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History Behind the Glassmaker Series | Exciting Historical Novels | Peter Cooke
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During the Elizabethan era, William Cecil, became the most important courtier of his age. His family background gave no indication of the heights to which William would attain. During the turbulent years. Peter Cooke — Author K is for: Perhaps the best viewpoint on kissing comes from the recorded observations of various foreign alien visitors. Glass in the 18th century, a time of great innovation.
Peter Cooke — Author Glass in the 18th century The discovery of lead crystal galvanised the glass industry into a flurry of creativity as never before. This century, possibly more than any other, saw a bewildering proliferation of new styles, new techniques and above all decorative design of the highest order. The brilliance of lead crystal is due to a higher refractive indexPeter Cooke Author caused by the lead content.
Ordinary glass has a refrac. Glass — Everthing you need to know about it. Peter Cooke- Author Glass What is it? When heated to a high enough temperature, they melt to form glass. When the first atomic bomb was exploded in the desert at the White Sands proving ground, New Mexico, the heat wave from the bomb turned the surface of the desert to glass. In the crater, the desert sa. A to Z of the Elizabethan era. Peter Cooke — Author J is for: She had six or more long ropes of pearls and one containing twenty-five nutmeg sized ones, as well as many other smaller ropes that were attached to her elaborate gowns and head-ware.
The Spanish ambassador Mendoza was expelled. Although Sir Anthony Babington is named as the main plotter in this attempt to depose Queen Elizabeth and set Mary Stuart on the throne, it was far from being that simple. In order to understand it, we must look at how the recruitment of Babington took place and its implications. Ballard, educated at Cambridge and Rheims, was among the Catholic priests sent to England in as a part of the Catholic missionary efforts.
He probably returned to the continent in to consult with clergymen of the Catholic Church and to make a pilgrimage to Rome. In , however, Ballard was in England again, visiting the Catholic faithful. Savage admitted to Ballard that he had sworn an oath to assassinate Queen Elizabeth a resolution made in after consultation with three friends, Dr. Later that same year, Ballard returned once again to the continent to meet with Charles Paget and the Spanish Ambassador Bernardino de Mendoza , who was implicated in the Throughout Plot and exiled in Ballard reported to them that English Catholics were prepared to mount an insurrection against Elizabeth, if they could be assured of foreign support.
Nevertheless, Ballard did receive general assurances from Paget and Mendoza that support would be available. Ballard was also instructed by Paget and Mendoza to return to England to secure commitments on the part of leading English Catholics. Before the end of the month, Ballard was back in England and recruited Anthony Babington. He thus became aware of Babington from the time he was recruited. Walsingham used two agent provocateurs, Gilbert Gifford and Bernard Maude.
They were able to manipulate to Catholic dissidents, John Savage and John Ballard who were outspoken against Queen Elizabeth and believed that the killing of a tyrant was lawful because of the Papal Bull. Gifford had been recruited in to re-establish communications with Mary Stuart which had been stopped by Walsingham after the Throughout Plot.
Gifford had been arrested on his return to England and under the threat of torture and the promise of rich rewards, he became a double agent. As a double agent, Gifford was known as No.
Although Walsingham had ensured that Mary could no longer receive correspondence, he recognized that she could hardly then be found guilty in plots that she was unaware were taking place and more significantly, had not approved. Walsingham and Gifford, therefore, devised a new channel of correspondence for Mary that could be carefully scrutinized by Walsingham and yet, would appear secure to Mary and her supporters.
History Behind the Glassmaker Series
For over a year, Walsingham and Paulet had ensured that Mary had no contact with her agents overseas. To re-establish a channel of correspondence, Walsingham and Gifford arranged for a local beer brewer to act as the facilitator. The brewer would move letters in and out of Chartley by placing them in a watertight casing that could be placed in the bunghole of a beer keg. The mechanics, therefore, were really quite simple yet sufficiently clandestine not to arose suspicion.
Chateauneuf gave Gifford a letter and thus, the whole arrangement began. Walsingham was certainly aware of almost every aspect of the plot. By late , he deployed his agents against all the major figures of the conspiracy.
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Barnard Maude reported on Ballard, until the conspirators discovered him sometime after Ballard had returned to England. Robert Poley carefully watched the French Ambassador as well as Babington. Moreover, there were most probably still other agents reporting to Walsingham on relevant matters.
Encouraged by a letter received from Morgan, Mary wrote, on 28 June, a letter to Babington that assured the conspirator of his status as her friend. Upon receiving this letter, Babington sent in reply all the details of the present plot. Babington informed Mary of the foreign plans for invasion; the plans of English Catholics for insurrection; and, his own plans to take six men in his charge to rescue Mary from Chartley accompanied by a hundred men, and to send Savage with another six men to assassinate Elizabeth.
It was unnecessary for Babington to inform Mary of these plans, but he did so probably seeking rewards for the men of his charge. On 18 July Mary replied; she commended and praised all aspects of the plot. The letter also contains her request for further details; and also counsels Babington on the importance that the plan be supported by a foreign invasion.
Walsingham had his proof. He was imprisoned for almost one year for his part in the plot. Like Curle, he was interrogated in He was freed in September to return to France. Ballard was arrested on 4 August Under torture he confessed and incriminated Babington. On 20 September, Ballard and Babington were drawn and quartered in an especially cruel display. Queen Elizabeth was so appalled at this savagery that she ordered that Savage and the other four men should be hung.
Queen Elizabeth understood that to execute Mary, while it would preserve her own security in the interim, it would challenge the whole institution upon which her authority ultimately resided, creating a dangerous precedent.