times. He has lived for 25 years in Africa, of which eight in Morocco. A graduate engineer and industry manager, he is in charge of sales and service in Bangladesh. You will find brief reviews of past exhibitions as well as notes on future appearances at trade shows at www.

Serge Entleitner was born in Austria in He graduated in social and economical sciences from the University of Innsbruck and then con- tinued his mana gement education at the Universities of St. Serge Entleitner lives in Koblach, Austria. He is married and has a daughter. On seven pages, the Diagram issue No. In the year , Italy had milling companies with a total grinding capacity of Of these, were flour mills total capacity 7 million tons , durum mills 2. This statistic does not cover small-scale mills. The unknown author of the article be- lieves that with a total population of about 50 million, the country has quite some excess capacity and will inevitably face cut-throat competition.

The article continues to say that a company can only survive in this situation by always maintaining its plant at a state-of-the-art level so as to be capable of making high-quality products at minimum cost. As a conse- quence, the author explains, the Italian milling industry is very receptive to innovations. In the second part of the article, a number of modern Italian milling projects are presented, including S. Purifier with three sieve decks in Molino Pastificio Ponte san Giovanni.

Herbert Bosshart bos Authors: Isabelle Hauser, agentur perform ag Images: While technological innovations lead to better energy efficiency and may improve the quality of a product, cost-saving measures require proactive planning, taking into account all ex- penses for maintenance, repairs and training — and then coming up with out-of-the-box service solutions.

But customer service goes beyond traditional mainte- nance, exchanging wear parts or retrofitting older ma- chinery with new technology — the needs and require- ments during the service life of a machine or plant are manifold and extend to consulting, training or research support. Customers may also benefit from the diverse technical and process know-how united in one com- pany: A creative approach in one field often results in an innovative solution in another area.

I hope you will enjoy your reading! Cross Equity Partners has a wide experience of developing medium-sized Eu- ropean businesses, and will bring fresh expertise to the board of directors. This also includes Mike Wang who has headed Leybold Optics Taiwan for over five years; he will now lead the new sales and service organization. The con- sortium applies the combined experience of its partners to food security and nutrition challenges in the devel- oping world — starting with Africa. Collaborating with African food processors and millers via a sustainable knowledge transfer system, volunteer experts provide advice remotely, avoiding the need for travel.

Consulting Strategic, plant performance, or energy consulting are just some of the consult- ing services to improve product qual- ity, production processes and energy efficiency. They are perfectly adjusted and ensure performance and production safety. As good As new the business unit die Casting demonstrates how the sensible overhaul of machinery can make a world of difference.

Sometimes exchanging a couple of spare parts just will not do anymore. After perhaps ten years of intense operation, a machine might seem to have reached the end of its lifecycle, displaying a lack of productivity or even producing low quality parts. Is this the time to invest in a new machine? Or might sen- sible and expedient revision be the solution?

The customer then decides on which measures shall be implemented. With a general overhaul, the lifecycle of the machine has been prolonged significantly, and at only half the cost of a new machine. Full production reliability has been restored, resulting in less downtime. The exchanged and revisioned parts have a warranty, excluding works, of one year. Rolls are the key elements in the grain grinding and flaking process.

But the rolls as such are wear parts. If corrugated rolls are blunted or smooth rolls have become worn, this directly affects processing quality, productivity as well as energy efficiency, and eventually may lead to unscheduled downtimes. To prevent such extensive repairs, rolls need to be serviced regularly.

It sup- plies servicing, refurbishment and replacement as well as shipping. This presence is important for our future decisions. A customer in Germany needed various spare parts to keep its production going of which a return pipe was not on stock — obviously waiting for 14 days was not an option. This way, in urgent cases, extremely fast supply of spare and wear parts can be guaranteed.

Production and delivery of the return pipe was implemented in the matter of 48 hours, thus keeping downtime at the plant to a minimum and preventing major losses in revenue. We never let our customers down. When an industry standard is revolutionized, what to do with older machin- ery, which is still in good working condition? How to tap on the cost saving potential of new energy saving standards with a seasoned plant? Customer service came up with the answer: An individual conversion package is put together that re- duces conversion costs to a minimum, taking into account the current state of the machine.

Following the conversion, customers can increase their productiv- ity by up to percent, while at the same time saving energy of approxi- mately 30 percent. AgStar Fertilizers, a leading Sri Lankan company in the supply of seeds, fer- tilizers and finance, is diversifying into the rice milling business. Concerned that the commissioning and the start of plant operations should go smoothly, managing director Pasad Weerasekera wanted the personnel in question to have freehand training be- fore.

The Application Center in Bangalore, India, assembled a tailor-made training course for AgStar Fertilizers; designed to give full overview of rice process- ing from paddy receipt to storage, cleaning and milling, including real time plant visits to understand realistic mill operation and management. With the help of qualified training, the AgStar Fertilizers ensured quick pro- duction start-up and will benefit from an increased productivity and moti- vated employees.

On the long run, he prevented skills shortages by qualifying and therefore keeping his personnel. The eight participants of the first course in Bangalore with their instructor, Mr. GVL Chandri fourth from left. The Application Center in Bangalore, India. Food safety and uncompromised hygiene are prime concerns in food pro- cessing.

Today, producers in the US already face the strictest regulations on food hygiene on the market. By providing sound sci- entific testing capabilities, advanced food grade laboratories help to develop new process technologies, machines and plants. In Minneapolis, a special focus was placed on hygienic design. Customer trials can be conducted on a complete processing line including raw material handling, extrusion, drying, grinding, and bulk packaging.

Concurrent with the commissioning of a plant, staff can train at the Food Innovation Center. Subsequently, trials on scaling up ca- pacity can be performed, or the development of new products on the existing machines can be facilitated. What are your experiences regarding this collaboration?

Since September , production has been running smoothly. The whole plant is controlled by the tried-and-tested WinCos automation system. In Vejle grain comes in and products go out continuously. Saving costs is often believed to mean: Cut ex- penses in maintenance and servicing. We are convinced that this would be an impediment to building trust with customers and en- tails very high risks for the organization. This triggered a lengthy round of calculation and intense de- bates. But we have never regretted this system and have just renewed and extended the contract again.

We had already worked very closely together, even in designing the new fac- tory. From this relationship of trust, the special service package emerged in numerous very open talks. Here in Vejle, this is being done in a highly innovative manner: They have other technicians on standby in the region and a storage with all the re- quired spare parts — if necessary, they fly in material by air. We, on the other hand, have nothing to worry about and are now only in charge of building maintenance. What is the big advantage of this service innovation in vejle?

In comparison, the plant in Vejle is considered a very efficient production site in terms of maintenance costs — that actually speaks for itself. The great advantage of outsourcing service management is the predictability of annual operating costs which used to be impossible in this form. Needless to say, such a degree of planning security is a real treat for every manager. Currently operating under its latest mid-term management plan — new nisshin innovation — which will continue until the th anniversary, nisshin seifun group is moving strongly into overseas markets as well.

Whipple Photos by Hans Sautter Left: The garden was designed by the famous landscape gardener Katsuo Saito — The transparent roller mill Antares is one of the highlights of the new milling museum. But although wheat came to Japan early on, flour food culture is said to have come in the 13th century when udon-type noodles were brought to the country from China. When Japan opened its doors to the outside world not counting the Dutch enclave at Dejima and the Meiji era began, bread came in with the foreigners. Still, the Japanese word for bread is pan, which derives from the Portuguese word used by priests who served sacrament to their Japanese converts, especially in Nagasaki.

Con- sumption burgeoned with the spread of western cuisine, wheat imports rose and domestic production jumped to about , hectares by the time Tatebayashi Seifun was founded in After graduating from university, he worked in the shoyu or soy sauce business run by his family in Tatebayashi and waited for the right moment to start his own business. Shoda, who founded Tatebayashi Seifun at the age of 30, first visited Europe and America in Nis- shin Seifun then built additional plants in Mito, Okaya- ma, and Kobe, and then the biggest plant of all in Tsu- rumi in Shoda also wanted his son, who was to follow in his foot- steps, to gain as much international experience as pos- sible.

Thus Hidesaburo Shoda accompanied his father to Europe in and again in when he stayed for a year, studying milling technology. Hidesaburo Shoda strived to make Nisshin the best pos- sible milling company, and likely knew Dr. That partnership, which passes over national borders, re- mains intact today. Our Japanese consumers de- mand pure white flour that is the same no matter which package they open. He also pointed out a saying by Teiichiro Shoda, the founder of Nisshin Seifun: While Nisshin is the largest flour miller, the company commands nearly 40 percent of the market.

But Nisshin also makes other food products such as pasta, premixes, heat-and-serve meals, dried noodles, and chilled, refrigerated, and frozen food products. In this day and age, customer and market trends change seemingly overnight, and food product makers must be ever ready to meet and take advantage of these changes. Unless we do that, we will be unable to meet our international goals which include strengthening our businesses in Canada, China, New Zealand, Thailand, and the USA. In fact, if visitors work through all the interactive displays, it will seem that they have actually toured a state-of-the-art flour mill.

Tatebayashi is slightly over an hour from Tokyo by train, and gives visitors not only beautiful azaleas to view, but also an unforgettable experience in learning about flour milling history in Japan. In winter, our drivers occasionally install snow chains three times a day. Farmers, in turn, are prepared to pay somewhat more for this premium service. They pay the bulk delivery price for their feeds, do not need stocks and there are no empty bags to dispose of.

Continued renewal But the solid market position is not merely the result of customer proximity and services. Thus, a system for making combi-flakes was added to the compound feed production system just three years after the new mill had gone live. Other capital invest- ments followed in new storage halls, an adjacent bulk storage system with loadout bins, a minor-ingredient proportioning system, and a palox loading plant.

But the most sustainable improvements — besides the up- dating of the entire control system — resulted from the installation of a new pellet mill in and a second, larger pelleting line in with a capacity of 12 tons per hour. The quality of the plant and equipment it supplies speaks for itself. But what is really crucial for us is reliability and service quality. For 15 years, the Hagen Pet Food factory in Waverly, New York, where the company manufactures large volumes of dog and cat food, had to regularly devi- ate from its usual operations and shut down its ten-ton extruder machine so it could be cleaned and reconfigured for lower-volume runs of small animal food products.

The entire system is managed by a Programmer Logic Con- troller PLC which tracks and records every step of the manufacturing process. With the new extruder, we always have fresh product. Giguere and his team spent about five months sourcing equipment for the new facility. The company has also trained key Hagen personnel on the new extruder. Maize crop colonized by fungi: The infested maize is also contaminated with mycotoxins which are dangerous — or even fatal — to humans and animals.

With the increasing incidence of mycotox- ins in the food chain — toxic to humans and animals — processors of a wide variety of foods, all over the world, are seeking more reliable sorting solutions. In response to this need, we have in- vested heavily in the development of our most advanced optical sorter — the SORTEX A MultiVision — which is suited to a wide variety of dry commodity applica- tions, including nuts, seeds, coffee and grain. Blighted product from a range of foodstuffs can be targeted, in- cluding such mycotoxins as sclerotia from sunflower seeds, vomitoxin from wheat, fusarium from barley, er- got from rye, and aflatoxins from peanuts and walnuts.

Its advanced MultiVision inspection system is a key contributor to its phenomenal sorting performance. This enhanced inspection system, with its four-wavelength technology [visible and infrared] and PROfile [shape] detection technology, is able to identify defects not possible with RGB technologies. It excels in the most difficult of dry commodity food sorting ap- plications where the strictest levels of food quality and safety are demanded. This delivers superior efficiency and productivity, with sort capacities of up to 15 tons per hour, dependent on the commodity and application. Sophisticated dust management, including sealed opti- cal and control boxes protecting essential components from dust, minimise downtime and increase hourly ca- pacity and yield.

Low power and low air consumption, along with long-life, high-speed ejectors, further reduce operational and maintenance costs. The innovative process employs more than the standard number of ceramic evaporation sources for roll-to-roll aluminum coating of plastic substrates such as polyester, polypropylene, or other special materials. This means that the META-M can provide the same coating thicknesses at higher speed, significantly increasing pro- ductivity compared to conventional devices. They vary according to the coating width which can be adapted as required, depending on the substrate in use.

Sheets with very thin coating are used for making in- terlayers placed between architectural glass panels in construction. They deflect sunlight to prevent the build- ing from heating up while still remaining completely transparent for optimal lighting indoors. Foils with medium-thickness metal coatings are used for flexible packaging — for instance, in the food packaging industry; here, the aluminum coating has an important barrier function, rendering the wrapping impermeable to oxygen and steam.

These barrier properties are enhanced by advanced plasma pretreatment.

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Finally, thick metal coating is applied to substrates used in packaging of highly photosensitive items such as delicate electronics. Leybold Optics offers machine and process specialists who can support customers through- out the lifetime of their machine, and also provides ser- vice and maintenance through its global network. Better-quality food, and grassroots economic development. Based on their intimate knowledge of local market con- ditions, the team worked on a concept that would allow farmers to process their maize close to where it is pro- duced and consumed.

Thus was born the idea of Isigayo, a preassembled compact unit that condenses the process of an industrial milling plant into two shipping contain- ers with all the features of an entire milling plant, but operates as a single machine. From these silos, it is purchased and processed by wholesale dealers before being sold to the end-consumer by the retail industry.

The Isigayo compact mill, which fits into two containers and can be assembled within one week, is ideally suited for startup companies in milling and maize processing. It is also targeted at small farmers, communities, and cooperatives. The Isigayo concept instantly eliminates not just one, but several processes in the value chain and cuts out the middlemen by providing this compact mill, which is low-priced in comparison to industrial milling costs and allows farmers to produce a high-grade, highly nutritional end product, i.

Catalyst for economic development Since Isigayo reduces the value chain, the costs of transpor- tation for entrepreneurs are significantly reduced. Isigayo also eases the concern of food security in the conventional value chain, up to 30 percent of maize flour is lost between harvest and storage or production.

Isigayo thus helps curb food loss and serves as a catalyst for local job creation and economic development in rural communities. The mill itself is also assembled in South Africa, add- ing further value and jobs to the national economy. A compact milling solution that fits into two containers, the Isigayo mill can be deployed locally to cut down on post-harvest wastage. We are completely dependent on technology. Control systems play a crucial role in every production process — reception, cleaning, grinding, mix- ing, storing, loading, and packaging.

They first introduced an automated control system in It was provided by an Italian supplier that later went out of business. Quaglia noticed immediate improvements in both pro- duction performance and the quality of the flour itself. Once the software was engineered, implementation pro- ceeded quickly over a day period, in stages so as not to disrupt the entire production cycle. Would we start up immediately? They told us how long we would stop, how many hours, how many persons they would need to do the work. When it was over, they had respected their projections perfectly. We had only two full days of downtime.

Its installation has meant reassurance, tran- quility, and ease of working for Quaglia. A hour hotline for service days a year. The plant control system is perfectly adjusted for high efficiency and minimum downtime. Boasting energy-saving hot air recirculation, automated process control and multistep-roasting profiles, this roaster is the heart and soul of any roast and ground coffee line.

With energy prices peaking, one way to achieve this is to minimize energy consumption. Further hot trends in the food processing industry are optimized machine design for better handling and maintenance, intelligent process control systems and, of course, the ability to create indi- vidual and customized products. Every coffee manufacturing application requires individual roasting processes for optimized flavor and bean prop- erties.

With its hourly capacity of kg, it opens up a new dimension in drum roasting for small and medium sized operations, featuring multistep-roasting profiles to enable customized flavor creations, highest operational efficiency, reliability and safety. The even distribution of beans in the improved roasting chamber assures an ef- ficient and homogeneous heat transfer from the hot air to the beans for best flavor quality.

Optional water quench- ing will stop the process precisely at the desired degree of roast. Only two decades ago, open systems that allow a full escape of air were the norm, requiring high amounts of energy to continuously reheat the sys- tem. While recirculated air systems are common practice in large capacity series air-roasting equipment, it is an industry-wide innovation for roasters of this size. Fur- ther energy savings can be made by improving produc- tion processes.

But with all these energy savings measures, there is never any need to compromise on quality: Coffee beans in roaster. Setting new standards in coffee roasting technology. Adequate grain cleaning is paramount to profitable grain processing and to fighting post-harvest food wastage. Either the yield is too low, or the grain is contaminated with dan- gerous toxins, or moist crop is prone to mold and rot dur- ing storage, thus leading to food wastage. On the other hand, the demand for safe and nutritious food is on the rise, due to stricter hygiene guidelines claiming higher quality, and the growing world population requiring larg- er quantity.

The solution to both challenges lies in care- ful and appropriate grain cleaning — it increases storage life of the grain, improves product quality and enhances production reliability as well as profitability. Step-by-step cleaning Depending on the requirements, grain cleaning consists of different steps. The basic step at the collection point always consists of sifting and aspirating. This is how for- eign particles such as straw, bigger stones, paper, piec- es of wood or corncobs — but also lighter grains which might be contaminated or in length broken grains can be eliminated.

Moreover, compromised surface quality of the grain can also be dealt with through surface abra- sion while sifting, as well as through specialized hulling machines. Basic cleaning accounts for approximately 90 percent of grain cleaning. In subsequent steps, the grain can be sorted according to highly specific parameters, which include practically every physical property rang- ing from size to discoloring thanks to trieur graders and SORTEX machines. Striking a fine balance All these steps can be adjusted and combined depending on which kind of grain quality is intended.

If grain is be- ing processed to become animal feed, naturally different guidelines apply than if it is destined for human con- sumption. Then, depending on the application — whether milling, seed processing or malting — companies may also diversify their product for basic or premium ranges. Depending on the region where the finished product is to be sold, also different guidelines or preferences might apply.

The art of adequate grain cleaning consists in the fine balance between sorting waste product without in- cluding too many good grains. Perfectly adjusted grain cleaning will guarantee optimized product quality with good profitability. The ma- chines from this series are optimally suited for appli- cations in plants for the reception and storage of grain and other bulk materials, port facilities, mills, silo and storage plants, seed processing plants as well as malting plants.

Thanks to the large number of screens in limited space and the tried and tested plansifter technology, high throughput rates can be attained while only small space is required. In Braunschweig, Germany, a passionate team produces software. Linking machines to form an automated production line or an entire plant requires creativity and tailor-made solutions. Making sure that plants and machines perform to the best of their abilities: Primafila AG, Zurich Printers: It will introduce the technological basics and highlight the main extruder features, but concentrate on experiments and demon- strations on modified flours, cereals, breadcrumbs and value added products.

You can search it according to regional or industry parameters and import the selected event to your electronic calendar. Seized up 02 l 03 26 04 08 Contents 03 Editorial: Complex set of wheels 04 Manufacturing: All wheels mesh smoothly Buhler Supply Chain ensures high-quality, on-schedule deliveries. Focus on subjects relevant to practice Professor Dr.

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Cost center transformed into profit center Buhler has reorganized its 16 global production sites according to the principle of closeness to the marketplace. The new role of the purchaser The significance of well-organized, efficient, cost-saving purchasing. Everything running smoothly again. The systematic upgrade of all machine control systems ensures the long-term availability of chocolate refiners. Special in three ways New extrusion system for producing modified starch. This net- work includes not only our 16 production sites around the world, but also coordi- nation of more than vendors and our sophisticated supply chain.

We are committed to manufacturing our own products. This helps us maintain our flexibility and ensures a high level of sup- ply readiness. But making our products ourselves also al- lows our engineers to create production- compliant machine designs. These are all advantages that you would never want to miss.

I wish you much pleasure reading this issue! Central America A young and dynamic market with million inhabitants. Direct crystallization saves energy Energy savings in making PET and other crystallizable polymers. Carat — a success story Observations made during the market launch of the new two-platen technology. A success throughout New Portalino Combi in the port of Trincomalee. Sales staff and engineers team up to develop projects together with customers.

Then the Manufacturing and Logistics specialists ensure that the plants ordered can go on stream on schedule and in compliance with the rigorous quality standards that have been defined. In order to enable this demand- ing service to be provided, Buhler operates a global supply chain. Buhler is present with 40 companies, additional sales offices, and numer- ous agencies in about countries around the world. These sales orga- nizations are grouped in eleven regional platforms, which — beside sales and service — also fulfill additional functions such as engineering, produc- tion, and logistics.

Local manufacturing and logistics services Costs, time, and quality have always been the crucial criteria for success in the fields of manufacturing and logistics. But globalization of markets and utilization of information technology have shifted the weights. Thus, custom- ers continuously expect more value for a given cost of a service. Minimizing the span of time from ordering to shipping has become a decisive competi- tive factor. Both customers and Buhler today take a high quality standard as granted. Whereas production used to be concentrated in just a few central- ized factories, Buhler has now turned to the principle of developing markets through regional manufacturing facilities or suppliers.

Decentralized order processing allows customer needs to be fulfilled without any detours in the respective regions and reduces the delivery times. At the same time, this is a precondition for providing services at optimized cost by exploiting cost ad- vantages while minimizing the shipping costs. It includes the services of 16 factories, vendors, and 40, shipments, which must all be coordi- nated.

The top priority in all this is to ensure that customers can expect on- schedule start-up of the plants they have ordered. For each plant ordered, an average of about individual components or tons of material must be available in the right place and at the right time.

This major organizational and logistic task is the responsibility of the Buhler Supply Chain Management. The project orders are handled through regional supply platforms, which are responsible for on-schedule supply of the products in the respective regions. The products are manufactured either by Buhler fac- tories or by vendors. The South- east Asia supply platform followed in Transportation systems are crucial in this supply system. The entire shipping logistics are handled in collaboration with the international forwarding spe- cialist Panalpina, which has its own office at the headquarters of Buhler in Uzwil.

Each year, it handles some 40, shipments with a total weight of 40, tons, 80 percent of them con- tainerized and transported by rail and by sea. This concept ensures that all the services provided to customers will mesh smoothly. From the receipt of an order to commissioning of the plant supplied, all the processes are carefully matched — synchronized — to ensure that the schedule and orga- nization targets mentioned are made possible.

The success of this program is reflected in minimized inven- tories, shorter cycle times, and higher productivity. Implementation of Buhler Total Synchro — that is, continuous flow-line pro- duction — also requires that products be designed in a way that will allow flow-line assembly. This allocation results in much tighter links and there- fore in a clear assignment of responsibilities.

Buhler Total Synchro is a demanding paradigm shift. But the high level of commitment of everyone involved in the project has generated a powerful inherent dynamism so that nothing stands in the way of continuing successful development. Supply management With an annual procurement volume totaling over million Swiss francs, supply management is highly significant.

The direct or indirect guidance of the roughly vendors that supply goods to the Buhler Group requires clear targets in process design. Clear-cut rules on supplier selection, per- formance measurement and rating, and conti nuous employee training are the most important elements in the design of the supply management sys- tem. The soundness of the approach that Buhler has taken in designing its worldwide supply management system is borne out by an award received from the Fraunhofer Institute.

Value-generating structure Make or buy — that is a question to which every company finds its own specific answer. Some companies make almost nothing themselves, whereas others manufacture almost all their own products. Both types of businesses can be successful. Decisions are usually made on the basis of general criteria — costs, time, and quality —, which are clearly defined for every particular case. If, for example, it is significantly cheaper to produce a given component in-house than to buy it from an outside supplier, mak- ing instead of buying it will be justified.

If not, buying must be considered as an option. With 16 manufacturing sites, another question is how much capital is allowed to be absorbed by investments in the fac- tories. Even a one-time purchase will initiate a process of technology re- newal, since systems must be replaced every six to ten years. Buhler assumes that in-house production will gradually decline at different rates that depend on the specific region.

Buhler customers, however, will not feel any impact of this decision. Whether the decision is made to make or to buy — Buhler always strives to supply quality in the right place and at the right time through its regional supply platforms. In this, he pursued three goals: Professor Schuh, your institute is a leader in the research of indus- trial production and the organization of industrial companies. How would you describe your research efforts to a non-specialist?

Progress in industrial manufacturing cannot be made on the basis of research in the ivory tower. What is needed is a continuous discourse with industrial practice. Therefore, we focus our research efforts on subjects relevant to practice. We do this through a blend of basic and consortial research projects involving industry in combination with direct contract research for and consulting of industry. Here, we conduct research with about scientific and non-scientific staff on the equipment, processes, and operations that will significantly impact the everyday activities of manu- facturing companies in the coming years.

Industrial production is expected to create ever-better products at ever-lower cost. Is that an attempt to square the circle? Especially companies from high-wage countries are com- ing under pressure in the global competitive environment from providers based in low-cost countries. Our response is often to relocate our manu- facturing volumes to such countries. But our high-wage companies must not yield to such competitive pressures; they must proactively shape the competitive arena. This is the only way to secure the long-term existence of western production sites and to improve their freedom of action in com- peting.

Is there any manufacturing secret? The manufacturing secret is to solve the mismatch between manufacturing specific products or producing individual solutions at commodity prices while minimizing planning requirements. Do any major industrial companies exist yet which come close to this ideal? By tak- ing an outstanding platform manage- ment approach, they have largely achieved a production system oriented toward mass customization. It used to be that as a customer you were offered ten or twenty types of sports shoes, which were displayed on store shelves and aroused more or less interest in buyers.

Today, customers can visit the Internet and choose from among hun- dreds of possible combinations without having to pay any significant premium for this flexibility. This is an out- standing platform concept. When you look at the historical development of industrial production, you will of course find that the general road map of modern pro- duction is changing continuously.

Therefore, the theories of today will be corrected in a few decades by new ide- als or even be completely replaced. But you will also find that many theories have survived and are still valid. I have already mentioned the produc- tion situation in high-wage countries.

Their competition with low-wage coun- tries typically takes place in two contra- dictory fields: With regard to production ef- ficiency, low-wage countries have up to now primarily focused on economies of scale. On the other hand, high-wage countries must necessarily position themselves somewhere between econ- omies of scale and economies of scope.

In the second dimension, that of planning efficiency, producers from high-wage countries are attempting to continuously fine-tune processes on the basis of sophisticated, capital-in- tensive planning instruments and pro- duction systems. On the other hand, manufacturers in low-wage countries consider the solution to be in straight- forward, robust process chains orient- ed toward value streams.

In order to achieve a sustainable competitive ad- vantage for production sites in high- wage countries, it will no longer suffice for producers to improve their position within the two spheres. I am convinced that the key to strengthening the com- petitiveness of companies in high-wage countries is to reconcile these dichoto- mies to the greatest extent possible. And companies will also face these challenges in the coming years and decades. What about collaboration of your institute and industry in practice?

Many companies in Germany know our combined produc- tion engineering institute in Aachen and are familiar with our research and consulting profile. Manufacturers can approach us with almost all chal- lenges that they encounter in their value-adding activities as well as their procurement management. We often pick the project team members across the boundaries of individual institutes and departments, depending on the expertise required in a specific case.

The two institutes have a sci- entific staff of almost in the area of industrial production. Needless to say that this immense think tank benefits our partners in industry because they can be certain that we will always base our advice on the latest scien- tific findings. On the other hand, the closeness of the institutes to industry also contributes greatly to the quality of our research.

Research must never 10 l 11 Manufacturing be an end in itself, but always have practical relevance. In the strategic ori- entation of our research programs, we therefore always keep an eye on the concerns of industry and utilize long- term contacts in this connection. You yourself have set up and built a company. To what extent does this experience help you understand the concerns and needs of the busi- ness community? I think that especially in the expert field of production manage- ment, a professor will be well advised to occasionally check his scientific find- ings against practice.