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I was born on November 21, , in the small village of Hopwas, near Tamworth, Staffordshire, England.

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My mother was a pre-war historical novelist E. Weale and she always encouraged me to write. I was first published at the age of 12 in The Tettenhall Observer, a local weekly newspaper. Between I wrote 56 stories for them, many serialized. In I collated these into a book entitled I was born on November 21, , in the small village of Hopwas, near Tamworth, Staffordshire, England.

In I collated these into a book entitled Fifty Tales from the Fifties. My father was a dedicated bank manager and I was destined for banking from birth. I accepted it but never found it very interesting. During the early years when I was working in Birmingham, I spent most of my lunch hours in the Birmingham gun quarter. I would have loved to have served an apprenticeship in the gun trade but my father would not hear of it. Shooting hunting was my first love, and all my spare time was spent in this way. In I designed and made a bore shotgun, intending to follow it up with six more, but I did not have the money to do this.

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I still use the Guy N. During I operated a small shotgun cartridge loading business but this finished when my components suppliers closed down and I could no longer obtain components at competitive prices. My writing in those days only concerned shooting. I wrote regularly for most of the sporting magazines, interspersed with fiction for such magazines as the legendary London Mystery Selection, a quarterly anthology for which I contributed 18 stories between In I launched my second hand bookselling business which eventually became Black Hill Books.

Originally my intention was to concentrate on this and maybe build it up to a full-time business which would enable me to leave banking. Although we still have this business, writing came along and this proved to be the vehicle which gave me my freedom. This was followed by a couple more, but it was Night of the Crabs in which really launched me as a writer.

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It was a bestseller, spawning five sequels, and was followed by another 60 or so horror novels through to the mid's. Amicus bought the film rights to Crabs in and this gave me the chance to leave banking and by my own place, including my shoot, on the Black Hill.

Thirst II: The Plague by Guy N. Smith

Smith Fan Club was formed in and still has an active membership. We hold a convention every year at my home which is always well attended. Around this time I became Poland's best-selling author. Phantom Press published two GNS books each month, mostly with print runs of around , I have written much, much more than just horror; crime and mystery as Gavin Newman , and children's animal novels as Jonathan Guy.

I have written a dozen or so shooting and countryside books, a book on Writing Horror Fiction A. With plus books to my credit, I was looking for new challenges. In I formed my own publishing company and began to publish my own books. They did rather well and gave me a lot of satisfaction. We plan to publish one or two every year. Still regretting that I had not served an apprenticeship in the gun trade, the best job of my life dropped into my lap in when I was offered the post of Gun Editor of The Countryman's Weekly, a weekly magazine which covers all field sports.

This entails my writing five illustrated feature articles a week on guns, cartridges, deer stalking, big game hunting etc.

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Alongside this we have expanded our mail order second hand crime fiction business, still publish a few books, and I find as much time as possible for shooting. Jean, my wife, helps with the business. Our four children, Rowan, Tara, Gavin and Angus have all moved away from home but they visit on a regular basis. If the interstitial fluid has a higher concentration of solutes than the intracellular fluid it will pull water out of the cell. This condition is called hypertonic and if enough water leaves the cell it will not be able to perform essential chemical functions.

If the interstitial fluid becomes less concentrated the cell will fill with water as it tries to equalize the concentrations. This condition is called hypotonic and can be dangerous because it can cause the cell to swell and rupture.

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One set of receptors responsible for thirst detects the concentration of interstitial fluid. The other set of receptors detects blood volume.

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This is one of two types of thirst and is defined as thirst caused by loss of blood volume hypovolemia without depleting the intracellular fluid. This can be caused by blood loss, vomiting, and diarrhea. This loss of volume is problematic because if the total blood volume falls too low the heart cannot circulate blood effectively and the eventual result is hypovolemic shock.

The vascular system responds by constricting blood vessels thereby creating a smaller volume for the blood to fill. This mechanical solution however has definite limits and usually must be supplemented with increased volume. The loss of blood volume is detected by cells in the kidneys and triggers thirst for both water and salt via the renin-angiotensin system. Hypovolemia leads to activation of the renin angiotensin system RAS and is detected by cells in the kidney.

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When these cells detect decreased blood flow due to the low volume they secrete an enzyme called renin. Renin then enters the blood where it catalyzes a protein called angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is then almost immediately converted by an enzyme already present in the blood to the active form of the protein, angiotensin II. Angiotensin II then travels in the blood until it reaches the posterior pituitary gland and the adrenal cortex , where it causes a cascade effect of hormones that cause the kidneys to retain water and sodium, increasing blood pressure.

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Osmometric thirst occurs when the solute concentration of the interstitial fluid increases. This increase draws water out of the cells, and they shrink in volume. The solute concentration of the interstitial fluid increases by high intake of sodium in diet or by the drop in volume of extracellular fluids such as blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid due to loss of water through perspiration, respiration, urination and defecation.

The increase in interstitial fluid solute concentration causes water to migrate from the cells of the body, through their membranes, to the extracellular compartment, by osmosis , thus causing cellular dehydration. Clusters of cells osmoreceptors in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis OVLT and subfornical organ SFO , which lie outside of the blood brain barrier can detect the concentration of blood plasma and the presence of angiotensin II in the blood.

They can then activate the median preoptic nucleus which initiates water seeking and ingestive behavior. In addition, there are visceral osmoreceptors. Because sodium is also lost from the plasma in hypovolemia, the body's need for salt proportionately increases in addition to thirst in such cases. In adults over the age of 50 years, the body's thirst sensation reduces and continues diminishing with age, putting this population at increased risk of dehydration.

According to preliminary research, quenching of thirst — the homeostatic mechanism to stop drinking — occurs via two neural phases: Thirst quenching varies among animal species, with dogs, camels, sheep, goats, and deer replacing fluid deficits quickly when water is available, whereas humans and horses may need hours to restore fluid balance. The areas of the brain that contribute to the sense of thirst are mainly located in the midbrain and the hindbrain.

Specifically, the hypothalamus appears to play a key role in the regulation of thirst. The area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarii signal to the subfornical organ and to the lateral parabrachial nucleus. The median preoptic nucleus and the subfornical organ receive signals of decreased volume [ clarification needed ] and increased osmolite concentration. Finally, the signals are received in cortex areas of the forebrain [4] where ultimately the conscious craving arises.

The subfornical organ and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis contribute to regulating the overall bodily fluid balance by signalling to the hypothalamus to form vasopressin , which is later released by the pituitary gland. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Thirst disambiguation. For other uses, see Thirsty disambiguation.