But the old ground-plan of the Palace still stands four square, partinlK roofed over in places, as first conceived by its great architect, with its Central Court clearly defined and the main entrances to it from North and South easily discernible. VI'J 1 N filing I'i. It can be claimed for this vast structure, of which we have here a novel glimpse, that, ruined as it is, it has supplied quite exceptional infor- mation as to its original disposition. The frescoes still connected with many of the walls give a distinctive character to certain parts, while, not to speak of the store-jars still ranged in the Magazines, the masses of objects brought out in the various rooms often throw a light on the uses that they had served.
The clay archives in the highly advanced Linear Script give an insight into the everyday business transactions. Altogether we are enabled here to reconstruct a picture of the daily life of the inmates such as is not even approached by any other great building of Antiquity. Nor, it may be thought, can any other site quite compare with the vast range of underlying levels, marking successive occupation, here so clearlv delimited by catastrophic strokes due to no human agency.
Of these seismic strata — that thus supply a chronological basis — the Minoan series go back through six different phases of Palatial history, while others still relate to stages of comparatively civilized life. Below these again— for the depth of some seven additional metres to the virgin rock -lies layer after layer of primitive Neolithic settlements. Plans for Structural Re-constitution carrtf. Alternative of re-supporting upper Stoiies or of complete ruin: Earlier materials employed unsatisfactory: Pro- blem solved by use of ferro concrete: Results tested by Earthquakes of ipMi and ryjo ; Lateral reconstruction for buttressing important structures: I a pottery -votive figure of Ox ; Sanctuary character of Columnar Chamber: Removal of fresco remains to Museum, but replicas of important frescoes replaced in situ on walls: Restored plan of area: Painted relief compositions of the two Poiticoes relating to bull-sports: Restora- tion of upper elements of North-West Porch; West Portico of Northern Entrance Passage as restored ; Section of its painted reliefs replaced in replica, showing charging bull and olive-tree: The Mixoax Goddess as Patroness of the Pai.
Sacrifice of Corrida Bulls and its Survival. Pillar -Shrine of Goddess depicted, overlooking Bull-ring: Anatolian source of bull-sports — divinity there male: Varied aspects of Minoan Goddess ; Her interest in lames: Her Sacred Swing — terra-cotta model: Doves perched on its side-posts — emblems of divine possession: New Chryselephantine figure ot Goddess in garb resembling Taureador's: Classical profile, like Cambridge Goddess; Emergence of new statuette with similar features: Her aid constantly invoked by her prottgi's of Bull-ring: A Vision ofcomfoit in direst need: Sacrifice of bull of Corrida on Thisbe seal-type — a priestly Matador-.
Gem-types showing saci ifieed bull on Table. Sacrificed bull on Table in IE Triad. Funereal sacrifice of hulls ; Offertory animals depicted as coursing in Arena ; Survivals of Minoan bull-sports -The-saliun Taurokathapsia: Aitcmis Tauiopolos and Tauroholos ; Survival of Minoan hull- sports as religious function at Miletos an old Cretan foundation: Bull sacrifice of the liu.
Unexpected develop- ment on West border: Discot ery of new outer Enceinte: Platform of terrace and converging cause- wars: II, those of r, M. Ill ; 'Koulouras cleared out at end of M. II ; Their Sanitary object ; also served as blind wells ; M. Part of purple gypsum Table with architectonic moulding: Room with uten-ils for domestic Snake Cult; Proto-palatial M. Extension along West Section of Northern border: Eortiti- catory character of Enceinte: Early Cretan and Aegean foitilkation. Series of later deposits representing M. I b Polychrome example: Colour changes in M.
Illustrated by naturalistic examples of M. Ill; Minoan fondness for grotesque natural designs: Fate example at Harageh c. Parallel decorative evolution of whorl-shells in New Mexico. Development of 'Marine style' begins in M. Later examples on metal vases; Repousse reliefs of compound bivalves on polycliiome vessels: Distri- buted Iron Royal Knossian factory: This lass first distinguished here: Petalled vase and flower — floral attach- ment mutated from jewellery: Polychrome vases with similar neck-rinu: Utensils deposited in large jar: Cvlindneal vessels with cups attached — for snakes to drink from: Theory that the tubes were for chthonie libations invented ad hoc: Real origin of ' Snake tubes' from Minoan drain sections — two varieties of these adapted: Simpler class, without loops, the earlier: Rally type at Kumasa: Common Ring Snake a haunter of drains — still abounds on site of Knossos: Tripod Snake table— Lithuanian parallel: Tripod hearth with ashes inside: Ritual transportation of ashes — Russian custom: Snakes as spirits of the household: Snake house guardian among Greeks: Household snake Macedonian village — fed bv British officers: Ritual vessel of honeycomb shape with feeding snake; Cietan snake attacks wild honeycomb for grubs ; Other snake vessels from domestic shrine: Snake table in I'gypt: Rustic clay idols of sanctuaries — cylindrical base derived from bell shaped M.
Its appeal anee round movable tripod hearths at Knossos: Such hearths also used as altars: Source of motive in markings on Addei's sides: Motive as executed round L. Snake as beneficent Genius m primitive cult, but, as attribute of Chthonie Goddess, acquires more awesome significance: Ceramic use in L. II, surviving in L. Motherly relation of Goddess to Snakes: Altars and Ritual of the Knossian Goddess: Shafts of Axes added in plaster: Predecessor of Classical Altars: Neighbouring paved Minoan Street: Urban region packed with large Mansions- -House remains traced under Modern high-road: Paved roadway leading to Temple Tomb: Middle Compartment contain- ing gypsum cists , Chancel and inner shrine or adxton: Altar with incurved sides: Drain for escape of blood of sacrifice: Class of Altars or sacral bases with incurved --ides: Pyramidal gypsum stand — for base of Double Axes: Absence ot later examples at Knossos: Eater painted frieze in Megainn Porch.
Srulptuied detail, ot tiie two cieat tln. Ill P aiai'e at Rnossos: Em- bossed gold jiiatis lound in limim like tliosi in shaft Graves. Latest of the continuous ceramic senes in Th'doi as in Shalt haves. Eater oa upa- U"H ot I holm in E. In nick tombs at Mvtvnae: Minoan seal-tvpes taken over onto sh lar: Connexions with Xllth Ihn.
Valuable 1 hronological basis: Mmoan sources of Mainland types: Mmoan craftsmen working in Mainland centres: I b stratum inside Palace, due to occupation without a real break from L. I a to close of E. II Knossos the exclusive snitri e of the litiest outstanding at hicvenient of I. Reflection of a povurful Dynasty. Crowing influent e of M. Ill Ceramic tvpes out-ide lete: I a style shan d by Mainland: II — an enclave in J.. Sources of the-e palatial fabrics: Piototypes in puiious nieta's: Kellie lion of tiescoes: Marine motives- 0 topus types: Tritmt c ,1'soi iated with ritual object'.
Elements diavvn from p. Echoes ot Xile-bank ' t r. Ill v t i'ii at' of Nilotie motives: Ali'ence of nnporti d I. II pott iv in l. Intlui in e of -Via Id Iie-'ioes'. Motives taken from frescoes depicting Pillar Shrines of Double-Axe Cult — Chequer work ot facades; Surviving pillar-shrine motives on late bowls from Mycenae — their appearance per saltum: Original West Facade line of Palace with Entrance running East, together with outer enceinte and its approaches Isometric view of Outer Entrance System on West partly completed: Plan and Section of Plaster Basin Plan and Section of M.
I a House B beneath ' Kouloura' 3 Fig. Section of Purple Gypsum Table I a with ongina cording indicated Section of Rosette Band, South Props laeum. Isometric A iew ot Temple-Tomb partly reconstructed showing constructional details. Chryselephantine Image of Goddess with Alale Koin-elothing: Pacino ,, XXIX. Knossos Pacino a-c, Al. Store Jar or Pithos from Magazine of M. I a Circular Stone Table: Yeined Limestone Statuette of Goddess, holding Snake.
Stepway by High Priest's House. Probably constructed in Sections. Unique conditions of Excavation on site of Knossos ; Alternative of re-supporting upper Stories or of complete ruin ; Earlier materials employed unsatisfactory ; Problem solved by use of ferro-concrcte ; Results listed bv Earthquakes of 11 26 and K jo ; Lateral reconstruction for buttressing important structures ; Reconstruction of South- J l ist Columnar Chamber — Pillar Crypt below,- Deposit of L.
They had here been held up in a principal degree by a timber framework, the huge posts and beams of which, together with the shafts of the columns, were either supplied by the cypress forests, then existing in the neighbouring glens, or by similar material imported from over sea. The reduction, either by chemical processes or by actual burning of these wooden supports to mere crumbling masses of charcoal, had thus lett vast voids in the interspaces. The upper floors and structures had indeed — in a manner that sometimes seemed almost miraculous — been held approximate!
Earlier materials employed unsatis- factory. Problem solved by- use of ferro- conciete. For the benefit of those who had not an opportunity of following in a practical capacity the long course of this arduous work, it is necessary once more to repeat that those who took part in it were con- fronted with only two alternatives. Either, at every step, the overhang mass had to be re-supported, or excavation itsell would have reduced the remains of the upper stories — held up and preserved to us in such a marvellous fashion — to one indistinguishable heap of ruins. Such a catastrophic result was combated at first by means of wooden beams and posts, which, however, in the Cretan climate of violent changes showed a rapid tendency to rot.
These were at first replaced by piers of masonry and shafts and capitals ot columns laboriously cut out of stone, while upper pavements were supported by means of brickwork arches resting on iron girders. The expense of procuring from over sea girders of a length and calibre sufficient to span the larger halls was itself prohibi- tive. Owing, moreover, to the exposed character of the access to Candia by sea previous to the construction of the new- port, and the frequency of fierce North-Westerly gales, the landing of the necessary materials was always a risky operation, and it has been already mentioned that two of the largest girders shipped from England lie at the bottom of the old harbour.
Under these circumstances the introduction of the use of reinforced concrete was a real godsend, besides ensuring the additional advantage that the new work is at once distinguishable by the spectator. Piers and columns, with their capitals superimposed, could thus be moulded and the platforms of whole floors laid on over even the largest spaces, while the floors themselves at the same time have given a much necessary compaction to the surrounding walls. The work ot reconstitution already carried out in the important blocks throughout both wings of the Palace has been now tested by tw r o earthquakes.
The serious shock of June 26, , that ruined houses in the neighbouring village and damaged the Museum in Candia, left even the upper structures of the Palace practically unscathed. That of February It is to be observed that in the course of this work of conservation it was found advisable in places to go beyond the immediate objective and to carry up to a certain height walls and structures iorming lateral supports to parts of the fabric that it seemed desirable to preserve irom shocks in a special manner.
An instance of this is given below 1 in the case of the upper structures of the North-West Porch, which served in fact for a buttress to the high back wall of the West Portico of the Northern Entrance Passage — itself of such importance as having served as a field for the noble frieze of stucco reliefs relating to bull-grappling scenes. Adjoining the Propylaeum on this side was what appears to have been a little sanctuary chamber with a single column, the lower support for which was supplied by a gypsum pillar rising in the middle of a small corresponding space below, which, according to various analogies, would have represented a sanctuary crypt.
Access was probably obtained to this, as in other cases, by means of a ladder from a trap-door above. The upper chamber — recently restored, largely on account of the support it gave to the adjoining Propylaeum wall, and reproduced for the first time in Fig, t — is itself of considerable interest in its bearing on the tine entrance system to the Palace from the South-West. It communicated with the light-area in front of the South Propylaeum by means of what has been interpreted as a double doorway, while two steps in its North Wall led down to it from the adjoining area at the back of the Propylaeum.
Outside this doorway and the threshold in the adjoining corner, there was brought to light at an earlier period of the Excavation, in a pit about four metres deep, a considerable deposit of mature L. A figurine of an ox here occurred, and, among hundreds of small cups of the usual offertory class, were specimens covered with an unfixed pigment of a brilliant red, a ritual feature. Columnar Chamber Pillar crypt below Depositor I..
Sanctuaiy character anc l stood in some ritual connexion with the entrance system on its of Colum- nar borders. A problem different from that concerned with the actual structures was presented by the con- siderable remains of painted stucco decoration iound throughout the Palace, sometimes still clinging to the walls but to a much greater extent fallen from them. But it seemed a dutv of the excavator to preserve, wherever practicable, the history of the building by replacing in situ — even when it entailed some reconstitution of the walls- -replicas ot the fresco designs as completed from the existing fragments.
Contained in the pocket of Yol. Happily, in attaining this desirable result, I had at hand the invaluable services of the artist, Monsieur E. Gillieron, his, of whose practised skill in reproducing the masterpieces of Minoan Art the preceding Volumes of this work bear sufficient evidence. In this way, as by no other means, it has been possible to preserve somethino- of the inner life of the old Palace Sanctuary, to a decree, it may be fairly said, more considerable than in the case of any other great monu- ment of Antiquity.
In the Residential Quarter, again, on the Eastern side, as shown in detail in the last Volume, the imposing fresco of the Minoan shields suspended against the spiral band, that has been restored in the lower loggia of the Grand Staircase, suggests an impression of military parade that fits in with what seems to have been the more aggressive character of the later dynasty. In the spacious Reception Hall below, to which they lead, where the spiral i- form bands alone are depicted, it has been thought legitimate to fill the void with facsimiles of the shields themselves.
There remained, however, two outstanding points within the Palace border where this illuminating work of replacing in situ on the walls a record of the remains of their painted stucco designs in the same way as those already enumerated might yet be profitably attempted.
It had therefore been my intention mainly to devote the Season of to a continuance of the general work of reconstitution by its com- pletion in this North-Westerly region of the site. As regards the first- mentioned field of work, which included the restoration of the upper structures of the Throne Room itself and the roofing over of its ante- chamber, the results will be described in detail in a later Section of this Volume.
Immediately backed as it was by the ancient Keep that had formed the original nucleus of the whole edifice, this entrance system never to the last lost its character of a fortified approach. Nor had the architect who restored the building after the great destruction at the close of the Second Middle Minoan Period failed to avail himself of this vantage point to superimpose on the massive bastions of limestone masonry that formed its substructures a singularly impressive decorative scheme.
Those who came up from the Harbour Town, including travellers 1 See beluw. Comple- tion of this work X. Recon- stitution of W. Painted relief composi- tions of two Porticoes relating to bull- sports. The whole of the upper masonry of the structural supports of the Eastern terrace block had been removed at some later date for other uses, but of that which overlooked the entrance passage on the West all the courses were in places preserved up to the level of the horizontal beams, which, according to the regular practice, would have supported the coping slabs of the terrace level.
Near the Northern extremity of the terrace, moreover, one of the column-bases of its colonnade was found only slightly below its original level. Piet de Jong, the Architect of the British School, to execute for me on the basis of these the restored drawing of the entire inner entrance system, here reproduced Fig. Of that on the Eastern side only a few scattered fragments were found below. Reasons have been given in the preceding Volume of this work for the conclusion that the painted relief compositions which seem originally to have faced each other at the back of the Galleries on either side of the Northern 1 Compare tile fuller detail-, in P.
In the one case we see a drive of the half-wild animals, in the other their capture by means of a decoy cow. Among the sculptured fragments brought home by Lord Elgin were parts of two reliefs, one ot them showing the two fore-legs of a stationary bull recalling the same portion of the animal lured by the cow in the last-mentioned Vapheio scene, while the other presented the head of a charging bull with the same lowered pose, cocked ear and protruding tongue as one of the galloping bulls of the other Vapheio goblet.
What adds to the probability that both these types and the scenes to which they belong are derived from originals supplied by the monumental work above the Northern Entrance Passage is, that they are carved on slabs of Knossian gypsum. The latter piece also shows, above the bull, part of the foliage of an olive-tree, such as we find associated with the Palace composition. A com- pleted restoration of this painted relief by Monsieur E.
Gillicron, fils, is here repeated in Fig. A considerable part of the two olive-trees — the place of which was indicated by their plaster edges to be at the beginning and the end of the composition — was capable of being pieced together. At the same time the largest of all the fragments supplied the complete head of the charging bull referred to, into connexion with which could be brought an extended toreioot. A small section of highlv conventionalized rock work foreground had also come to light.
From a drawing In Monsieur IF iillitron. This had to be so far Fin. To obtain a fair measure ot security against the dislocation of the high back wall by earthquake shocks it was necessary to raise considerably the height of the line of walling that ran at right angles West from the section o o o o now rooted over.
This line represents that of the back wall anil entrance system of the North-West Porch, now brought into new reliet by the work ot re- construction. The resulting effect is given in the photographic view Fig. Of the effect, as seen from the border of the Central Court, of the partial reconstruction of the Western Portico of the Northern Entrance Passage, some idea may be gathered from the photographic figure Fig. At the near end are the restored steps leading up to its platform from the central gangway, and a glimpse of the section ot painted reliefs— -as seen in position on the back wall — appears beneath the covered portion of the gallery.
The lower part of the Northern entrance system is visible below and— -beyond the cypress grove to the left and the range where stood the Royal Tomb of Isopata — a little glimpse of sea. Above this the peak of Juktas rises in such a symmetrical position with regard to this entrance passage as to suggest that it had actually formed a fixed point in planning the Cardo of the original building. Here, beneath the restored entablature and roof of the Portico, the painted stucco relief is a salient feature, and must have struck the eye of all those who made their way from the Sea Gate to the Central Court of the Palace.
From the size of the restored plaster relief — over three-and-a-half metres in height and of greater width — its replacement on the wall was a matter of some difficulty, and it could only be done in two pieces. It is reproduced in Fig. West Portico of X. Section of Its painted reliefs replaced replica. On the Elgin slab, however, an olive-tree rises behind the back of the bull. Attention has been already called to the remarkable technique of the olive-tree foliage, the sprays of which are displayed on slightly bossed surfaces, while the alternating colour of the leaves with the light underside contrasting with the dark upper surface, and the bright red, witnessing the persistent attachment of autumn leaves, shows close observation of the characteristic appearance of the olive-tree, and of its seasonal variations.
Equally naturalistic is the magnificent head of the animal itself. It is therefore all the more surprising to see, side by side with such vivid realism, a rocky foreground of such a highly stylized character. This feature also, however, finds some analogv in the rendering of the rockv foreground of the scenes on the Vapheio Cups where the waved outline encloses corresponding inner spaces with pitted surfaces.
The surface is of a deep ruddy hue w ith a bluish white spot of cusped out- line on the bridge of the nose. The pupil of the eye is of a yellowish white, and the eye-ball, ringed with coloured bands, is exceedingly prominent. The upstanding ear marks intense excitement: The folds of the dewlap show that the head was in a lowered position — it is that of a bull coursing wildly. Bart of the leg of a female cow-boy was alone left to mark the sensational human side of the spectacle.
From the high ground level on which the remains had fallen, it may be inferred that this monumental work was still in position on the wall of the Portico at the time when the first men of Greek stock made their wax- through the old Sea Gate of the Palace. A Minoi- zing bead- seal. Ea-bani — that had already played a part in Minoan cult scenes.
Elsewhere such remains lay well outside not only the Palace but its immediate borders and the surrounding Minoan houses. A Roman cement pavement had blocked the level space of the Theatral Area — Greco-Roman wells had intruded themselves to the borders of the House of the F'rescoes, and elsewhere in the outer radius other sporadic intrusions of late date were traceable.
But from the end of the partial re-occupation of the building by humbler denizens of the same Minoan race — alike on the Palace site and its precincts — no sign of later settlement has come to light. Only, oft the Central Court, hard by the borders of the Central Sanctuary of the old Priest-kings, the sealings of which record its lion-guarded Goddess, some five centuries later, at a time when her cult had been largely assimilated by Hellenic Knossos, the small, plain temple of which we have the foundations, 3 was set up, as if to reconsecrate to later religious uses the site haunted now by the monstrous creation of popular fancy.
The stone is mobth entered with a calcareoUi enamel, due to running water. I'riada Fresco ; Funereal sacrifice of bulls ; Offertory animals depicted as coursing in Arena: If, as we may infer, the fellow composition set in the opposite Eastern Gallery related to the lassoing of a bull inveigled by a decoy cow, it, too, equally belonged to the country-side.
Bull-sports of Palace Arena and their Illustrations. Pillar Shrine of Goddess overlook- ing bull- ring. Unfortunately, none of the remains of this class occurred under conditions that might enable them to be even partially replaced — as in the case of the bull-reliefs ot the Northern Entrance — on the actual walls to which they belonged. A portion of the hind-quarters of a galloping bull, found still attached to the left wall of the West Porch, was too incomplete to admit of any restoration. The room above the Throne has now been turned into a Museum for these derelict wall-paintings.
Pillar Shrine of Goddess overlooking Bull-ring. In view of a remarkable find to be described below, the Temple P resco itself acquires a new significance. The pillar shrine of the Goddess, as there seen,- is set in the middle of Grand Stands crowded with spectators of both sexes, much as if it were the Royal Pox ot a Court Theatre. As to the charac- ter of the show itself, moreover, we are sufficiently enlightened from two sources. Part of the neck and back of a coursing bull is there seen in front of a columnar building, the entablature of which presents alternative versions of the Sacred Double Axe symbol.
A ceremonial feature, affecting all classes of the bull-sports, and which must be distinctly regarded as of a religious nature, is to be seen in the head-gear of the female performers. These, as may be gathered from their elaborate coiffure and the gay bandeaux that some of them wear, clearly occupied a good social position. Thus in the exquisite design of a leaping girl performer given in Fig. But the most notable feature in the costume of girl performers was of a very different kind. As participants in the feats of the taurokathapsia these trained girl athletes who may be thought to represent the presiding Goddess in a superior 1 See ibiL.
SS , and ni. A very clear example of a girl performer, distinguished both by her luxuriant tresses and elaborately curled fringe as well as by a slight pectoral development, has been already noticed in the case of the Yapheio Cup A, where she is seen in diffi- culties between the horns of a charging bull. This ritual assimilation to the male sex is a make-believe of the same kind as that which led wives of Libyan chiefs to adopt the native pcnistaschc of the men or the analogous custom of the Queens of Meroe of asserting their titular kingship by wearing false beards.
It is to be observed in reference to this conclusion that existing- indications point to Western Asia as the original home of these acrobatic sports with bulls in a purely male connexion. Scenes of this class occur on a sealed clay envelope from Cap- padocia, dating from about 1;. Orie Bates, Eastern Libyans , pp. Anatolian source of bull- sports — con- nected there with male tin inity. Her interest in games. May not this sexual transformation ot her female ministrants who took part in the performances held in her honour itself have been due to the consciousness that in their original shape they had rather belonged to a male form of divinity?
Varied Aspects and Attributes of Minoan Goddess. Of the Goddess herself associated in one way or another with her sacral weapon we have abundant illustrations, and it forms an ingredient ot cult groups in which she appears with other attributes, such as the dove of her celestial sovereignty or the snake that symbolizes her infernal power. Special manifestations of the divinity occurwith various attributes, as where the Snake Goddess is seen holding a ritual sprinkler or aspergillum in one hand and a sword in the other — the respective symbols, that is, of spiritual and temporal dominion.
At times she is the Huntress — an early form of the Cretan Diktynna — pursuing a stag with bow and arrow. Or again, she meets the eye descending from her celestial sphere towards female votaries engaged in a sacred dance. That she interested herself in games may be inferred from remains of the draught board found in the Repository of her Central Shrine at Knossosb The cupped table found in the pavement of the Mallia Palace, though suggestive of gaming, there certainly fulfilled a sacral function. Sacred Swing of Goddess: Terracotta Model from Phaestos.
As has been noted by Nilsson Muioan-Myianxean Religion, p. I11 a deposit explored by the Italian Mission, probably belonging to a small domestic shrine like that of Gournia , 1 was found a small temale statuette, with red decoration on a white wash, in a half sitting position and Fin. With it lay remains ot two posts like trun- cated obelisks in their general form and p e r fo r a t e d , near their apex. It has thus needed only a little thread to restore — as has been done in the Museum of Candia- -the whole group into a figure on a swing.
I he thread is attached to a miniature bar that serves as a seat bigs, lor? Director of the Candia Mibeuin and ot the " Fly. Swinging as magi- cal and religious rite. Aiora festiral at Athtns. Swinging in modern Greece and Crete. The archetype would clearly be the Goddess herself enjoying the same pastime.
Swinging, practised as a magical and eventually a religious rite, is known the world over. It seems best to assume that we have here a votary. The dress with the large apron in front is clearly related to that represented on the faience figures from the Temple Repositories. Nilsson, Die Anthe- sterien ami die Aiora.
Full text of "Place Of Minos At Knossos Vol.4 Pt.1"
See, too, Hunziker, Art. Hauser's continuation , PI. A hydria Berlin Mux. In the Jena Museum. Might she not equally be regarded as taking part in the acrobatic feats of the arena? No impersonation of her under this aspect indeed had been hitherto brought to light. In any case it stands to reason that for such a function it would have been necessary lor her to assume a special garb. Normal Impersonations of the Goddess in Fashionable Dress. Apart from the early version of the Cretan Goddess as mother-naked — inherited from Neolithic times and never, as we shall see, wholly discarded — from the beginning of the Middle Minoan Age onwards, whether in her plastic or her pictorial shape, she is consistently presented to 11s as following the latest styles in dress.
Even the more or less cylindrical form of the lower part of the images found in her rustic shrines of the beginning of the Late Minoan Age as explored at Gournia and Prinia can be shown to be really an outgrowth of the bell-shaped skirts that were in vogue in M. On the other hand, the splendidly executed figurines of ivory or faience from palatial shrines display in their elaborate details every item in the fashionable dress of the Court ladies of the transitional M.
They are seen wearing flounced skirts, shorter according to the current usage in the earlier part of that epoch, longer as a rule in the later phase and the succeeding Late Minoan Periods. Above the belt is a close- fitting, short-sleeved bodice supporting the full breasts. So, too, among the many known 1 impersonations of the Goddess, as seen on signet-rings and bead-seals, whatever her activities may be, she has regularly made her appearance decked out thus in the fashionable dress of contemporary female society.
Her robes are as stylish when she hunts the stag or shoulders a wild-goat, as when she is receiving the adoration of her votaries. In a similar guise she is seen descending from her celestial abode, and so, too, when, assisted by a courtlv attendant in her resurgence from the Underworld, she emerges from the bosom of the earth as Goddess of Spring, we see her already flounced and corseted.
It is abundantly evident that the Goddess stood in a peculiarlv intimate relation to the sports ot the arena, beside which, as we have seen, her 1 It will he seen that an exception must he matk. In view of the agility displayed by her in the hunting field and apparent delight in high swinging, it might well indeed be thought by her worshippers that, in some diviner sphere, she had herself supplied an example of superhuman prowess as a taureador.
A remarkable chryselephantine image that has now seen the light Figs. The third figure lias made its appearance only quite recently in a still more distant trans-Atlantic site. It is now— as the result of the well-known enterprise of its Director, Mr. Currelly — in the Toronto Museum, and it is owing to his kindness and liberality that it has been possible for me to give a full account of it in this place. This, though still not the last of these emergent forms , 2 is certainly the most surprising. It presents the greater part of a female figure of which, however, the legs from the knees downwards and the right arm, except the hand, are wanting Figs.
From the photographic record ot the remains as originally found, reproduced in Suppl. Vova July 25, TOjf. The plating' was fastened by small gold pins or rivets. Its magnificent eftect as restored with both hands uplifted will be best realized from the Coloured Frontispiece to this Volume. As will be seen by a comparison ot Figs. This consists of a sqnare-cut tenon, a centimetre long and about cm.
The female personage before us at once strikes the eye as of a very different character from that of the girl performers in the Minoan bull-sports as portrayed for 11s in the frescoes and small reliefs, notwithstanding the fact that she shares with them the male loin-attire that is the most distinctive article of her apparel.
These performers — whether they display their acrobatic skill in the Palace Circus or the open field — are consistently depicted with a very slight pectoral development, so much so that in the wall-paintings, were it not for the convention of the white skin colouring, it might be difficult to distinguish them from the youthful male taureadors who take part in the same scenes.
This is supplied by the stays, of which we find the indication about them in open gold work, somewhat suggestive ot the whalebones of more recent feminine attire. As will be seen from Fig. It was suspended above from the shoulders, as we see, by means of two bands, that might be described as very short sleeves. Mshablo in the c. She is otiieru ise Pratlew. Matronly corset combined with male- loin attire. In these cases the corset proper is part and parcel with a jacket, the sleeves of which extend some wav clown the upper arms. The two Knossian examples supply evidence of the lacing together of this bodice by means of looped knots.
The Cambridge Goddess, on the other hand, has a knob in front see Fig. In the case of the chryselephantine image before 11 s there is no certain clue to the means of fastening the corset, but the gold 1 RepioduLLil from A. As in analogous cases, the lower border of the corset or bodice corresponds, so tar as it is visible, with the upper border of the belt. It is this masculine arrangement that we see here adopted. Like the corset above and the belt itself, this loin-clothing consists of a thin gold plate decorated with rows of punctuations and small embossed disks, and showing barred openwork analogous to that of the stat s.
Behind, as usual, is a tongue-shaped piece which should cover the upper part of the buttocks and narrows to a point below, where it was drawn between the legs. In the present instance the gold plating that represents this flap-like 1 See P. Mjres, The Sanctuary-site of Petsofa ; and p. In front, where in the original the cloth would have been drawn up between the legs, the corresponding section also narrows to a point below.
It will be seen from the examples of this article of ap- parel given in Fig. Facial Features and Head-gear. The facial features of the figure are very clear cut, as will be seen from the enlarged profile view given in Fig. A slight asymmetry is perceptable in the setting ot the orbits, the outer corner of the left eve-lid being slightly drawn down. After an even longer period of seclusion than that ot the latter, there have recently emerged two additional statuettes, of limestone with fine crystalline veins, and clearly by the same hand — in these cases cut out of single blocks — from a Cretan source.
It may be further legitimately inferred that they were derived from the same sanctuary deposit as the first, locally 1 See Yol. D 2 Diadem and coronal. The other, here reproduced in profile in Fig. XLI Y, is in many respects a replica, on a scale one-third larger,- of the Cambridge specimen. The Goddess wears an identical tiara, while the dress, including the ribbed stays and an apron with a diaper pattern, is substantially the same. Here, too, we see the same clear-cut nose and regular profile. In the former case, however, the Goddess lays her hands on her matronly breasts: In the case of the chryselephantine Goddess, a diadem of gold plate is drawn above the forehead iit place of the usual fringe of curls, the lower border of which shows a curved decoration imitating these.
Though broken off at the sides, the place of the gold band behind is marked by a distinct groove in the ivory. Above the diadem the hair is rolled up and drawn in above to another groove, encircling the head, which was clearl meant for the attachment of some further gold ornament. Above this again rises a kind of top-knot. On the left side 1 P. Might there have been some kind of rayed crown such as we see on Minoan Sphinxes?
Across the front of the neck, attached by three rivets, appears a broad - - - gold plate, showing two rows of embossed disks, that may be interpreted as a double necklace the continuation ot which would have been concealed behind lay the flowing locks. Locks of hair fall down on either side of the head and descend down the back in luxuriant tresses to below the level ot the shoulders. The ' undu- lated ' flow of these recalls that of the ' Boston God- dess see logs.
General Proportions of Chryselephantine Figure. Skluoxs across I he height of this statuette when complete Chkysh. I he parts at which these sections are taken are shown in Fig. The girth round die breasts, as seen in Fig. Height and girth of figure. The adult bronze figure of the male sex. In that case the girth under the armpits 1 was about to centimetres, as in the case of the chryselephantine female statuette. The girth round the waist, billowing the hollow of the girdle, was cm. Round the buttocks the maximum girth ot the male tigure was centimetres, or cm.
Even in the breadth at the hips the male figure very nearly approached the fem. This, allowing tor a reduction ot according to tin- normal proportions of the two sexes, would answer to a female figure approximately cm. I hough the ' boston nuldess is on a somewhat smaller scale, points of resemblance in stxle and fabric are abo to be observed in that case, equally suggestive of a common and contemporary origin.
Among decorative paralh Is max be noticed, too, the embossed disks arranged in two rows on tlv gold plates of the Goddess's lowest flounce, as on tile collar de s-'r. Although we have not here the evidence ot a high tiara such as we. Lqually significant is the profusion of gold-work decoration visible in this figure, which is itselt much greater than could have been the case with the other examples cited.
Her matronly proportions themselves agree with those of the faience and ivory figurines where she appears holding the snakes of the Lnderworld. In this motherly aspect, she still forms a subject of natural appeal toiler adoptive children of the Arena, with whose fortunes she is so closely linked in her novel impersonation. It was not enough that her pillar-shrine should overlook the Palace arena.
The Minoan bull-sports, as practised either there or in the rock- fringed glens of the country beyond, might well be thought to call at every turn for the personal intervention ot the Goddess, kor it was in truth a dangerous profession. On the frescoes and reliefs we watch the performer launch'd in mid-air from a vantage-coign to gain a stranglehold ot the coursing animal, or.
The attitude in which the figure itself stood, when the legs were com- plete, with both hands raise.! The little gold and ivon image, restored once more to the light of day, is that of a Goddess.
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Ritual Sacrifice of Bull of Corrida. Sacrifice of bull of Corrida on Thisbe seal-type. That there was a certain ritual element in the bull-sports of the arena may be gathered from a remarkable episode illustrated by one of the gold bead-seals from Thisbe, here reproduced in Fig. In this unique representation a youthful personage appears behind the bull, distinguished by a wreath round his head, above which is seen a beaded bandeau that falls down on both sides behind his shoulders, and terminates in two pendants in the form of stars that doubtless had a symbolic signifi- cance.
Round his left shoulder, as it appears in the original, hangs a sword-strap, from the sheath appended to which he has drawn a short sword or dagger and, advancing from the side, drives it into the beast s neck between the cervical vertebrae. The bull itself, as if wearied with continual coursing, is seen proceeding at a kind of broken trot, very different from the flying gallop usual in these circus scenes.
In this Minoan matador we may venture to discern a priest of the 1 P. He wears apparently the usual loin-clothing and puttees, and the two rings encircle his upper arms. An interesting pendant to this design is to he found on a lentoid bead- seal of banded agate, 1 the comparatively advanced Late Minoan character of which is evidenced by the conventionally arranged foliage of a bent palm-tree visible in theupperfield Fig. Here the slaughtered bull, with the dagger stuck as before into the back of its neck, appears, with protruding tongue and his legs bent under him, on what is clearly some kind of sacrificial table or altar.
The thick board or slab on which the victim rests is supported by four sub- stantial legs with narrow posts between them, the broader supports being ot an archi- tectural type better illustrated by a fresco of Fin. Furtwangler, writing in , recognized its real character. J See below, p. The supports on the gem resemble bitcrania, and have seemingly been assimilated to them by the engraver. In this case the horns curve characteristically forward, in contrast to the misleading upright direction of the other, which indeed had suggested the sabre-horned antelope of Central Africa.
A fourth example, also Cretan, is supplied by a green steatite lentoid in the Museum at Candia, showing the sacrificed animal on a similar table Fig. A variant of this subject occurs on a fresco of the Hagia Triada Sarco- phagus, where a young bull with the head facing is seen bound up on a kind of thick table which has high legs turned in such a manner as to resemble columnar shafts with disproportionately high capitals. Their architectonic details, as already noted, help to explain the form of the supports seen in Figs. The composition to which the table and victim belongs, a completed drawing of which is reproduced in Fig.
Two goats, also intended as offerings, are crouched below the table ; behind it appear a female votary, holding her hands downwards, and a youth playing the double flute. The recipient of this shows the same outline and banded decoration as that used in the companion scene to pour the blood of the victims into a larger vessel, supported between two-stepped stands of the sacred Double Axes. Upon these are settled the bird messengers of heaven that indicate the divine possession. He rightly insists on the fact that the sacrificial instrument was a dagger and not an axe.
If the suggestion that the object beneath the table on the Candia gem was a dagger is right, it affords a new corrobora- tion to the chdiaeter of tile instrument used. A two-handled vessel or basket with fruit — a hint of another kind of offerings - is seen above, as well as a high-spouted ewer, Fir,. Bulls of Funereal Sacrifice depicted as Coursing in Arena.
But the painted designs on the Sarcophagus lead us a step further. Once more, as on the bead-seal, Pig. On the other side of the Sarcophagus, corresponding to that from which the scene shown in Fig. It recurs moreover in the case of the silver figure of a similar bull — without the acrobatic adjunct of the other borne on a salver by a tributary of Keftiu in a wall- painting of the tomb of Ustr-Amon 2 that may well have been of a sacral character.
In other words, we have here a symbolic attitude taken over owing to religious motives The bull of sacrifice, in fact, is a bull of the arena. The mortal stroke itself was in all probability that dealt, as shown on the Thisbe intaglio, by a Minoan matador , and we may suppose that the victim was trussed and first transported with the lethal blade still sticking in its cervical vertebrae.
The appearance of these symbolic coursing figures of bulls in the hands ot the votaries seems to point to a preliminary function of ceremonial sports, held in honour of the departed dignitary but under the higher auspices of the Minoan Goddess, whose shrine at times adorned by her Double Axe emblems -looked down upon the course.
Taurokathapsia of Thessaly and Artemis Tauropolos. V as there, it may be asked, anv surviving trace in the later Religion of Greece of the Minoan Goddess under her special aspect as patroness of the bull-spot ts? In the same w ay the alternative form, T auro- bolos, might well refer to the capture by means of a lasso as illustrated on the Yapheio Cup B. It was Artemis Tauro- riG. Galloping Beta, and Acrobatic Hgi'rk of Youth: Survival of Minoan bull- sports: Thessa- lian tauro- ktithap- sia.
Attention has already been called to the evidences of this tradition in the case ot the bull-grappling feats of Herakles and Theseus, and it must be remembered that towards the close of the Minoan Age there was a distinct tendency to bring into superior prominence the male Consort ot the Goddess, hitherto relegated to a secondary [dace or represented by her young son.
The widespread occurrence of little bronze figures of a warrior God, copied from those of the Syrian Lightning-God Resheph," amply illustrate this tendency. The further equation of these with versions of his Hittite equivalent Teshub, whose axe answers to a worldwide symbol of thunder, brings the character of the religious transformation still nearer. The male side of the Minoan Goddess of the Double Axe had in fact never lost its hold in her Anatolian homeland, and is perpetuated by the abiding cult of the Zeus of Labranda and of Doliche to the latest Classical Age.
It is quite fitting then that it should be in connexion with the old Carian element — so closely allied to a very early stratum in the Cretan population— -and in the city, said itself to be of old Cretan foundation, that we find the best evidence of the survival of the bull-snorts as a religious function. Miletos, where this occurs, was itself the reputed colony of the town of the same name on the North Coast of Eastern Crete, still known as Milatos, where abundant remains occur of a settlement o-oino- back to Early Minoan times.
Ajax, 17 2 seqq ij f d ere TaiyjoiroAu A to? Historia Xumonnri 1 , p. Mu men Xordgriechin- i ands , iii, PI. In 1S90 l r. Ord published two painted sarcophagi from a chamber tomb here in Mon. In 1S94, and again in 1S95, I explored the sue, seeming evidence of bead-seals going back to P. II -III, a bronze axe-hammer e. The object of the sacrifice is here a male divinity, the underlying character of which is sufficiently shown by the neighbouring record of the Labyrinth — in its original significance the cult-place of the Labrys or Double Axe.
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A Hope and a Future: Marsha N Woods Publisher: Marton Publishing Publish date: Description This is the true story of an orphan girl's journey from desolate beginnings to the life of an American "missionary kid", finding her home in such places as Japan, Hong Kong, Ethiopia and Australia. You may also like: NEW Orphan of Infamy: Based on a True The Persistence of Hope: NEW Hope and a Future: Authenticity Shipping Payment Returns Support Authenticity All the books, movies and music discs sold in our store are authentic.
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