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The Public Context of Holocaust Research: Forces cultural forces influencing its character. Holocaust Survivors and Holocaust Research Chapter 3. Yad Vashem new facet to the picture emerges, of the story beyond the archive and the people who see Holocaust research as a Zionist Research Institute: The Vision of Ben-Zion Dinur 4. Searching for Modes of Research and Teaching Chapter 6.
First Efforts as their mission and responsibility. Agreements and Disagreements Chapter 9.
The Beginning of University Teaching Chapter Dinur's Rearguard Battle Chapter Consolidation, change and controversy Hb: The Conference on Manifestations of Jewish Pb: Leadership, Rescue and Academic Teaching Chapter This is especially important in modern China because belonging to any minority group includes a variety of benefits including reduced restrictions on the number of children and easier admission standards to tertiary education. It has been asserted by some that the Jews who have historically resided in various places in China originated with the Lost Ten Tribes of the exiled ancient Kingdom of Israel who relocated to the areas of present-day China.
Traces of some ancient Jewish rituals have been observed in some places. One well-known group was the Kaifeng Jews , who are purported to have traveled from Persia to India during the mid- Han Dynasty and later migrated from the Muslim-inhabited regions of northwestern China modern day Gansu province to Henan province during the early Northern Song Dynasty Three steles with inscriptions found at Kaifeng bear some historical suggestions.
The second tablet, dated found in the synagogue Xuanzhang Daojing Si details the Jews' religious practices. The third is dated and commemorates the re-rebuilding of the Qingzhen si synagogue and recaps the information from the other two steles. Father Joseph Brucker believed Matteo Ricci 's manuscripts indicate there were only approximately ten or twelve Jewish families in Kaifeng in the late 16th and early 17th century, and that they had reportedly resided there for five or six hundred years. It was also stated in the manuscripts that there was a greater number of Jews in Hangzhou.
This could be taken to suggest that loyal Jews fled south along with the soon-to-be crowned Emperor Gaozong to Hangzhou. In fact, the stele mentions how the Jews "abandoned Bianliang" Kaifeng after the Jingkang Incident. Many Jewish communities were established in China in the Middle Ages. However, not all left evidence of their existence. The following are those known today: Kaifeng , Hangzhou , Ningbo , Yangzhou , and Ningxia. The contemporary term for Jews in use among Chinese today is Youtairen Chinese: Jewish dietary law kashruth , which forbids the eating of, among other foods, non- ruminant mammals, shellfish and reptiles , would have most likely caused Jewish communities to stand out from the surrounding mainstream Chinese population [ original research?
Jews have also been called the Blue-Hat Hui Chinese: Xu Xin translates this phrase as "Chosen people, endowed by God, and contented with their lives and work". The earliest evidence showing the presence of Jews in China is from the beginning of the 8th century: The text is thirty-seven lines in length and was written on paper, a product then manufactured only in China.
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China was a destination for Radhanite Jews who brought boys, female slaves and eunuchs from Europe according to the Book of Roads and Kingdoms by ibn Khordadbeh. Sources indicate that Jews in China were often mistaken for Muslims by other Chinese. The text spoke of the reinforcement of a tax levied on "dissenters" and of a government decree that the Jews come en-masse to Beijing , the capital. Famous Venetian traveler Marco Polo , who visited China, then under the Yuan Dynasty , in the late 13th century, described the prominence of Jewish traders in Beijing. Similar references can be found in the notes of the Franciscan John of Montecorvino , first archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Beijing in the early 14th century, and the writings of Ibn Batuta , an Arabian envoy to the Mongol Empire in the middle of the 14th century.
Genghis Khan called both Jews and Muslims Huihui when he forbade Jews and Muslims from practicing kosher and halal preparation of their food, calling both of them "slaves" and forcing them to eat Mongol food , and banned them from practicing circumcision. Yet you do not eat our food or drink. How can this be right? Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman [Muslim] Huihui and Zhuhu [Jewish] Huihui, no matter who kills [the animal] will eat [it] and must cease slaughtering sheep themselves, and cease the rite of circumcision.
During the Ming Dynasty — , a Ming emperor conferred seven surnames upon the Jews, by which they are identifiable today: The first modern Western record of Jews residing in China is found in the records of the 17th-century Jesuit missionaries in Beijing. Ricci mentioned this man's name as Ngai, who has since been identified by the French sinologist Paul Pelliot as a Jew named Ai T'ien, who explained that the community he belonged to was monotheistic , or believing in only one God.
It is recorded that when he saw a Christian image of Mary with the child Jesus , he took it to be a picture of Rebecca with Esau or Jacob , figures from Hebrew Scripture. Ngai Ai Tian, Ai T'ien declared that he had come from Kaifeng , and stated that this was the site of a large Jewish population.
It was later discovered that the Jewish community had a synagogue Libai si , which was constructed facing the west , and housed a number of written materials and books. The Jews who managed the synagogue were called " Mullahs ". Floods and fire repeatedly destroyed the books of the Kaifeng synagogue, they obtained some from Ningxia and Ningbo to replace them, another Hebrew roll of law was bought from a Muslim in Ning-keang-chow in Shen-se Shanxi , who acquired it from a dying Jew at Canton.
Crossworshipers Christians were called "Hwuy who abstain from animals without the cloven foot", Muslims were called "Hwuy who abstain from pork", Jews were called "Hwuy who extract the sinews removes the sciatic nerve ". At Kaifeng, Jews were called "Teaou kin keaou "extract sinew religion".
Jews and Muslims in China shared the same name for synagogue and mosque, which were both called "Tsing-chin sze" Qingzhen si "Temple of Purity and Truth", the name dated to the 13th century. The synagogue and mosques were also known as Le-pae sze Libai si. A tablet indicated that Judaism was once known as "Yih-tsze-lo-nee-keaou" israelitish religion and synagogues known as Yih-tsze lo nee leen Israelitish Temple , but it faded out of use.
A Muslim in Nanjing told Semedo that four families of Jews converted to Islam since they were the last Jews in Nanjing, their numbers diminishing. Various Jewish Chinese individuals worked in government service and owned big properties in China in the 17th century. During the Taiping rebellion of the s, the Jews of Kaifeng apparently suffered a great deal and were dispersed.
Following this dislocation, they returned to Kaifeng, yet continued to be small in number and to face hardships, as is recorded in the early 20th century. Shanghai 's first wave of Jews came in the second half of the 19th century, many being Mizrahi Jews from Iraq. The first Jew who arrived there was Elias David Sassoon , who, about the year , opened a branch in connection with his father's Bombay house.
The community was composed mainly of "Asian," Sephardi German, and Russian Jews, though there were a few of Austrian, French, and Italian origin among them. Jews took a considerable part in developing trade in China, and several served on the municipal councils, among them being Silas Aaron Hardoon , partner in the firm of E. During the early days of Jewish settlement in Shanghai Jews were involved in the trade in opium and Bombay cotton yarn. Contemporaneous sources estimated the Jewish population in China in — including Manchukuo — at 36, source: Jewish life in Shanghai had really taken off with the arrival of the British.
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Mizrahi Jews from the Middle East came as traders via India and Hong Kong and established some of the leading trading companies in the second half of the 19th century. At the early 20th century many Russian Jews fleeing pogroms in several towns in Russian Empire decided to move to northeast China for permanent settlement Rabbi Aharon Moshe Kiselev served in Harbin from until his death in These included, among others, Dr.
Abraham Kaufman , who played a leading role in the Harbin Jewish community after ,  the parents of future Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert , and Teodor Parnicki at the age of According to estimates, over 20, Jews lived in Harbin and played a key role in the shaping of local politics, economy and international trade. Sun Yat-sen , founder of the Republic of China , held admiration for the Jewish people and Zionism , and he also saw parallels between the persecution of Jews and the domination of China by the Western powers.
He stated, "Though their country was destroyed, the Jewish nation has existed to this day All lovers of democracy cannot help but support wholeheartedly and welcome with enthusiasm the movement to restore your wonderful and historic nation, which has contributed so much to the civilization of the world and which rightfully deserve [sic] an honorable place in the family of nations. The Japanese occupation of Northeast China in and the establishment of Manchukuo in had a negative impact on the Harbin Jewish community 13, in Until , the Russian Jews were about 5, in Shanghai.
Another wave of 18, Jews from Germany , Austria , and Poland immigrated to Shanghai in the late s and early s. In , the occupying Japanese army required these 18, Jews, formally known as "stateless refugees," to relocate to an area of 0. Many of the Jews in China later moved to found the modern state of Israel. Shanghai was an important safe-haven for Jewish refugees during the Holocaust, since it was one of the few places in the world where one didn't need a visa.
However, it was not easy to get there. The Japanese, who controlled the city, preferred to look the other way. However,some corrupt officials also exploited the plight of the Jews. By , nearly 20, European Jews had found shelter there. Late in the war, Nazi representatives pressured the Japanese army to devise a plan to exterminate Shanghai's Jewish population, and this pressure eventually became known to the Jewish community's leadership.
However, the Japanese had no intention of further provoking the anger of the Allies after their already notorious invasion of China and their additional invasion of a number of other Asian nations, so they delayed the German request until the War ended. In general, in the period from to , more than 40, Jews came to China to do business or in search of a safe haven. Three prominent non-Chinese lived in China from the establishment of the People's Republic of China to the contemporary period: Structured Jewish life returned to Beijing in with the founding of Kehillat Beijing, an egalitarian lay-led community serving ex-patriate Jews from all over the world.
Sara Imas, the Shanghai-born daughter of Shanghai's Jewish Club president, Leiwi Imas, became the first Chinese Jewish immigrant to Israel after the two countries established formal diplomatic relations in Leiwi Imas, who had to leave Germany for Poland in , arrived in Shanghai the same year.