Joan was born in , the daughter of a tenant farmer at Domremy, on the borders of the duchies of Bar and Lorraine. In , the Hundred On May 8, , Joan of Arc , a teenage French peasant, successfully led a French force to break the siege.
In , she was Two factors lay at the origin of the conflict: On this day in , Joan Collins, a classically trained actress who will become best known for her role on the s prime-time soap opera Dynasty, is born in London, England. The daughter of a theatrical booking agent, Collins made her theater debut at the age of nine, in a In , Charlemagne became king of the Franks, a Germanic tribe in present-day Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and western With her smoldering looks and guitar hooks, Joan Jett had rock-star charisma to rival any man's.
Jett burst onto the scene as a solo artist with "I Love Rock 'n' Roll," the three-chord anthem that topped the Billboard pop chart on March 20, The Knights Templar was a large organization of devout Christians during the medieval era who carried out an important mission: A wealthy, powerful and mysterious order From Witch to Saint In the trial that followed, Joan was ordered to answer to some 70 charges against her, including witchcraft, heresy and dressing like a man. Misattributed [ edit ] One life is all we have, and we live it as we believe in living it, and then it's gone.
But to surrender what you are, and live without belief - that's more terrible than dying - more terrible than dying young. Quote is often seen as attributed to Joan of Arc. However, the quote is actually a line from a script for the Broadway play entitled Joan of Lorraine by Maxwell Anderson which later become a movie in entitled Joan of Arc directed by Victor Fleming and starring Ingrid Bergman. Wikipedia has an article about: Questions followed concerning her sword and her standard, which the assessors asked her to describe in particular detail.
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The session concluded with questioning about the siege at Orleans and the assault against the town of Jargeau. Regarding the former, she stated that "she did indeed" know beforehand that she would be wounded, and that she "had told her king so". She was in fact wounded by an arrow between the neck and left shoulder as she was helping to raise a ladder against the fortress of Les Tourelles.
Following the usual disagreements over the oath, the session then turned to certain letters exchanged between herself and the Count of Armagnac concerning which of the three Papal claimants was the true Pope.
Joan of Arc
Joan stated that she "believed in our Holy Father the Pope at Rome" and that she "had never written nor caused to be written anything concerning the three sovereign Pontiffs". Other letters which she had dictated were then brought up. Joan was then asked many detailed questions concerning the saints called "apparitions" by the questioner, Pierre Cauchon who she believed visited her.
She was asked whether they were male or female, did they have hair, what language they spoke, etc. Margaret spoke English, she replied: She was then asked about her rings and whether she attempted to effect cures thereby, to which she replied: They also asked her whether she had a mandrake a figurine for invoking demons , to which she replied: And finally she was asked again about the sign which was given to her King whereby he recognized her and her mission and again she refused to answer any questions on this subject, saying "Go and ask him. After taking the oath in the same form as before, the questioning turned once again to the appearance of the Saints whom she claimed to see.
Addressing the question of a future escape, she said that the saints in her visions "told me that I shall be delivered, but I do not know the day or the hour. Turning again to the question of her adoption of soldier's attire, she was asked if she had worn it "by revelation. Many other questions about this matter were put to her which she refused to answer. But it did transpire that, on several occasions, she had been offered women's clothing and asked to put off her male attire but she replied that she "would not put it off without God's leave.
Many other questions about her standard and pennons and those of her followers ensued. She replied that they were made of "white satin, and on some there were fleur-de-lis. After briefly describing her meeting with Friar Richard at Troyes , the questioning turned to the issue of paintings of Joan "At Arras , I saw a painting of myself done by the hands of a Scot" and the response of the common people to her — the kissing of her rings, hands, garments, and the like. Joan was then asked about her meeting with Catherine de La Rochelle, a French mystic who likewise claimed to have revelations from God.
Joan said her saints had described Catherine as "folly and nothing more". Finally, the session closed with some questions about Joan's escape attempt from the castle at Beaurevoir, where she was held for a number of months by her Burgundian captors. She stated that although her visions forbade it, "from fear of the English, I leaped and commended myself to God" and "in leaping was wounded", further stating that she would "rather surrender her soul to God than fall into the hands of the English".
Questioning resumed, this time in her prison cell, with only a handful of assessors present. Joan described the action outside Compiegne when she was taken prisoner by the Burgundians. Asked about the role of her saints in this action, Joan reported that "Easter week last, when I was in the trenches at Melun, I was told by my voices. John's Day," adding that "it had to be so" and that "I should not be distressed, but take it in good part, and God would aid me.
She was then asked about her banner and the meaning of the designs painted thereon. Finally, the session closed with questions about the sign she gave to Charles as proof of her mission. Joan was questioned concerning the first meeting with her King when he was shown a sign. She further stated that they her saints "often come without my calling, but sometimes if they did not come, I would pray God to send them", adding "I have never needed them without having them. Later, when commenting on when she first heard her voices, Joan said that she "vowed to keep her virginity as long as it should please God" adding that she was then "thirteen years old, or thereabouts".
She said that she had not told anyone of her visions neither her parents, nor her priest, nor any churchman , except Robert de Baudricourt. Asked whether she thought it was right to leave her parents without permission, she responded that she did so at the command of God and therefore "it was right to do so," further stating that "afterwards, I wrote to them, and they forgave me.
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Joan was asked concerning a dream which her father had prior to her leaving Domremy. She replied that she was "often told by my mother that my father spoke of having dreamed that I would go off with men-at-arms" and that she had heard her mother tell how "my father said to my brothers 'in truth, if I thought this thing would happen which I have dreamed about my daughter, I would want you to drown her; and if you would not, I would drown her myself'.
The questioning then turned again to her adoption of male attire. She answered that the decision to adopt same was "of her own accord, and not at the request of any man alive. The bulk of this session was taken up with a discussion of the "sign" shown to the King Charles when Joan first met him at Chinon.
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When asked whether she had sworn to St. Catherine not to tell the sign, Joan replied, "I have sworn and promised not to tell this sign, of my own accord". Nevertheless, she then went on to describe the sign and the meeting in detail. She described an angel bringing the King a crown of pure gold, rich and precious, which was put in the King's treasure. She added that when she first came to the King accompanied by the angel, she told him, "Sire, this is your sign; take it.
The questioning then turned to the assault on Paris. She stated that she went to Paris not at the behest of a revelation, but "at the request of nobles who wanted to make an attack" adding that "after it had been revealed to me. The morning session of March 14 began with lengthy questioning concerning Joan's leap from the tower at Beaurevoir where she had been held captive prior to being delivered to the English.
She gave as one of the reasons for the leap that she knew she "had been sold to the English, and I would have died rather than fall into the hands of my enemies the English.
Asked directly whether, in leaping from the tower, she expected to kill herself, Joan replied, "No, for as I leaped I commended myself to God. The questioning then turned to her Saints and the light which accompanied them when they spoke to her. She stated that there was not a day when they did not come, and that they were always accompanied by a light. She asked three things of her voices: The prisoner was asked about a warning which she had given to Bishop Cauchon. She reported her words as follows:.