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Requiem in D minor, K.626 (Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus)
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Creative Commons Attribution 4. Work Title Requiem Alt ernative. Requiem aeternam choir with soprano solo, D minor II. Duration 60 minutes Composer Time Period Comp. Retrieved from " http: Authorship Note Mozart's Requiem was unfinished at the time of his death. Libera me Domine by Seyfried was written as a continuation of the Requiem. Contents 1 Performances 1. Live recording from the Salzburg Festival. First issuing was in by Archipel.
The trombones then announce the entry of the choir, which breaks into the theme, with the basses alone for the first measure, followed by imitation by the other parts. The chords play off syncopated and staggered structures in the accompaniment, thus underlining the solemn and steady nature of the music.
A soprano solo is sung to the Te decet hymnus text in the tonus peregrinus also known as the 9th Gregorian mode. The choir follows along on the same motifs.
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Then, the principal theme is treated by the choir and the orchestra in downward-gliding sixteenth-notes. The courses of the melodies, whether held up or moving down, change and interlace amongst themselves, while passages in counterpoint and in unison e. The Kyrie follows without pause attacca. It is a double fugue also on a Handelian theme: The first three measures of the altos and basses are shown below. The contrapuntal motifs of the theme of this fugue include variations on the two themes of the Introit.
At first, upward diatonic series of sixteenth-notes are replaced by chromatic series, which has the effect of augmenting the intensity. This passage shows itself to be a bit demanding in the upper voices, particularly for the soprano voice. A final portion in a slower Adagio tempo ends on an "empty" fifth, a construction which had during the classical period become archaic, lending the piece an ancient air.
The Dies irae opens without introduction but instead with a show of complete orchestral and choral might. The choir is reinforced with an orchestral tremolo. Immediately after, the first violins play more chromatic scales of sixteenth-notes until the reprise of the choral passage.
A passage with great effect repeats itself three times: Two measures later, the bass soloist enters, imitating the same theme. The final quarter notes of the bass soloist herald the arrival of the tenor, followed by the alto and soprano in dramatic fashion. On the text Cum vix justus sit securus "When only barely may the just one be secure" , there is a switch to a homophonic segment sung by the quartet at the same time, articulating, without accompaniment, the cum and vix on the "strong" 1st and 3rd , then on the "weak" 2nd and 4th beats, with the violins and continuo responding each time; this "interruption" which one may interpret as the interruption preceding the Last Judgment is heard sotto voce , forte and then piano to bring the movement finally into a crescendo into a perfect cadence.
A descending melody composed of dotted notes is played by the orchestra to announce the Rex tremendae majestatis "King of tremendous majesty", i. For a surprising effect, the Rex syllables of the choir fall on the second beats of the measures, even though this is the "weak" beat.
The choir then adopts the dotted rhythm of the orchestra, forming what Wolff calls baroque music 's form of " topos of the homage to the sovereign"  , or, more simply put, that this musical style is a standard form of salute to royalty, or, in this case, divinity. This movement consists of only 22 measures, but this short stretch is rich in variation: At measures, the Recordare is the work's longest movement, as well as the first in triple meter 3 4 ; the movement is a setting of no fewer than seven stanzas of the Dies irae.
The form of this piece is somewhat similar to sonata form , with an exposition around two themes mm. In the first 13 measures, the basset horns are the first the present the first theme, enriched by a magnificent counterpoint by cellos in descending scales that are reprised throughout the movement. This counterpoint of the first theme prolongs the orchestral introduction with chords, recalling the beginning of the work and its rhythmic and melodic shiftings the first basset horn begins a measure after the second but a tone higher, the first violins are likewise in sync with the second violins but a quarter note shifted, etc.
The introduction is followed by the vocal soloists; their first theme is sung by the alto and bass from m. Each time, the theme concludes with a hemiola mm. The second theme arrives on Ne me perdas , in which the accompaniment contrasts with that of the first theme.
Instead of descending scales, the accompaniment is limited to repeated chords. This exposition concludes with four orchestral measures based on the counter-melody of the first theme mm. The development of these two themes begins in m. After two orchestral bars mm. Then, the second theme is reused on ante diem rationis ; after the four measures of orchestra from 68 to 71, the first theme is developed alone.
The recapitulation intervenes in m. The initial structure reproduces itself with the first theme on the text Preces meae and then in m. The second theme reappears one final time on m. The final measures of the movement recede to simple orchestral descending contrapuntal scales.
The Confutatis begins with a rhythmic and dynamic sequence of strong contrasts and surprising harmonic turns.
Accompanied by the basso continuo , the male choristers burst into a forte vision of the infernal, on a dotted rhythm. The accompaniment then ceases alongside the male voices, and the female voices enter softly and sotto voce , singing Voca me cum benedictis "Call upon me with the blessed" with an arpeggiated accompaniment in strings. This spectacular descent from the opening key is repeated, now modulating to the key of F major. A final seventh chord carries us to the Lacrimosa.
The chords begin piano on a rocking rhythm in 12 8 , intercut with quarter rests, which will be reprised by the choir after two measures, on Lacrimosa dies illa "This tearful day". Then, after two measures, the sopranos begin a diatonic progression, in disjointed eighth-notes on the text resurget "will be reborn" , then legato and chromatic on a powerful crescendo. The choir is forte by m. Discovery of a fragmentary Amen fugue in Mozart's hand has led to speculation that it may have been intended for the Requiem. Indeed, many modern completions such as Levin's complete Mozart's fragment.
The first movement of the Offertorium, the Domine Jesu, begins on a piano theme consisting of an ascending progression on a G minor triad. The four soloists then enter a canon on Sed signifer sanctus Michael , switching between minor in ascent and major in descent. Between these thematic passages are forte phrases where the choir enters, often in unison and dotted rhythm, such as on Rex gloriae "King of glory" or de ore leonis "[Deliver them] from the mouth of the lion".
Two choral fugues follow, on ne absorbeat eas tartarus, ne cadant in obscurum "may Tartarus not absorb them, nor may they fall into darkness and Quam olim Abrahae promisisti et semini eius "What once to Abraham you promised and to his seed". The movement concludes on a homophonic reprise of Quam olim Abrahae et semini eius in G major.
An overtaking chromatic melody on Fac eas, Domine, de morte transire ad vitam "Make them, Lord, from death to transit to life" finally carries the movement into D major, when it enters into another rendition of the Quam olim Abrahae promisisti et semini eius fugue. The words "Quam olim da capo" are likely to have been the last Mozart wrote; this portion of the manuscript has been missing since it was stolen at World's Fair in Brussels by a person whose identity remains unknown. D major, generally used for the entry of trumpets in the Baroque era. After a succinct glorification of the Lord follows a short fugue in 3 4 on Hosanna in excelsis "Glory [to God] in the highest" , noted for its syncopated rhythm, and for its motivic similarity to the Quam olim Abrahae fugue.
The Sanctus's ending on a D major cadence necessitates a mediant jump to this new key. The Benedictus is constructed on three types of phrases: The word benedictus is held, which stands in opposition with the B phrase, which is first seen at m. The phrase develops and rebounds at m. The rest of the movement consists of variations on this writing. Phrase B follows at m. This carries the movement to a new Mozartian cadence in mm. Homophony dominates the Agnus Dei. To get the free app, enter mobile phone number. See all free Kindle reading apps. Start reading Domine Jesu, No.
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