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In Sarraguce they sound the drums of war; Mahum they raise upon their highest tow'r, Pagan is none, that does not him adore. They canter then with great contention Through Certeine land, valleys and mountains, on, Till of the Franks they see the gonfalons, Being in rereward those dozen companions; They will not fail battle to do anon.

LXIX Marsile's nephew is come before the band, Riding a mule, he goads it with a wand, Smiling and clear, his uncle's ear demands: Verfasser unbekannt, sogleich, so gleich, bald, alsbald. I'll slay him clean with my good trenchant lance, If Mahumet will be my sure warrant; Spain I'll set free, deliver all her land From Pass of Aspre even unto Durestant. Charles will grow faint, and recreant the Franks; There'll be no war while you're a living man.

LXX Marsile's nephew, holding in hand the glove, His uncle calls, with reason proud enough: Choose now for me eleven more baruns, So I may fight those dozen companions. Hastes into view Malprimis of Brigal, Faster than a horse, upon his feet can dart, Before Marsile he cries with all his heart: Before Marsile aloud has he shouted: Before Marsile his vaunting boast hath made: Mahum's more worth than Saint Peter of Rome; Serve we him well, then fame in field we'll own.

See here my sword, that is both good and long With Durendal I'll lay it well across; Ye'll hear betimes to which the prize is gone. Franks shall be slain, whom we descend upon, Charles the old will suffer grief and wrong, No more on earth his crown will he put on. Before Marsile he cries amid the press: Of good vassals will Charles be richly bled.

Into the pass ye'll go to Rencesvals, Give me your aid, and thither lead my band. We will assault Olivier and Rollant, The dozen peers from death have no warrant, For these our swords are trusty and trenchant, In scalding blood we'll dye their blades scarlat. Franks shall be slain, and Chares be right sad. Terra Major we'll give into your hand; Come there, Sir King, truly you'll see all that Yea, the Emperour we'll give into your hand.

For his beauty the ladies hold him dear; German assault: Translated by Moncrief 53 Who looks on him, with him her heart is pleased, When she beholds, she can but smile for glee. Comes through the press, above them all cries he, "Be not at all dismayed, King Marsilie! See here the sword, whose hilt is gold indeed, I got in gift from the admiral of Primes; In scarlat blood I pledge it shall be steeped. Franks shall be slain, and France abased be. To Charles the old, with his great blossoming beard, Day shall not dawn but brings him rage and grief, Ere a year pass, all France we shall have seized, Till we can lie in th' burgh of Saint Denise.

Right to the ground his hair swept either way; He for a jest would bear a heavier weight Than four yoked mules, beneath their load that strain. Says Chemubles "My sword is in its place, At Rencesvals scarlat I will it stain; Find I Rollanz the proud upon my way, I'll fall on him, or trust me not again, And Durendal I'll conquer with this blade, Franks shall be slain, and France a desert made.

LXXIX Ready they make hauberks Sarrazinese, That folded are, the greater part, in three; And they lace on good helms Sarragucese; Gird on their swords of tried steel Viennese; Fine shields they have, and spears Valentinese, And white, blue, red, their ensigns take the breeze, They've left their mules behind, and their palfreys, German blue: Brise, Hauch, Briese, Wind. Sturzbad, Regenschauer, Duschen, grain: Fleck, beflecken, flecken, Beize, keenly: Besatz, Beschlag, Borte, Spitzenkante, stones: Vertrauen, sich verlassen auf, palfreys: Zuversicht, zutrauen, betrauen mit, rain: Regen, regnen, der Regen.

Dusche, Brause, Schauer, Treuhand, Trust, vertrauen mit. Translated by Moncrief 55 Their chargers mount, and canter knee by knee. A thousand horns they sound, more proud to seem; Great is the noise, the Franks its echo hear. For our King's sake well must we quit us here; Man for his lord should suffer great disease, Most bitter cold endure, and burning heat, His hair and skin should offer up at need.

Now must we each lay on most hardily, So evil songs neer sung of us shall be. Christians are right indeed. Evil example will never come of me. LXXX Oliver mounts upon a lofty peak, Looks to his right along the valley green, The pagan tribes approaching there appear; He calls Rollanz, his companion, to see: Echo, Widerhall, widerhallen, widerschallen, Klankwiderhall, hallen, echoen, schallen.

Knie, das Knie, Krummholz. They'll smite our Franks with fury past belief, He knew it, Guenes, the traitor and the thief, Who chose us out before the King our chief.

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Their helmets gleam, with gold are jewelled, Also their shields, their hauberks orfreyed, Also their swords, ensigns on spears fixed. Rank beyond rank could not be numbered, So many there, no measure could he set. In his own heart he's sore astonished, Fast as he could, down from the peak hath sped Comes to the Franks, to them his tale hath said. Gainst us their shields an hundred thousand bore, German astonished: Translated by Moncrief 57 That laced helms and shining hauberks wore; And, bolt upright, their bright brown spearheads shone.

Lords of the Franks, God keep you in valour! So hold your ground, we be not overborne! If we must die, then perish one and all. If Charles hear, he'll turn his armies round. With Durendal I'll lay on thick and stout, In blood the blade, to its golden hilt, I'll drown. Felon pagans to th' pass shall not come down; I pledge you now, to death they all are bound.

Bolzen, Riegel, Schraube, horn: Blitz, Bolz, Mutterbolzen, Zuriegeln, perish: Rather stout blows with Durendal I'll lay, With my good sword that by my side doth sway; Till bloodied o'er you shall behold the blade. If Charles hear, where in the pass he stands, I pledge you now, they'll turn again, the Franks.

Never by me shall men reproach my clan. When I am come into the battle grand, And blows lay on, by hundred, by thousand, German behold: A muster great they've made, this people strange; We have of men a very little tale. Rather I'll die than shame shall me attain. Therefore strike on, the Emperour's love to gain. Good are the counts, and lofty their language. Sprache, die Sprache, Rede. Streik, streiken, Streichen, schlagen, treffen, klopfen, indenAusstandtreten, imponieren, hauen, greifen, schlag.

On the olifant deign now to sound a blast; Were the King here, we should not fear damage. Only look up towards the Pass of Aspre, In sorrow there you'll see the whole rereward. Who does this deed, does no more afterward. Evil his heart that is in thought coward! We shall remain firm in our place installed; From us the blows shall come, from us the assault.

That Emperour, who left us Franks on guard, A thousand score stout men he set apart, And well he knows, not one will prove coward. Man for his lord should suffer with good heart, Of bitter cold and great heat bear the smart, German apart: Translated by Moncrief 61 His blood let drain, and all his flesh be scarred. So, if I die, who has it afterward Noble vassal's he well may say it was.

To Christendom good service offering. Battle you'll have, you all are bound to it, For with your eyes you see the Sarrazins. Pray for God's grace, confessing Him your sins! For your souls' health, I'll absolution give So, though you die, blest martyrs shall you live, Thrones you shall win in the great Paradis. That Archbishop God's Benediction gives, For their penance, good blows to strike he bids.

King Marsilies hath bargained for us cheap; At the sword's point he yet shall pay our meed. XCI To Spanish pass is Rollanz now going On Veillantif, his good steed, galloping; He is well armed, pride is in his bearing, He goes, so brave, his spear in hand holding, He goes, its point against the sky turning; A gonfalon all white thereon he's pinned, German absolved: Translated by Moncrief 63 Down to his hand flutters the golden fringe: Noble his limbs, his face clear and smiling.

Proudly he looks towards the Sarrazins, And to the Franks sweetly, himself humbling; And courteously has said to them this thing: Pagans are come great martyrdom seeking; Noble and fair reward this day shall bring, Was never won by any Frankish King. Your olifant, to sound it do not deign, Since from Carlun you'll never more have aid. He has not heard; no fault of his, so brave.

Those with him there are never to be blamed. So canter on, with what prowess you may! Lords and barons, firmly your ground maintain! Be minded well, I pray you in God's Name, Stout blows to strike, to give as you shall take. They canter forth, God! Pagans and Franks, you'ld see them now engaged. Betrayed you has he that to guard you ought; Mad is the King who left you in this post. So shall the fame of France the Douce be lost, And the right arm from Charles body torn. His steed he spurs, gallops with great effort; He goes, that count, to strike with all his force, The shield he breaks, the hauberk's seam unsews, Slices the heart, and shatters up the bones, German acclaim: Translated by Moncrief 65 All of the spine he severs with that blow, And with his spear the soul from body throws So well he's pinned, he shakes in the air that corse, On his spear's hilt he's flung it from the horse: So in two halves Aeroth's neck he broke, Nor left him yet, they say, but rather spoke: A madman Charles is not, No treachery was ever in his thought.

Strike on, the Franks!


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Ours are the foremost blows. For we are right, but these gluttons are wrong. XCIV A duke there was, his name was Falfarun, Brother was he to King Marsiliun, He held their land, Dathan's and Abirun's; Beneath the sky no more encrimed felun; Between his eyes so broad was he in front A great half-foot you'ld measure there in full.

His nephew dead he's seen with grief enough, Comes through the press and wildly forth he runs, Aloud he shouts their cry the pagans use; German blow: Hals, Nacken, Genick, ficken, miteinander schlafen, Liebe machen, Geschlechtsverkehr haben, sich lieben, bumsen, Ausschnitt.

Right well we'll overcome. This is the day when they their death shall meet. Translated by Moncrief 67 Spurs of fine gold he pricks into his steed, To strike that king by virtue great goes he, The hauberk all unfastens, breaks the shield, Thrusts his great spear in through the carcass clean, Pins it so well he shakes it in its seat, Dead in the road he's flung it from his spear. Your companions all on this spot we'll keep, I tell you news; death shall ye suffer here. Fail none of you at need! Ours the first blow, to God the glory be!

XCVI And Gerins strikes Malprimis of Brigal So his good shield is nothing worth at all, Shatters the boss, was fashioned of crystal, One half of it downward to earth flies off; Right to the flesh has through his hauberk torn, On his good spear he has the carcass caught. XCVII And his comrade Gerers strikes the admiral, The shield he breaks, the hauberk unmetals, And his good spear drives into his vitals, So well he's pinned him, clean through the carcass, Dead on the field he's flung him from his hand.

Translated by Moncrief 69 And Anseis has let his charger run; He goes to strike Turgis of Turtelus, The shield he breaks, its golden boss above, The hauberk too, its doubled mail undoes, His good spear's point into the carcass runs, So well he's thrust, clean through the whole steel comes, And from the hilt he's thrown him dead in dust. Miete, mieten, Pacht, vermieten, Pachtzins, verleihen, Mietzins. Sattel, satteln, Bettschlitten, der Sattel. Of their dozen peers ten have now been killed, No more than two remain alive and quick, Being Chernuble, and the count Margariz.

CIII Margariz is a very gallant knight, Both fair and strong, and swift he is and light; He spurs his horse, goes Oliver to strike, And breaks his shield, by th'golden buckle bright; Along his ribs the pagan's spear doth glide; German buckle: Schnalle, zuschnallen, Spange, anschnallen, festschnallen, schnallen. Translated by Moncrief 71 God's his warrant, his body has respite, The shaft breaks off, Oliver stays upright; That other goes, naught stays him in his flight, His trumpet sounds, rallies his tribe to fight.

The count Rollanz no way himself secures, Strikes with his spear, long as the shaft endures, By fifteen blows it is clean broken through Then Durendal he bares, his sabre good Spurs on his horse, is gone to strike Chemuble, The helmet breaks, where bright carbuncles grew, Slices the cap and shears the locks in two, Slices also the eyes and the features, The hauberk white, whose mail was close of woof, Down to the groin cuts all his body through To the saddle; with beaten gold 'twas tooled.

Upon the horse that sword a moment stood, Then sliced its spine, no join there any knew, Dead in the field among thick grass them threw. After he said "Culvert, false step you moved, From Mahumet your help will not come soon. No victory for gluttons such as you. Helm, der Helm, Sturmhaube.

In blood his arms were and his hauberk steeped, And bloodied o'er, shoulders and neck, his steed. CVI And Oliver has cantered through the crush; Broken his spear, the truncheon still he thrusts; Going to strike a pagan Malsarun; Flowers and gold, are on the shield, he cuts, German baronage: Translated by Moncrief 73 Out of the head both the two eyes have burst, And all the brains are fallen in the dust; He flings him dead, sev'n hundred else amongst.

In such a fight, there's little strength in wood, Iron and steel should here their valour prove. Where is your sword, that Halteclere I knew? Golden its hilt, whereon a crystal grew. CVII Then Oliver has drawn his mighty sword As his comrade had bidden and implored, In knightly wise the blade to him has shewed; Justin he strikes, that Iron Valley's lord, All of his head has down the middle shorn, The carcass sliced, the broidered sark has torn, The good saddle that was with old adorned, And through the spine has sliced that pagan's horse; Dead in the field before his feet they fall.

CVIII That count Gerins sate on his horse Sorel, On Passe-Cerf was Gerers there, his friend; They've loosed their reins, together spurred and sped, And go to strike a pagan Timozel; One on the shield, on hauberk the other fell; And their two spears went through the carcass well, A fallow field amidst they've thrown him dead. I do not know, I never heard it said Which of the two was nimbler as they went. Esperveris was there, son of Borel, And him there slew Engelers of Burdel.

And the Archbishop, he slew them Siglorel, The enchanter, who before had been in hell, Where Jupiter bore him by a magic spell. Then Turpin says "To us he's forfeited. Such blows, brother Olivier, I like well. Translated by Moncrief 75 CIX The battle grows more hard and harder yet, Franks and pagans, with marvellous onset, Each other strike and each himself defends. Charles the Great weeps therefor with regret.

No succour shall they get. Evil service, that day, Guenes rendered them, To Sarraguce going, his own to sell. After he lost his members and his head, In court, at Aix, to gallows-tree condemned; And thirty more with him, of his kindred, Were hanged, a thing they never did expect. Bedauern, bereuen, etwas bedauern, leid tun, beweinen, beklagen, betrauern.

The Franks have lost the foremost of their band, They'll see no more their fathers nor their clans, Nor Charlemagne, where in the pass he stands. Torment arose, right marvellous, in France, Tempest there was, of wind and thunder black, With rain and hail, so much could not be spanned; Fell thunderbolts often on every hand, And verily the earth quaked in answer back From Saint Michael of Peril unto Sanz, From Besencun to the harbour of Guitsand; No house stood there but straight its walls must crack: In full mid-day the darkness was so grand, Save the sky split, no light was in the land.

Beheld these things with terror every man, And many said: Hagel, hageln, anreden, anrufen, ansprechen. Trauer, Trauernd, betrauernd, Trauern, beweinend. Spannweite, Spanne, Messspanne, Spannfeld. Schrecken, Schreck, Grauen, Entzetzen, Entsetzen. Wind, wickeln, einwickeln, aufziehen, der Wind, rollen, winden. In Chronicles of Franks is written down, What vassalage he had, our Emperour. King Marsilies and his great host draw round.

Twenty columns that king had numbered. With gleaminag gold their helms were jewelled. Shone too their shields and sarks embroidered. Sounded the charge seven thousand trumpets, Great was the noise through all that country went. Battle we'll have, both long and keenly set, Never has man beheld such armies met.

With Durendal my sword I'll strike again, And, comrade, you shall strike with Halteclere. These swords in lands so many have we held, Battles with them so many brought to end, No evil song shall e'er be sung or said. And the Archbishop speaks to them, as he can: For God I pray you fly not hence but stand, Lest evil songs of our valour men chant! Far better t'were to perish in the van.

Certain it is, our end is near at hand, Beyond this day shall no more live one man; German bad: Gesang, singen, Kirchenlied, skandieren. Translated by Moncrief 79 But of one thing I give you good warrant: Blest Paradise to you now open stands, By the Innocents your thrones you there shall have. CXIV A Sarrazin was there, of Sarraguce, Of that city one half was his by use, 'Twas Climborins, a man was nothing proof; By Guenelun the count an oath he took, And kissed his mouth in amity and truth, Gave him his sword and his carbuncle too.

Terra Major, he said, to shame he'ld put, From the Emperour his crown he would remove. He sate his horse, which he called Barbamusche, Never so swift sparrow nor swallow flew, He spurred him well, and down the reins he threw, Going to strike Engelier of Gascune; Nor shield nor sark him any warrant proved, The pagan spear's point did his body wound, He pinned him well, and all the steel sent through, From the hilt flung him dead beneath his foot. Schwalbe, schlucken, Rauchschwalbe, Schluck, wegschlucken, Bauernschwalbe, herunterschlucken, hinunterschlingen, hinunterschlucken, runterschlucken, schlingen.

Next he has slain the duke Alphaien, And sliced away Escababi his head, And has unhorsed some seven Arabs else; No good for those to go to war again. Fuhr, fuhrst, fuhren, fuhrt, trieben an, triebt an, triebt, triebst an, triebst, trieben, trieb an. He'd pledged his oath by county Guenelon, Gave him his sword, a thousand coins thereon. He sate his horse, which he called Gramimond, Never so swift flew in the air falcon; He's pricked him well, with sharp spurs he had on, Going to strike e'en that rich Duke, Sanson; His shield has split, his hauberk has undone, The ensign's folds have through his body gone, Dead from the hilt out of his seat he's dropt: He sate his horse, which he called Salt-Perdut, Never so swift was any beast could run.

And Anseis upon the shield he struck, German armour: Tier, Biest, Bestie, Vieh, Getier. Translated by Moncrief 83 The scarlat with the blue he sliced it up, Of his hauberk he's torn the folds and cut, The steel and stock has through his body thrust. Then say the Franks: One thou hast slain for whom my heart is sad. He sate his horse, the which he called Marmore, Never so swift was any bird in course; He's loosed the reins, and spurring on that horse German bidding: Kompass, der Kompass, Zirkel.

To the pagan says: One hast thou slain that dearly thou'lt repay. Translated by Moncrief 85 Grandonie was both proof and valiant, And virtuous, a vassal combatant. Struck him the count, with so great virtue, that To the nose-plate he's all the helmet cracked, Sliced through the nose and mouth and teeth he has, Hauberk close-mailed, and all the whole carcass, Saddle of gold, with plates of silver flanked, And of his horse has deeply scarred the back; He's slain them both, they'll make no more attack: The Spanish men in sorrow cry, "Alack!


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Beyond all men thy people are hardy! Then had you seen such sorrowing of clans, So many a slain, shattered and bleeding man! Biting the earth, or piled there on their backs! The Sarrazins cannot such loss withstand. Will they or nill, from off the field draw back; By lively force chase them away the Franks. CXXV Their martyrdom, his men's, Marsile has seen, So he bids sound his horns and his buccines; Then canters forth with all his great army.

Canters before a Sarrazin, Abisme, German bids: Translated by Moncrief 87 More felon none was in that company; Cankered with guile and every felony, He fears not God, the Son of Saint Mary; Black is that man as molten pitch that seethes; Better he loves murder and treachery Than to have all the gold of Galicie; Never has man beheld him sport for glee; Yet vassalage he's shown, and great folly, So is he dear to th' felon king Marsile; Dragon he bears, to which his tribe rally. CXXVI That Archbishop begins the fight again, Sitting the horse which he took from Grossaille -- That was a king he had in Denmark slain; -That charger is swift and of noble race; Fine are his hooves, his legs are smooth and straight, German beheld: Flamme, Funkeln, lodern, Feuermeer, Feuersbrunst, flackern, flammen, Flammenmeer, lichterloh brennen, Blesse.

Pfennig, Penny, Groschen, Heller, Deut. Zeuge, bezeugen, mitmachen, vorzeigen, zeigen, zeugen von, Zeugnis. Translated by Moncrief 89 Well can he strike with lance and well with spear. And the Archbishop lays on there with his spear. Those that are dead, men well may hold them dear. In charters and in briefs is written clear, Four thousand fell, and more, the tales declare. Gainst four assaults easily did they fare, But then the fifth brought heavy griefs to bear. They all are slain, those Frankish chevaliers; Only three-score, whom God was pleased to spare, Before these die, they'll sell them very dear.

Schlachten, abschlachten, erschlagen, Gemetzel, Schlachtung. Wort, Vokabel, Datenwort, Formulieren.

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King and friend, wherefore are you not here? How, Oliver, brother, can we achieve? And by what means our news to him repeat? So wind your horn but not by courage rash, Seeing that both your arms with blood are splashed. Translated by Moncrief 91 Then says Rollant: Were the King here, we had not borne such damage. Nor should we blame those with him there, his army. Vassalage comes by sense, and not folly; Prudence more worth is than stupidity. Here are Franks dead, all for your trickery; No more service to Carlun may we yield. My lord were here now, had you trusted me, And fought and won this battle then had we, Taken or slain were the king Marsilie.

In your prowess, Rollanz, no good we've seen! Charles the great in vain your aid will seek -None such as he till God His Judgement speak; -- German beard: No help it were to us, the horn to blow, But, none the less, it may be better so; The King will come, with vengeance that he owes; These Spanish men never away shall go.

Our Franks here, each descending from his horse, Will find us dead, and limb from body torn; They'll take us hence, on biers and litters borne; With pity and with grief for us they'll mourn; They'll bury each in some old minster-close; No wolf nor swine nor dog shall gnaw our bones. Translated by Moncrief 93 Rollant hath set the olifant to his mouth, He grasps it well, and with great virtue sounds. So Charles heard, and all his comrades round; Then said that King: Out of his mouth the clear blood leaped and ran, About his brain the very temples cracked.

Loud is its voice, that horn he holds in hand; Charles hath heard, where in the pass he stands, And Neimes hears, and listen all the Franks. Then says the King: Now are you old, blossoming white and blanched, Yet by such words you still appear infant. You know full well the great pride of Rollant Marvel it is, God stays so tolerant.

No race neath heav'n in field him dare attack. Nay, wherefore hold we back? Terra Major is far away, our land.

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CXXXV The count Rollanz, though blood his mouth doth stain, And burst are both the temples of his brain, His olifant he sounds with grief and pain; Charles hath heard, listen the Franks again. Battle is there, indeed I see it plain, He is betrayed, by one that still doth feign.

Equip you, sir, cry out your old refrain, That noble band, go succour them amain! Translated by Moncrief 95 Enough you've heard how Rollant doth complain. His charger mounts each baron of the host; They spur with haste as through the pass they go. Nor was there one but thus to 's neighbour spoke: They've stayed too long below. CCXXXVII That even-tide is light as was the day; Their armour shines beneath the sun's clear ray, Hauberks and helms throw off a dazzling flame, And blazoned shields, flowered in bright array, Also their spears, with golden ensigns gay.

That Emperour, he canters on with rage, German bid: Angebot, bieten, Gebot, bitten, Ansage, ersuchen, reizen, Kostenvoranschlag. Kleid, anziehen, ankleiden, kleiden, bekleiden, verbinden, Kleidung, sichanziehen, das Kleid, Robe, anlegen. Schwimmer, schwimmen, Floss, schaukeln, gleiten, treiben, Prunkwagen. Sporn, anspornen, Ansporn, Abzweigleitung.

Kept him till Charles should call for him again. Trumpets they blew in rear and in the van, Till all again answered that olifant. Translated by Moncrief 97 That Emperour canters with fury mad, And all the Franks dismay and wonder have; There is not one but weeps and waxes sad And all pray God that He will guard Rollant Till in the field together they may stand; There by his side they'll strike as well they can.

No good there is in that; They're not in time; too long have they held back. Barons of France, in haste they spur and strain; There is not one that can his wrath contain That they are not with Rollant the Captain, Whereas he fights the Sarrazins of Spain. If he be struck, will not one soul remain. Sixty men are all now in his train! Never a king had better Capitains.

And all your souls redeem for Paradise! And let you there mid holy flowers lie! Better vassals than you saw never I. Douce land of France, o very precious clime, Laid desolate by such a sour exile! Barons of France, for me I've seen you die, And no support, no warrant could I find; God be your aid, Who never yet hath lied! I must not fail now, brother, by your side; Save I be slain, for sorrow shall I die.

Sir companion, let us again go strike! Mitte, mittel, in der Mitte, Mittler, viertelspatium. Translated by Moncrief 99 With twenty-four of all they rated highest; Was never man, for vengeance shewed such liking. Such valour should he shew that is bred knightly, And beareth arms, and a good charger rideth; In battle should be strong and proud and sprightly; Or otherwise he is not worth a shilling, Should be a monk in one of those old minsters, Where, day, by day, he'ld pray for us poor sinners.

Marsile you'd seen go as a brave baron, Sitting his horse, the which he calls Gaignon; He spurs it well, going to strike Bevon, That was the lord of Beaune and of Dijon, His shield he breaks, his hauberk has undone, German beginning: Anfang, anfangend, Beginn, beginnend, Anbrechend. Verteidigung, Abwehr, Nachhut, Wehr, Landesverteidigung.

So wrongfully you've slain my companions, A blow you'll take, ere we apart be gone, And of my sword the name I'll bid you con. Pagans cry out "Assist us now, Mahom! God of our race, avenge us on Carlon! Into this land he's sent us such felons That will not leave the fight before they drop. Though fled be Marsilies, He's left behind his uncle, the alcaliph German avail: Translated by Moncrief Who holds Alferne, Kartagene, Garmalie, And Ethiope, a cursed land indeed; The blackamoors from there are in his keep, Broad in the nose they are and flat in the ear, Fifty thousand and more in company.

Strike on, my lords, with burnished swords and keen; Contest each inch your life and death between, That neer by us Douce France in shame be steeped. When Charles my lord shall come into this field, Such discipline of Sarrazins he'll see, For one of ours he'll find them dead fifteen; He will not fail, but bless us all in peace. For so I recommend. CXLV Franks are but few; which, when the pagans know, Among themselves comfort and pride they shew; Says each to each: Charles the great should not have left you so; He's done us wrong, small thanks to him we owe; I've well avenged all ours on you alone.

Translated by Moncrief Strikes the alcaliph on his helm's golden mount; Flowers and stones fall clattering to the ground, Slices his head, to th'small teeth in his mouth; So brandishes his blade and flings him down; After he says: Thou'lt never say that Charles forsakes me now; Nor to thy wife, nor any dame thou'st found, Thou'lt never boast, in lands where thou wast crowned, One pennyworth from me thou'st taken out, Nor damage wrought on me nor any around.

CXLVII Oliver feels that death is drawing nigh; To avenge himself he hath no longer time; Through the great press most gallantly he strikes, He breaks their spears, their buckled shields doth slice, Their feet, their fists, their shoulders and their sides, Dismembers them: Charles ensign he'll not forget it quite; Aloud and clear "Monjoie" again he cries. Seufzen, Seufzer, Gier, Sucht. My companion, gallant for such ill fate! Neer shall man be, against thee could prevail. France the Douce, henceforth art thou made waste Of vassals brave, confounded and disgraced! Our Emperour shall suffer damage great.

Abfall, Verschwendung, verschwenden, vergeuden, verschwende, verschwendet, verschwendest, vergeudest, vergeudet, vergeude, Ausschuss. Translated by Moncrief So much he's bled, his eyes are dim and weak; Nor clear enough his vision, far or near, To recognise whatever man he sees; His companion, when each the other meets, Above the helm jewelled with gold he beats, Slicing it down from there to the nose-piece, But not his head; he's touched not brow nor cheek. This is Rollanz, who ever held you dear; And no mistrust was ever us between.

I struck you now: CL Oliver feels death's anguish on him now; And in his head his two eyes swimming round; Nothing he sees; he hears not any sound; German asks: Verzeihung, Begnadigung, Vergebung, verzeihen, entschuldigen, amnestieren, Entschuldigung. And he is dead, may stay no more, that count.

Rollanz the brave mourns him with grief profound; Nowhere on earth so sad a man you'd found. CLI So Rollant's friend is dead whom when he sees Face to the ground, and biting it with's teeth, Begins to mourn in language very sweet: Together we have spent such days and years; No harmful thing twixt thee and me has been. Now thou art dead, and all my life a grief. Dead are the Franks; he'd all of them to lose, Save the Archbishop, and save Gualter del Hum; He is come down out of the mountains, who Gainst Spanish men made there a great ado; Dead are his men, for those the pagans slew; Will he or nill, along the vales he flew, And called Rollant, to bring him succour soon: Gentle count, brave soldier, where are you?

For By thy side no fear I ever knew. Gualter it is, who conquered Maelgut, And nephew was to hoary old Drouin; My vassalage thou ever thoughtest good. Broken my spear, and split my shield in two; Gone is the mail that on my hauberk grew; This body of mine eight lances have gone through; I'm dying.

Yet full price for life I took. Sterbend, krepierend, Absterben, Sterben, Hinscheiden. Drehend, kehrend, wendend, drechselnd, Drehen, umwendend, umdrehend, Schwenke, Schwenkungen, Gangbar, Drehung. Lordings, take care they go not hence alive! Felon he's named that does not break their line, Recreant, who lets them any safety find! CLI Count Rollant is a noble and brave soldier, Gualter del Hum's a right good chevalier, That Archbishop hath shewn good prowess there; None of them falls behind the other pair; Through the great press, pagans they strike again. Come on afoot a thousand Sarrazens, And on horseback some forty thousand men.

Pause, brechen, Bruch, zerbrechen, Unterbrechung, unterbrechen, abbrechen, aufbrechen, Ruhepause, kaputtmachen, Riss. Sicherheit, Sicherheitsfaktor, Sicherung, Protektion, Schutz. Translated by Moncrief But well I know, to approach they never dare; Lances and spears they poise to hurl at them, Arrows, barbs, darts and javelins in the air. Great grief it was, when that Archbishop fell. CLV Turpin of Reims hath felt himself undone, Since that four spears have through his body come; Nimble and bold upon his feet he jumps; Looks for Rollant, and then towards him runs, Saying this word: While life remains, no good vassal gives up.

As Charles said, quarter he gave to none; He found him there, four hundred else among, Wounded the most, speared through the middle some, German barbs: Verwundet, angeschossen, wund, getroffen, verletzt, verwundete. So tells the tale, he that was there says thus, The brave Saint Giles, whom God made marvellous, Who charters wrote for th' Minster at Loum; Nothing he's heard that does not know this much.

That Emperour stood still and listened then: This day Rollanz, my nephew shall be dead: I hear his horn, with scarcely any breath. Nimbly canter, whoever would be there! Your trumpets sound, as many as ye bear! The pagans hear, they think it not a jest; Says each to each: He sits his horse, which men call Veillantif, Pricking him well with golden spurs beneath, Through the great press he goes, their line to meet, And by his side is the Archbishop Turpin.

We'll give again these pagans their attack; The better blows are those from Durendal. Charle is at hand, full vengeance he'll exact. An evil day for us did this day dawn! For we have lost our peers and all our lords. Charles his great host once more upon us draws, Of Frankish men we plainly hear the horns, "Monjoie " they cry, and great is their uproar. Translated by Moncrief The count Rollant is of such pride and force He'll never yield to man of woman born; Let's aim at him, then leave him on the spot!

CLXI Pagans are fled, enangered and enraged, Home into Spain with speed they make their way; The count Rollanz, he has not given chase, For Veillantif, his charger, they have slain; Will he or nill, on foot he must remain. To the Archbishop, Turpins, he goes with aid; I He's from his head the golden helm unlaced, Taken from him his white hauberk away, And cut the gown in strips, was round his waist; German aim: Gentle sir, give me your leave, I say; Our companions, whom we so dear appraised, Are now all dead; we cannot let them stay; I will go seek and bring them to this place, Arrange them here in ranks, before your face.

That Archbishop, he cannot help but sob, He lifts his hand, gives benediction; German alone: For my own death such anguish now I've got; I shall not see him, our rich Emperor. Whereon his grief and pity grow afresh. Anteil, Aktie, teilen, frighten: Through Rencesvals a little river ran; He would go there, fetch water for Rollant. Went step by step, to stumble soon began, So feeble he is, no further fare he can, For too much blood he's lost, and no strength has; Ere he has crossed an acre of the land, His heart grows faint, he falls down forwards and Death comes to him with very cruel pangs.

Translated by Moncrief The count Rollanz wakes from his swoon once more, Climbs to his feet; his pains are very sore; Looks down the vale, looks to the hills above; On the green grass, beyond his companions, He sees him lie, that noble old baron; 'Tis the Archbishop, whom in His name wrought God; There he proclaims his sins, and looks above; Joins his two hands, to Heaven holds them forth, And Paradise prays God to him to accord. In battles great and very rare sermons Against pagans ever a champion. God grant him now His Benediction!

CLXVII The count Rollant sees the Archbishop lie dead, Sees the bowels out of his body shed, And sees the brains that surge from his forehead; Between his two arm-pits, upon his breast, Crossways he folds those hands so white and fair. Then mourns aloud, as was the custom there: Takes the olifant, that no reproach shall hear, And Durendal in the other hand he wields; Further than might a cross-bow's arrow speed Goes towards Spain into a fallow-field; Climbs on a cliff; where, under two fair trees, Four terraces, of marble wrought, he sees.

There he falls down, and lies upon the green; He swoons again, for death is very near. Four terraces of polished marble shine; German angel: Translated by Moncrief On the green grass count Rollant swoons thereby. He's seized Rollant, and the arms, were at his side, "Charles nephew," he's said, "here conquered lies. To Araby I'll bear this sword as prize. They'll dub thee fool, to whom the tale is told. I've need of you no more; spent is my pride! We in the field have won so many fights, Combating through so many regions wide That Charles holds, whose beard is hoary white!

Be you not his that turns from any in flight! A good vassal has held you this long time; Never shall France the Free behold his like. So when he sees he never can it break, German beard: Translated by Moncrief Within himself begins he to complain: Durendal, white art thou, clear of stain! Beneath the sun reflecting back his rays! In Moriane was Charles, in the vale, When from heaven God by His angel bade Him give thee to a count and capitain; Girt thee on me that noble King and great. For this sword's sake sorrow upon me weighs, Rather I'ld die, than it mid pagans stay.

Lord God Father, never let France be shamed! Fleck, beflecken, flecken, Beize, beizen, Klecks, einflecken, beschmutzen, leicht schmutzig werden, sudeln. Destroy it can he not; which when he sees, Within himself he makes a plaint most sweet. Durendal, most holy, fair indeed! Relics enough thy golden hilt conceals: It is not right that pagans should thee seize, For Christian men your use shall ever be. Nor any man's that worketh cowardice! Many broad lands with you have I retrieved Which Charles holds, who hath the great white beard; Wherefore that King so proud and rich is he.

Translated by Moncrief His olifant and sword beneath him placed, Turning his head towards the pagan race, Now this he did, in truth, that Charles might say As he desired and all the Franks his race; -'Ah, gentle count; conquering he was slain! God, by Thy Virtues clean Me from my sins, the mortal and the mean, Which from the hour that I was born have been Until this day, when life is ended here!

So many lands where he went conquering, And France the Douce, the heroes of his kin, And Charlemagne, his lord who nourished him. But his own self, he's not forgotten him, He owns his faults, and God's forgiveness bids: Over his arm his head bows down and slips, He joins his hands: Verzeihung, Vergebung, Gnade, Erbarmen. There was no path nor passage anywhere Nor of waste ground no ell nor foot to spare Without a Frank or pagan lying there. Where's the Archbishop and that count Oliviers?

Where is Gerins and his comrade Gerers? Where's old Gerard of Russillun; oh, where The dozen peers I left behind me here? Weep from their eyes barons and chevaliers, A thousand score, they swoon upon the earth; Duke Neimes for them was moved with pity rare. Vengeance upon them do! Do right by me, my honour still renew! They've torn from me the flower of France the Douce. Ehre, ehren, beehren, verehren, Ehrung, Gewinn, Ehrerbietung erweisen, achten, hochachten, Aufwendung, huldigen.

Translated by Moncrief AOI. Of Spanish men, whose backs are turned their way, Franks one and all continue in their chase. When the King sees the light at even fade, On the green grass dismounting as he may, He kneels aground, to God the Lord doth pray That the sun's course He will for him delay, Put off the night, and still prolong the day.

An angel then, with him should reason make, Nimbly enough appeared to him and spake: Light needst not thou await. The flower of France, as God knows well, is slain; Thou canst be avenged upon that crimeful race. Barred their highways and every path they had. The River Sebre before them reared its bank, 'Twas very deep, marvellous current ran; No barge thereon nor dromond nor caland.

A god of theirs invoked they, Tervagant. And then leaped in, but there no warrant had. The armed men more weighty were for that, Many of them down to the bottom sank, Downstream the rest floated as they might hap; So much water the luckiest of them drank, That all were drowned, with marvellous keen pangs. When he once more rise, the sun is set.

Unsaddle them, take bridles from their heads, And through these meads let them refreshment get. CLXXXII That Emperour hath chosen his bivouac; The Franks dismount in those deserted tracts, Their saddles take from off their horses' backs, Bridles of gold from off their heads unstrap, Let them go free; there is enough fresh grass -No service can they render them, save that. Who is most tired sleeps on the ground stretched flat. Upon this night no sentinels keep watch.

Erfrischung, Labung, Labsal, Erquickung, Delikatesse. Uhr, zusehen, beobachten, zuschauen, anblicken, ansehen, Armbanduhr, schauen, blicken, gucken, bewachen. Charles, by God's grace, possessed its point of steel! His golden hilt he enshrined it underneath. By that honour and by that sanctity The name Joiuse was for that sword decreed. Barons of France may not forgetful be Whence comes the ensign "Monjoie," they cry at need; Wherefore no race against them can succeed. Charles laid him down, but sorrow for Rollant And Oliver, most heavy on him he had, For's dozen peers, for all the Frankish band He had left dead in bloody Rencesvals; He could not help, but wept and waxed mad, And prayed to God to be their souls' Warrant.

Weary that King, or grief he's very sad; He falls on sleep, he can no more withstand. Translated by Moncrief Through all those meads they slumber then, the Franks; Is not a horse can any longer stand, Who would eat grass, he takes it lying flat. Saint Gabriel the Lord to him hath sent, Whom as a guard o'er the Emperour he set; Stood all night long that angel by his head. In a vision announced he to him then A battle, should be fought against him yet, Significance of griefs demonstrated. Charles looked up towards the sky, and there Thunders and winds and blowing gales beheld, And hurricanes and marvellous tempests; Lightnings and flames he saw in readiness, That speedily on all his people fell; Apple and ash, their spear-shafts all burned, Also their shields, e'en the golden bosses, Crumbled the shafts of their trenchant lances, Crushed their hauberks and all their steel helmets.

His chevaliers he saw in great distress. Bears and leopards would feed upon them next; German announced: Blasend, Blasen, Sausen, Geblas, Gepus. Out of a wood came a great lion then, 'Twas very proud and fierce and terrible; His body dear sought out, and on him leapt, Each in his arms, wrestling, the other held; But he knew not which conquered, nor which fell.

That Emperour woke not at all, but slept. Himseemed in France, at Aix, on a terrace, And that he held a bruin by two chains; Out of Ardenne saw thirty bears that came, And each of them words, as a man might, spake Said to him: It is not right that he with you remain, He's of our kin, and we must lend him aid.

Translated by Moncrief On the green grass, beyond his friends some way. The angel of God so much to him made plain. Charles slept on till the clear dawn of day. CLXXXVII King Marsilies, fleeing to Sarraguce, Dismounted there beneath an olive cool; His sword and sark and helm aside he put, On the green grass lay down in shame and gloom; For his right hand he'd lost, 'twas clean cut through; Such blood he'd shed, in anguish keen he swooned. Before his face his lady Bramimunde Bewailed and cried, with very bitter rue; Twenty thousand and more around him stood, All of them cursed Carlun and France the Douce.

Then Apollin in's grotto they surround, And threaten him, and ugly words pronounce: This is our king; wherefore dost him confound? Who served thee oft, ill recompense hath found. Beiseite, Abseits, daneben, seitlich, zur Seite. Sarraguce, henceforth forlorn thou'lt be Of the fair king that had thee in his keep! All those our gods have wrought great felony, Who in battle this morning failed at need. That admiral will shew his cowardice, Unless he fight against that race hardy, Who are so fierce, for life they take no heed.

That Emperour, with his blossoming beard, Hath vassalage, and very high folly; Battle to fight, he will not ever flee. Great grief it is, no man may slay him clean. Long time that one came not, far off was he. Through forty realms he did his tribes rally; His great dromonds, he made them all ready, Barges and skiffs and ships and galleries; Neath Alexandre, a haven next the sea, In readiness he gat his whole navy.

That was in May, first summer of the year, All of his hosts he launched upon the sea. Marine, Kriegsmarine, Flotte, Seemacht, Schiffahrt. And when they come into the land of Spain All that country lightens and shines again: Of their coming Marsile has heard the tale. Lanterns they have, and carbuncles enough, That all night long and very clearly burn.

Upon that day they come to Sarragus. Segel, segeln, steuern, lavieren, befahren, besegeln, navigieren. Translated by Moncrief Clear is that day, and the sun radiant. Where in a field, midway, a laurel stands, On the green grass they spread a white silk mat, Set a fald-stool there, made of olifant; Sits him thereon the pagan Baligant, And all the rest in rows about him stand.

The lord of them speaks before any man: Throughout all Spain great war with me he's had; I will go seek him now, into Douce France, I will not cease, while I'm a living man, Till be slain, or fall between my hands. He will not fail, for all the gold neath heav'n, German barge: His men applaud, for so they counselled.

You I command to Sarraguce to fare. Marsiliun on my part you shall tell Against the Franks I'm come to give him help, Find I their host, great battle shall be there; Give him this glove, that's stitched with golden thread, On his right hand let it be worn and held; This little wand of fine gold take as well, Bid him come here, his homage to declare.

To France I'll go, and war with Charles again; Save at my feet he kneel, and mercy beg, Save all the laws of Christians he forget, I'll take away the crown from off his head. Translated by Moncrief Canter so far, to Sarraguce they come, Pass through ten gates, across four bridges run, Through all the streets, wherein the burghers crowd. Says each to each: What shall be done? For upon us confusion vile is come, Now have we lost our king Marsiliun, For yesterday his hand count Rollanz cut; We'll have no more Fair Jursaleu, his son; The whole of Spain henceforward is undone.

CXCV Horses they leave under an olive tree, Which by the reins two Sarrazins do lead; Those messengers have wrapped them in their weeds, To the palace they climb the topmost steep. When they're come in, the vaulted roof beneath, Marsilium with courtesy they greet: Those gods of ours in cowardice are steeped; In Rencesvals they wrought an evil deed, Our chevaliers they let be slain in heaps; My lord they failed in battle, in his need, Never again will he his right hand see; For that rich count, Rollanz, hath made him bleed. What shall become of me?

That I've no man to slay me clean! We're messengers from pagan Baligant; To Marsilies, he says, he'll be warrant, So sends him here his glove, also this wand. Vessels we have, are moored by Sebres bank, Barges and skiffs and gallies four thousand, Dromonds are there -- I cannot speak of that.

Our admiral is wealthy and puissant. And Charlemagne he will go seek through France German alas: Translated by Moncrief And quittance give him, dead or recreant. Far nearer here you'll light upon the Franks; For seven years he's stayed now in this land. Charles hath no fear for any living man. I am held fast by death, as ye may see. No son have I nor daughter to succeed; That one I had, they slew him yester-eve. Bid you my lord, he come to see me here.

Rights over Spain that admiral hath he, My claim to him, if he will take't, I yield; But from the Franks he then must set her free. Gainst Charlemagne I'll shew him strategy. Within a month from now he'll conquered be. Of Sarraguce ye'll carry him the keys, He'll go not hence, say, if he trusts in me. Bid the admiral, leading his host this way, Do battle here; this word to him convey. Then, sore afraid, their admiral they sought, To whom the keys of Sarraguce they brought. Where's Marsilies, to come to me was bound? Translated by Moncrief That Emperour was in the pass but now; To France the Douce he would be homeward-bound, Rereward he set, to save his great honour: His nephew there installed, Rollanz the count, And Oliver; the dozen peers around; A thousand score of Franks in armour found.

With Durendal he dealt him such a clout From his body he cut the right hand down. His son is dead, in whom his heart was bound, And the barons that service to him vowed; Fleeing he came, he could no more hold out. That Emperour has chased him well enow. The king implores, you'll hasten with succour, Yields to you Spain, his kingdom and his crown. Dead is Rollanz and that count Oliver, German armour: Tjost, tjostieren, die Tjost, das Turnier, Zweikampf im Turnier.

Throughout this land no chevalier is left, But he be slain, or drowned in Sebres bed. By river side the Franks have pitched their tents, Into this land so near to us they've crept; But, if you will, grief shall go with them hence. If he flee not, that Charlemagne the eld, King Marsilies shall somehow be avenged; For his right hand I'll pay him back an head. Their admiral, by whom they all were ruled, Called up to him Gemalfin, whom he knew: Translated by Moncrief "I give command of all my hosts to you.