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SNIP measures contextual citation impact by wighting citations based on the total number of citations in a subject field. Greek and Roman worship of their gods and myths go back to Ancient Egyptian times. Images engraved in Greco-Roman coinage range from references to the assassination of Caesar and legendary stories like the arrival of a snake shaped demi-god Aesculapius to save the Romans from the plague, to invocations of major deities including Apollo the physician or Ammon the protector..

Depicted with the horns of a ram, Ammon was adopted by the Greeks as an epithet of Zeus and later incorporated by the Romans as Jupiter. References to the cult of Ammon appear on tetradrachms minted for Alexander The Great and on provincial Roman coins struck under Claudius. It is thrilling to hold a coin depicting Marcus Aurelius with Salus on the reverse and think that it could have been handed to Galen in payment for his services.

However, it is rare to find figures other than rulers on coins and the physician of Pergamum is no exception. Inspired by the Renaissance school of Padua, French anatomists in the Enlightenment Garengeot in and Flurant in continued reviving ancient myths and named the curve-shaped-inner portion of the temporal lobe Ammon's horn. As primary sources of great archaeological and artistic value, Greco-Roman coins provide information about the origins of the myths and gods of classical antiquity and continue to inspire the arts and sciences to this day..

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Resulta emocionante sostener un denario de Marco Aurelio con La Salud personificada y pensar que acaso fue entregado a Galeno como pago por sus servicios. According to an ancient African legend, mythology and history become indistinguishable after seven generations. Throughout its long history, Greco-Roman civilisation followed the custom of using metal images to immortalise the fortunes, ephemerides, patron saints, monuments, allegories, and diverse symbols, especially during the high Roman Empire.

This resulted in the creation of numerous coins regarded as having great artistic and archaeological importance, and these pieces shed light on both the history and legends of ancient times. Pivotal deeds such as the assassination of Julius Caesar on the ides of March, the conquest of Judea, the eruption of Vesuvius, and the arrival of the Greco-Roman demigod Asclepius, in serpent form, to Tiber Island to save Rome from an epidemic mingle with the achievements of emperors or invocations of major gods such as Apollo the physician during great plagues or the Egyptian god Amun..

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Nevertheless, devotional practices and the artistic depictions of the gods in Greece and Rome are rooted in Ancient Egypt. As such, temples dedicated to Egyptian gods were not uncommon in the Roman Empire. The sixth century BCE witnessed the rise of a new current in opposing disease, one that went beyond folk empiricism or mere superstition and which took the healer Asclepius as its reference.

The ideas of rational medicine and irrational religious beliefs coexisted harmoniously in ancient times; both forms were opposed to charlatanism, and both sprang from the same source. Together, they represent the basis of Western medicine. As the cornerstone of its ethical foundation, the precursor to modern deontological codes, and a faithful reflection of reason devoted to the service of medicine, the Hippocratic Oath recalls how the rational approach was incorporated into the irrational and religion-based earlier practices by invoking the Greek and Roman gods in its opening paragraph.

Among the many numismatic references to mythology, we can find personifications of provinces including Hispania, Germania, Britannia, and Gallia, and also representations of traits or virtues such as Hope, Loyalty, Nobleness, or Health. Greek coins minted from the fifth century BCE typically represent Asclepius as a bearded man with a serpent identified as Zamenis longissimus entwined around his staff.

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Hygieia, the Greek goddess of health and the mythological daughter of Asclepius, was worshipped from the third century BCE and later adopted by the Romans as the personification of health Salus. As such, she appears holding a patera Fig. Certain provincial coins or consular medals, beginning in the rule of Caracalla CE , feature the sacred triad of Greco-Roman medicine with their symbols Fig.

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Meanwhile, the physician Apollo was invoked by depicting him on imperial coins during major epidemics, such as the Plague of Cyprian in the middle years of the third century CE. Tetradrachm struck in about BCE. Asclepius leaning on a staff with an entwined serpent beside an Athenian owl perching on an amphora.. Aureus of Nero minted about 66 CE.


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Philippus Arabs with Philippus II. And just as the pagan gods listed in the first paragraph of the Hippocratic Oath were censored in later Byzantine versions, no coins were struck with their images as of the fourth century CE. These later coins lacked the beauty and relevance of the coins invoking medicine that were crafted in high imperial Rome. The etymological roots of the larger part of medical vocabulary are found in the so-called dead languages. A basic knowledge of Latin and Greek is often sufficient to dilucidate the meanings of such terms as hypo-glossus beneath the tongue ; syn-kinesia coordinated movement ; dys-kinesia movement disorder ; and many others.

However, simply translating a medical term may be complicated by having to trace the origin of a proper name used in that term, as in the case of Cornu Ammonis or Ammon's horn..


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Also known as Amen, meaning obscure, mysterious, or cryptic, Amun was the main deity of Thebes with a cult that reached its apex during the twelfth dynasty 20th century BCE. Before Amenhotep IV banned the cult of Amun, and temporarily dictated a monotheistic religion under the sun-god Ra, the Priest of Amun held the highest rank within Egyptian society.

After the Egyptian conquest of Nubia the region currently occupied by the Republic of the Sudan and corresponding to Ancient Ethiopia , a temple to Amun was built in the capital city of Napata at the foot of the sacred mountain of Jebel Barkal. His place of worship, an oasis in the Libyan desert where the oracle of Siwa resided, was visited by successive waves of Greek pilgrims, a process which favoured Amun's incorporation into Greco-Roman theogony. In his description of Greece, Pausanias recalls the presence of many temples to Amun throughout Ancient Egypt, especially those in the capital city of Thebes and in Sparta.

However, the first place in Greece where the god was depicted with a ram's horns was in Megalopolis, the capital of the southern province of Arcadia. Iatromathematics or astrological medicine was another invention of Hellenistic Egypt. Of the 4 fundamental parts of the human body, according to the doctrine of astral melothesia, Aries corresponds to the head. Mathematical prescience of bed-ridden diseases, taken from astrological science is related to the Sacred Book of Hermes to Asclepius in that they view man as a microcosm.

After the conquest, he proclaimed himself the son of Amun and was deified before the oracle of Siwa.

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But the cult of the Egyptian god did not disappear once Greece and Egypt were under Roman rule; as in countless other occasions, it was adopted by the new civilisation, as can be seen in the example of a coin dating to the rule of Claudius. Its reverse side bears the influential Alexandrian symbol of Zeus Amun as a figure assimilated into Roman mythology as an epithet of Jupiter Fig. A possible link between the Egyptian god and medicine, aside from his status as a supreme deity, is the fact that the Theban high priest of Amun the highest authority in Southern Egypt and the earthly representative of the divine was credited with a certain degree of empiric knowledge of medicine.

Another link, although less probable, is that Apollo assigned divine status to the ram, as depicted on a coin struck in Troas a city located on the coast of modern-day Turkey and renamed Alexandria Troas by Lysimachus after his immediate predecessor, Alexander the Great.

On its obverse, we see the profile of the ubiquitous Greco-Roman god, with a ram on the reverse Fig. This can certainly be explained by the regard for that animal throughout antiquity, and the fact that it was frequently associated with other major gods, including Zeus, Hermes, and even Apollo. However, no clear correlation can be established between the Egyptian god and Apollo the physician invoked by the Romans in times of plague, along with the other gods of healing in the Hippocratic Oath. The salts of that chemical compound, found in abundance in the Libyan desert, were used to prevent potential epidemics..

Coin minted in Troas in the fifth century BCE. The Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement that sought to return to the origins of classical antiquity by drawing from original sources and avoiding texts filtered by means of adulterated translations into Arabic or Latin during the Middle Ages. Efforts in the medical sphere focused on recovering Hippocratic and Galenic writings in the original Greek. One of the main innovations in Renaissance medicine, as opposed to approaches used in antiquity and the Middle Ages, was the creation of a new anatomical and structural paradigm based on the dissection of human cadavers and animal vivisection.

The Galenic functional paradigm, in force prior to that time, was based exclusively on animal dissection since the dissection of human cadavers was prohibited in Greece and Rome. This gave rise to a chain of errors that marched on across the centuries. However, the new school in Padua, whose students included Andreas Vesalius and William Harvey, introduced a novel way of studying the human body in unprecedented detail.

Here, the Greco-Roman gods and myths played an important role in that their names were given to different anatomical structures.. Terms recovered from Greco-Roman mythology include hippocampus , proposed by Giulio Cesare Aranzio as the name of the medial region of the temporal lobe because of its resemblance to a seahorse. In Greco-Roman iconography, the symbol is associated with harmony, peace, and happiness, as demonstrated by ancient coins..

De Garengeot's reference to Ammon's horn in his illustrated anatomical description of the brain, According to the dictionary of the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language, a salterio or psalterio psaltery is a stringed musical instrument composed of a triangular resonance chamber, narrower at the top where it is open. It is fitted with multiple metal strings that can be struck or plucked by the fingers.

However, salterio in Spanish may also refer to the Book of Psalms in the Old Testament containing psalms offering praise to God, most of which were composed by King David. Both were children of King David. In anatomy, the connection between both medial temporal regions or Ammon's horns is established through the hippocampal commissure, also known as the psalterium , lyra , or David's lyre. This name was inspired by the Biblical victory of the King of Israel over the Ammonites in Jordan, whose capital city was Rabbath Ammon modern-day Amman.

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The base of the corpus callosum, presenting an inferior transversal convexity and anteroposterior concavity, provides the insertion point for the septum pellucidum. At that level, it is intimately attached to the trigone and forms a structure with fibres stretching obliquely like the strings of a lyre.

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