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He was usually depicted holding the magical weapon called Fire Serpent Fig. Each was decorated at its base with two ferocious serpent heads carved of stone, one being the Fire Serpent of Huitzilopochtli and the other the Water Serpent symbolizing Tlaloc. At the base of the pyramid excavators found a large, thick stone disk whose top was carved with a representation of the dismembered body of the goddess Coyolxauhqui Fig. It seems that her fate was one of the reasons for the Aztec belief that Huitzilopochtli had to be appeased by offering him the torn out hearts of human victims.

The motif of twin towers was further enhanced in the sacred precinct by the erection of two pyramids topped by towers, one on each side of the Great Temple, and two more somewhat back, westward. The latter two flanked the temple of Quetzal- coatl. It had the unusual shape of a regular step-pyramid in front but a circular stepped structure in the back, where it spi- raled up to become a circular tower with a conical dome Fig.

Many believe that this temple served as a solar observatory. Aveni Astronomy in Ancient Mesoamerica determined in that on the dates of the equinox March 21 and September 21 , when the Sun rises in the east precisely on the equator, sunrise could be seen from the Quetzalcoatl tower right be- tween the two towers atop the Great Temple.

Here, across what had been a forbidding ocean, for all intents and purposes isolated from the civilized world, was a state headed by a king — just as in Europe. Noblemen, functionaries, courtesans filled the royal court. Emissaries came and went. Tribute was extracted from vassal tribes, taxes were paid by loyal citizens. Royal archives kept written records of tribal his- tories, dynasties, wealth.

There was an army with an hierarchi- cal command and perfected weapons. There were arts and crafts, music and dancing. There were festivals connected with the seasons and holy days prescribed by religion — a state reli- gion, just as in Europe. And there was the sacred precinct with its temples and chapels and residences, surrounded by a wall — just as the Vatican in Rome — run by a hierarchy of priests who, just as in Europe of the time, were not only keepers of the faith and inteipreters of divine will, but also guardians of the secrets of scientific knowledge.

Of that, astrology, astronomy, and the mysteries of the calendar were paramount. Moreover, through the maze of a pantheon of numerous dei- ties, there could be seen an underlying belief in a Supreme God, a Creator of All. Some of the prayers to him even sounded familiar; here are a few verses from an Aztec prayer, recorded in Spanish from the original Nahuatl language: You inhabit the heavens, You uphold the mountains. You are everywhere, everlasting. You are beseeched, you are entreated. Your glory is eminent. Yet with all the baffling similarities, there was a troubling difference about Aztec civilization.

It was, rather, the whole gamut of this civilization, as though it was the result of a progress that had been arrested in its course, or an imported higher culture covering, as a thin veneer, a coarser understruc- ture. The edifices were impressive and ingeniously laid out, but they were not built of dressed stones; rather, they were of adobe construction — field stones crudely held together with simple mortar. Trade was extensive, but it was all a barter trade. Trib- The Lost Realm of Cain? Textiles were woven on a most rudimentary loom; cotton was spun on clay spindles the likes of which have been found in the Old World, in the ruins of Troy second millennium B.

In their tools and weapons the Aztecs were in a stone age, unaccountably devoid of metal tools and weapons although they possessed the craft of goldsmithing. Because other peoples in the Americas have been held to have had no writing, the Aztecs seemed more advanced at least on this score because they did have a system of writing. But the writing was neither alphabetical nor phonetic; it was a series of pictures, like cartoons in a comic strip Fig. By compari- son, in the ancient Near East where writing began circa b. Pictorial writing appeared in Egypt at the beginning of kingship there, circa B.

In both, while copper metallurgy was yet to develop, goldsmithing was so ad- vanced that the craftsmen could inlay golden objects with tpr- quoise a se miprecious s tone cherished in both lands. Consisting of connected sections or halls, it takes the visitor through time and place, from prehistoric origins to Aztec times and from south and north to east and west. They called themselves Mexico, thus giving their pre- ferred name not only to the capital built where the Aztec Te- nochtitlan had been but also to the whole country.

Its grandiose dimensions were designed to amply frame the culture of the Mexican peo- ple. Smaller stone and clay effigies, earthenware utensils, weapons, golden ornaments and other Aztec remains, plus the scale model of the sacred precinct, fill up this impressive hall. The contrast between primitive clay and wood objects and grotesque effigies on the one hand, and the powerful stone carvings and monumental sacred precinct on the other hand, is astounding.

It is inexplicable in terms of the less than four cen- turies of Aztec presence in Mexico. When the answer is sought in known history, the Aztecs appear as a nomadic, uncouth immi- grant tribe that forced its way into a valley peopled by tribes with a more advanced culture. At first they made a living by serving the settled tribes, mostly as hired mercenaries.

In time they managed to overpower their neighbors and borrowed not only their culture but also their artisans. The sources for this information are not only verbal traditions, but the various books called codices. The Toltecs too were descended of Itzac-mixcoatl, but their mother was another woman; they were thus only half brothers of the Aztecs.

Where Aztlan was located, no one can say for certain. It was a place apparently associated with the number seven, having been sometimes called Aztlan of the Seven Caves. It was also de- picted in the codices as a place recognizable by its seven tem- ples: In his elaborate Historia de las cosas de la Nueva Espana, the Friar Bernardino de Sahagun, using the original texts in the native Nahuatl language written after the Conquest, deals with the multitribal migration from Aztlan.

There were seven tribes in all. They left Aztlan by boats. The pictorial books show them passing by a landmark whose pictograph remains an enigma. The arriving tribes had with them four Wise Men to guide and lead them, because they had carried with them ritual manu- scripts and also knew the secrets of the calendar. From there the tribes went in the direction of the Place of the Cloud-Serpent, apparently dispersing as they did so. At long last some, includ- ing the Aztecs and the Toltecs, reached a place called Teotihua- can, where two pyramids were built, one to the Sun and the other to the Moon.

Kings reigned at Teotihuacan and were buried there, for to be buried in Teotihuacan was to join the gods in an afterlife. How long it was before the next migratory trek is not clear; but at some point the tribes began to abandon the holy city. First to leave were the Toltecs, who left to build their own city, Tollan.

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Last to leave were the Aztecs. Thus it was that the Aztecs arrived — according to these leg- ends, for the second time — in the Valley of Mexico. Gaining strength and knowledge, they finally established their own city, Tenochtitlan. But since it is known that the Aztecs considered themselves at the time to have been Teno- chas — descendants of Tenoch — others believed that Tenoch was the name of a tribal ancestor, a legendary paternal figure from way, way back.

Scholars now generally hold that the Mexica or Tenochas arrived in the valley circa a. They then gained influence through a series of alliances with some tribes and warfare with others. Some re- searchers doubt whether the Aztecs dominated a true empire. The face is that when the Spaniards arrived, they were the dom- inant power in central Mexico, lording over allies and subjugat- ing enemies.

The latter served as a source of captives for sacrifices; the Spanish conquest was facilitated by their insurrec- tions against the Aztec oppressors. Like the biblical Hebrews, who traced back their genealogies not only to patriarchal couples but also to the beginning of Mankind, so did the Aztecs and Toltecs and other Nahuatl tribes possess Legends of Creation that followed the same themes.

But whereas the Old Testament compressed its detailed Sumerian sources by devising one plural entity Elohim out of the various deities active in the creative processes, the Nahuatl The Lost Realm of Cain? And the Toltecs knew that many are the heavens. They said there are twelve superimposed divisions; There dwells the true god and his consort.

This is what it means: He is king, he is Lord, above the twelve heavens. The Sumerians depicted it as a radiating planet whose symbol was the cross Fig. The symbol was thereafter adopted by all the peoples of the ancient world and evolved to the ubiquitous emblem of the Winged Disk Fig. The Olden Gods of whom the Nahuatl texts related legend- ary tales were depicted as bearded men Fig. As in Mesopotamian and Egyptian theogonies, there were tales of divine couples and of brothers who espoused their own sisters.

TTieyTepresentecTthe four cardinal points and the four primary elements: These four gods also represented the colors red, black, white, and blue, and the four races of Mankind, who were often depicted as on the front page of the Codex Ferjerv ary -Mayer in appropriate colors together with their symbols, trees and animals. This recognition of four separate branches of Mankind is in- teresting, perhaps even significant in its difference from the three-branched Mesopotamian-biblical concept of an Asian-Af- rican-European division stemming from the Shem-Ham-Japhet line of Noah.

A fourth people, the people of the color red, had been added by the Nahuatl tribes — the peoples of the Amer- icas.

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The Nahuatl tales spoke of conflict and even warfare among the gods. These included an incident when Huitzilopochtli de- feated four hundred lesser gods and a fight between Tezcatli- poca-Yaotl and Quetzalcoatl. And in the lands of Ham, Africa, Egyptian texts related the dismemberment of Osiris by his brother Seth and the ensuing bitter and long warfare between Seth and Horus, the son and avenger of Osiris.

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Were the gods of the Mexicans original conceptions, or were they memories of beliefs and tales that had their roots in the ancient Near East? The answer will emerge as we examine ad- ditional aspects of Nahuatl tales of creation and prehistory. After additional endeavors, a human pair was created of cinders and metals and from them the world was peopled. But all these men and women were destroyed in a flood, save for a certain priest and his wife who, with seeds and animals, floated in a hollowed-out log. The priest discovered land by sending out birds.

According to another chronicler, the Friar Gregorio Gar- cia, the flood lasted a year and a day during which the whole Earth was covered with water and the world was in chaos. Each of the previous four Suns had come to an end through some catastrophe, sometimes a natural one such as a deluge and sometimes a calamity triggered by wars between the gods.

The great Aztec Calendar Stone it was discovered within the area of the sacred precinct is believed to be a record in stone of the five ages. The symbols encircling the central panel and the central depiction itself have been the subject of numer- ous studies. The first inner ring clearly depicts the twenty signs for the twenty days of the Aztec month. The tales of the four ages are valuable for their information regarding the lengths of the eras and their principal events. Though versions vary, suggesting a long verbal tradition preced- ing the written records, they all agree that the first age came to an end by a deluge, a great flood that engulfed the Earth.

Man- kind survived because one couple, Nene and his wife Tata, managed to save themselves in a hollowed-out log. Either this first age or the second one was the age of the White Haired Giants. According to the chronicler Ixtlilxochitl, they were survivors of the second age who had come by ship from the east to the New World, settling in the area he called Botonchan; they encountered there giants who also survived the second age, and became enslaved by them. It was during that era that Quetzalcoatl appeared in Mexico — tall of stature, bright of countenance, bearded, and wearing a long tunic.

His staff, shaped like a serpent, was painted black, white, and red; it was inlaid with precious stones and adorned with six stars. Not by coincidence, perhaps, the staff of Bishop Zuma- rraga, the first bishop of Mexico, was fashioned to look like the staff of Quetzalcoatl. It was during this era that Tollan, the Toltec capital, was built. Quetzalcoatl, master of wisdom and knowledge, introduced learning, crafts, laws, and time reckon- ing according to the fifty-two-year cycle.

Toward the end of the Fourth Sun wars between the gods were taking place. Quetzalcoatl left, going east back to the place whence he had come. Five years later the Chichimec tribes, alias the Aztecs, arrived; and the Fifth Sun, the Aztec era, began. The reason is unclear and the length of the various eras is either unstated or differs according to the version. One that appears orderly and, as we shall show, astoundingly plausible, is the Codex Vaticano- Latino It relates that the first Sun lasted 4, years, the second 4,, the third 4, Be it as it may, we have here a tale of events going back 17, years from the time the tales have been recorded.

This is quite a time span for supposedly backward people to recall, and scholars, while agreeing that the events of the Fourth Sun contain historical elements, tend to dismiss the earlier eras as sheer myth. How then explain the tales of Adam and Eve, a global deluge, the survival of one couple — episodes in the words of H. Some scholars suggest that Nahuatl texts reflect in some way what the Indians had already heard from the Bible-spouting Spaniards.

But since not all co- dices are post-Conquest, the biblical-Mesopotamian similarities can only be explained by admitting that the Mexican tribes had some ancestral ties to Mesopotamia. Moreover, the Mexica-Nahuatl timetable correlates events and times with a scientific and historical accuracy that ought to make everyone stop and wonder. It dates the deluge, at the end of the First Sun, to 13, years before the time of writing the codex; i. Now, in our book The 12th Planet we have concluded that a global deluge had indeed en- gulfed the Earth circa 11, b.

This is precisely the term by which the Su- merians were called in their texts. Do the Aztec tales then deem the Fourth Sun to have been the time when the Sumerians ap- peared on the human scene? Sumerian civilization began circa b. The Genesis-like tales, one must conclude, had to be known to the Nahuatl tribes from their own ancestral sources.

The question had already baffled the Spaniards themselves. Trying to find an explanation, the answer seemed to be a simple one: If not the originator, then the one who expounded it first in a detailed manuscript, was the Dominican Friar Diego Duran, who was brought to New Spain in at the age of five. These natives are part of the ten tribes of Israel which Shalmaneser, King of the Assyrians, captured and took to Assyria.

And these giants, not having found a way to reach the Sun, decided to build a tower so high that its summit would reach unto Heaven. No wonder then that as such reports increased, the theory of the Ten Lost Tribes became the favorite one of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the assumption being that, some- The Lost Realm of Cain?

Current theories hold that Man initially arrived in the New World from Asia across an icy land bridge to Alaska some 20,, years ago, spreading gradually southward. Con- siderable evidence consisting of artifacts, language and ethno- logical and anthropological evaluations indicates influences from across the Pacific — Hindu, Southeast Asian, Chinese, Jap- anese, Polynesian.

Scholars explain them by periodic arrival of such people in the Americas; but they are emphatic in stating that these occurred during the Christian era, just centuries be- fore the conquest and not at any time b. While established scholars continue to downplay all evidence for transatlantic contacts between the Old and New World, they employ the concession to relatively recent transpacific contacts as the explanation for the currency of Genesis-like tales in the Americas. Indeed, legends of a global deluge and of the cre- ation of Man out of clay or similar materials have been themes of mythologies all over the world, and one possible route to the Americas from the Near East where the tales had originated could have been Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands.

But there are elements in the Nahuatl versions that point to a very early source, rather than to relatively recent pre-Conquest centuries. One is the fact that the Nahuatl tales of the creation of Man follow a very ancient Mesopotamian version that did not even find its way into the Book of Genesis! The Bible, in fact, has not one but two versions of the cre- ation of Man; both draw on earlier Mesopotamian versions. The text is known as Manuscript of ; it relates that after the calamitous end of the Fourth Sun the gods assembled in Teotihuacan.

As soon as the gods came together, they said: He went to Mictlan, the Land of the Dead, and announced to the divine couple in charge of it: He gathered the precious bones; The bones of man were put together on one side, the bones of woman were put together on the other side. Quetzalcoatl took them and made a bundle. She ground up the bones and put them in a fine earthen tub. Quetzalcoatl bled his male organ on them. Sumerian depictions on cylinder seals showed the two dei- ties in a laboratorylike setting, flasks and all Fig.

Even more astounding is the fact that the myth has been pictorially depicted in a Nahuatl codex found in the area of the Mixtec tribe. It shows a god and a goddess mixing an ele- The Lost Realm of Cain? Coupled with the other Sumerian-related data and terminol- ogy, contacts at a very early time are indicated.

The trouble we have with both arrival theories is that they require the trekking by men, women, and children over thou- sands of miles of frozen terrain. We wonder how this could have been done 20, or 30, years ago; moreover, we wonder why such a journey would have been undertaken. Why would men, women, and children journey for thousands of miles over frozen terrain, seemingly achieving nothing except the experi- ence of more ice — unless they were aware that there was a Promised Land beyond the ice?

A land whose stones are iron and of whose mountains thou canst hew copper. And if that deity was not a mere theological entity, but a being physically present on Earth, could he have helped the migrants overcome the hard- ships of the journey, just as the biblical Lord had done for the Israelites? It is with such thoughts, of why and how an impossible jour- ney would have been undertaken, that we have read and reread the Nahuatl tales of migrations and the Four Ages. Since the First Sun had ended with the Deluge, that era had to be the final phase of the last Ice Age, for we have concluded in The 12th Planet that the Deluge was caused by the slippage of the Antarctic ice sheet into the oceans, thereby bringing the last Ice Age to an abrupt end circa 11, b.

Moreover, could it be that the crossing was not at all across the ice sheet, but by boats across the Pacific Ocean, as the Nahuatl legends relate? Legends of prehistoric arrival by sea and landings on the Pacific coast are not confined to the Mexican peoples. Farther south the Andean peoples retained memories of a similar na- ture, told as legends. One, the Legend of Naymlap, may relate to the very first settlement on those coasts by people from else- where.

Some versions of the legend of the green idol pinpointed Cape Santa Helena in Ecuador as the landing site; there the South American continent projects westward into the Pacific. Several of the chroniclers, among them Juan de Velasco, related native traditions that the first settlers in the equatorial regions were giants. The human settlers who followed there worshiped a pantheon of twelve gods, headed by the Sun and the Moon.

The temple dedicated to the Sun had in front of its gateway two stone columns, and in its forecourt a circle of twelve stone pillars. Unlike his successors, he did not , die: The detail concerning the depar- ture of Naymlap by being taken heavenward also has a biblical parallel. Man, they hold, was too prim- itive then to have oceangoing vessels and navigate the high seas.

Not until the Sumerian civilization, at the beginning of the fourth millennium B. All that, how- ever — according to all those ancient sources — was wiped off the face of the Earth by the Deluge, and everything had to be restarted from scratch. The Book of Genesis begins with creation tales that are con- cise versions of much more detailed Sumerian texts. He had two sons at first, Cain and Abel. After Cain killed his brother, he was banished by Yahweh.


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The tale then focuses on the Asian-African- European peoples. But whatever happened to Cain and his line? All we have in the Bible are a dozen verses. Several generations later, Lamech was born. He had two wives. And in the first year of the first week of the fifth jubilee, houses were built on Earth, and Cain built a city and called its name after the name of his son, Enoch. His epithet-name was EN. The Nahuatl tales of wandering, arrival at a final destination, settling marked by the building of a city; of a patriarch with two wives and sons of whom tribal nations have evolved; of one that became renowned for being a craftsman in metals — do they not read almost as the biblical tales?

The Aztecs called their capital Tenochtitlan, the City of Ten- och, so naming it after their ancestor. Considering that in their dialect the Aztecs had prefixed many words with the sound T, Tenoch could have originally been Enoch if the prefixed T is dropped. A Babylonian text based in the opinion of scholars on an earlier Sumerian text from the third millennium b. Have we found in Mesoamerica the lost realm of Cain, the city named after Enoch? According to the biblical tale, after the Lord had banished Cain from the settled lands and decreed that he become a wan- derer in the East, Cain was concerned about being slain by ven- geance seekers.

But from the ensuing biblical narrative it appears that the matter of vengeance and the protection against it continued into the seventh generation and beyond. A tattoo on the fore- head could not last that long nor be transmittable from genera- tion to generation. Only a genetic trait, transmitted hereditarily, can fit the biblical data. If our guess is right, then Mesoamerica, as a focal point from which Amerindians spread north and south in the New World, was indeed the Lost Realm of Cain. And when the Toltecs had built their city, Teotihuacan was already enshrined in myth.

It is told that there was a time when calamities befell the Earth and the Earth fell into darkness, for the sun failed to appear. Only at Teotihuacan there was light, for a divine flame remained burning there. The concerned gods gathered at Teoti- huacan, wondering what should be done. They asked for a volunteer among the gods to jump into the divine flame and, by his sacrifice, bring back the sun.

The god Tecuciztecatl volunteered. Putting on his glittering attire he stepped forward toward the flame; but each time he neared the fire he stepped back, losing courage. Then the god Nanauatzin volunteered and unhesitatingly jumped into the fire. As the gods were consumed, the Sun and Moon reappeared in the skies.

But though they could now be seen, the two luminaries re- mained motionless in the sky. According to one version, the Sun began to move after one god shot an arrow at it; another version says that it resumed its coursing after the Wind God blew at it. One version has it that the gods built the two pyra- mids to commemorate the two gods who had sacrificed them- selves; another version states that the pyramids had already existed when the event was taking place, that the gods jumped into the divine fire from atop preexisting pyramids.

Whatever the legend, the fact is that the Pyramid of the Sun and the Pyramid of the Moon still rise majestically to this very day. What only a few decades ago were mounds covered by vegetation have now become a major tourist attraction, just thirty miles north of Mexico City. Rising in a valley whose sur- rounding mountains act as a backdrop to an eternal stage Fig. The monuments exude power, knowledge, intent; the setting bespeaks a conscious linking of Earth with Heaven.

No one can miss the sense of history, the presence of an awesome past. Figure 10 How far back in the past? Archaeologists had assumed at first that Teotihuacan was established in the first centuries of the Christian era; but the date keeps slipping back. In the s a leading archaeologist, M. In fact, further radiocar- bon tests gave a date of b. A date of circa b. Teotihuacan had clearly undergone several phases of devel- 45 Realm of the Serpent Gods opment and its pyramids reveal evidence of earlier inner struc- tures. Some scholars read in the ruins a tale that may have begun 6, years ago — in the fourth millennium b.

This would certainly conform to the Aztec legends that spoke of this Place of the Gods as existing in the Fourth Sun. Then, when the Day of Darkness happened circa b. The Pyramid of the Moon rises at the northern end of this ceremonial center, flanked by smaller auxiliary structures and fronted by a great plaza. From there a wide avenue runs south- ward as far as the eye can see; it is flanked by low-profile shrines, temples, and other structures that were believed to have been tombs; consequently the avenue was given the name Avenue of the Dead. Some 2, feet to the south the Avenue of the Dead reaches the Pyramid of the Sun that rises on the eastern side of the avenue Fig.

Past the Pyramid of the Sun, and another 3, feet south- ward, one reaches the Ciudadela, a quadrangle that contains at its eastern side the third pyramid of Teotihuacan, called the Quetzalcoatl Pyramid. It is now known that facing the Ciuda- dela, across the Avenue of the Dead, there existed a similar quadrangle that served mostly as a lay administrative-commer- cial center.

The avenue then continues further south; the Teoti- huacan Mapping Project led by Rene Millon in the s established that this north-south avenue extended for nearly five miles — longer than the longest runways at modern airports. In spite of this remarkable length, the wide avenue runs straight as an arrow — quite a technological feat at any time. An east-west axis, perpendicular to the north-south ave- nue, extended eastward from the Ciudadela and westward from the administrative quadrangle.

Members of the Teotihuacan Mapping Project found south of the Pyramid of the Sun a marker chiseled into the rocks in the shape of a cross within two concentric circles; a similar marker was found about two miles to the west, on a mountainside. A sight line connecting the two markers precisely indicates the direction of the east-west axis, and the other arms of the crosses match the orientation of the north-south axis.

That the ceremonial center had been oriented and laid out deliberately is evident from several other facts. The second fact indicating a deliberate orientation is that the two axes are not pointing to the cardinal points, but are tilted to the southeast by 15 1 A degrees Fig. Studies show that this was not an accident or a miscalculation by the ancient planners. The conclusion of his researches was that, at Teotihuacan and at the time of its construction, the orientation was devised to enable celestial observations on certain key dates of the calendar.

If such celestial observa- tions were the purpose of the pyramids, their ultimate shape — step pyramids equipped with staircases, leading to presumed viewing-temples on the topmost platform — would make sense. The partly exposed facade reveals sculpted decorations in which the ser- pent symbol of Quetzalcoatl alternates with a stylized face of Tlaloc against a background of wavy waters Fig.

This pyr- amid is ascribed to Toltec times and is akin to many other Mexi- can pyramids.

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Figure 13 The two larger pyramids, by contrast, are totally undecor- ated. They are of a different size and shape and stand out in their massiveness and antiquity. Although, in order to enable their use as observatories, the two great pyramids of Teotihuacan were built as step-pyramids topped by platforms and equipped with stairways as the Meso- potamian ziggurats had been , there can be no doubt that their 49 Realm of the Serpent Gods architect was acquainted with the Giza pyramids in Egypt and, except for adjusting the outer shape, emulated the unique Giza pyramids. The similarities are especially obvious between the two greater pyramids.

Both are built on artificial platforms. Their sides measure almost the same: While such similarities and correspondences bespeak a hid- den link between the two sets of pyramids, one need not ignore the existence of certain and considerable differences. The Great Pyramid of Giza is built of large stone blocks, carefully shaped and matched and held together without mortar, weighing an aggregate 7,, tons with a mass of 93,, cubic feet.

The Sun Pyramid was built of mud bricks, adobe, pebbles, and gravel, held together by a sheath of crude stones and stucco, with an aggregate mass of only 10,, cubic feet. The Giza pyramid contains an inner complex of corridors, galleries, and chambers of intricate and precise construction; the Teotihuacan pyramid does not appear to have such inner structures. The one at Giza rises to a height of feet, the Sun Pyramid including the erstwhile uppermost temple to a mere The Great Pyra- mid has four triangular sides that rise at the tricky angle of 52 degrees; the two at Teotihuacan consist of stages that rest one atop the other, with sides that slope inward for stability, begin- ning with a slope of 43Vi degrees.

But in the very last difference lies, hitherto unnoticed to all previous researchers, a key to the solution of some puzzles. The rather steep angle of 52 degrees has been attained in Egypt only in the Giza pyramids, which were built neither by Cheops or any other Pharaoh as proven in previous books of The Earth Chronicles but by the gods of the ancient Near East, as beacons for landing at their spaceport in the Sinai peninsula.

The lesson was learned when the Pharaoh Sneferu circa b. In a brilliant analysis of the ancient events, K. His pyramid, the earliest pharaonic one that still stands at Sakkara , was a step pyramid that rose in six stages Fig. Is it by mere chance that the precise degree angle adopted by the Pharaoh Zoser and perfected in his step-pyra- mid was followed at Teotihuacan?

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Whereas shal- lower angle, say 45 degrees, could have been attained by an unsophisticated architect simply by diving in two a right angle 90 degrees , the 43 Vi degree angle resulted in Egypt from a sophisticated adaptation of the factor Pi about 3. The angle of degrees was attained by reducing the height from a final multiple of four to a multiple of three.


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  4. In both instances, knowledge of pi was required; and there is abso- lutely nothing to indicate such knowledge among the peoples of Mesoamerica. How then did the degree angle appear in the structures of the two unique to Mesoamerica pyramids of Teo- tihuacan, if not through someone familiar with the constructions of the Egyptian pyramids? Except for the unique Great Pyramid of Giza, Egyptian pyr- amids were equipped only with a lower passageway see Figs. Should one ascribe to mere coincidence the existence of such a passageway under the Pyramid of the Sun?

    Also avoid publisher series, unless the publisher has a true monopoly over the "works" in question. So, the Dummies guides are a series of works. But the Loeb Classical Library is a series of editions, not of works. Home Groups Talk Zeitgeist. The 12 Days of LT scavenger hunt is going on. Can you solve the clues? I Agree This site uses cookies to deliver our services, improve performance, for analytics, and if not signed in for advertising.

    Your use of the site and services is subject to these policies and terms. Common Knowledge Series Lost Realm. I felt so sad for Fenton. I mean poor guy is just trying to find himself and feel. Fenton is born special. He goes off with his friend so he doesn't lose him and than is humiliated. His friend walks away and Fenton starts over lost and alone.

    Series: Lost Realm

    He meets someone and thinks this is it and for awhile it is but that goes by the wayside as well. Fenton does get bitter. He gets angry but does in a way understand. So Fenton goes and goes but suddenly hears about someone who may help him. I don't know but I am interested in finding out. Kate Aaron has written a interesting take on this lonely vampire who is just trying to feel something anything.

    Reading this short story made me feel like I was reading the background notes an author makes to do their character background and world-building. It was interesting but I never felt like I got to know the main character. Throughout the centuries that this story entails, there is no depth to the MC. If this was to give the reader a sense of the MC's loneliness, then it doesn't really work. It just made for a flat main character. I received this for free through an offer from the author on a Goodreads forum.

    A very curious material and subject of fantasy transformed into a rushed, under-developed attempt of a story-telling that ends leaving you an impression it was cut off or strangled or simply left untold I am sorry to give this rating for the author whom I discovered through some very engagingly written stories such as "What He Wants? Get to Know Us.