Deligny is also interested by photography, seen as an another trace. For it fixes the image without objectifying it. It calls for legends. The complexity of the editing and the great diversity of the focal distances called for a dense and turbulent type of layout, with bright whites and dense blacks. The avatars of fiction are followed by the peace and quiet of an idealized document, focused on Janmari. The layout highlights a few descriptive sequences, which turn the film into a very precious tool for the analysis of the way of life of the network.
While never trying to undo the share of legend he voluntarily kept alive, these introductions re-establish some of the historic facts, on the background of which his action and work come to light. The whole work bears the sign of this double demand. Deligny gave up early on becoming one.
For entering literature was not compatible with dedication to work, with the daily risks of care, whether institutional or not. Deligny risked experimentation and failure. In the sixties, he offers alternatives to the cult of the collective and of freedom of expression, in which he sees the hypostasis of the psychological, consumerist subject: His propositions at the time voluntarily go against the tide of history.
In the practical activities of the network, he uses art, which he characterizes as a gesture for nothing and as a memory of forms. Against the libertarian illusion of May 68, he offers to restore the principle of authority: Deligny was a man of order, as Jacques Allaire presented him. Such stands come from a critique of language, which lead Deligny to live with autistic children. Such an approach could develop only with the observation of acute autistics, suffering from such severe disorders that the very access to the word was jeopardized for good.
It was founded in It refers both to the childlike stick-figure and to the subject. In English, Fossils have it rough only translates the first meaning. The child was mute, lively, adroit; he discovered buried springs, caught wasps by their wings without hurting them, lived in the hamlet from his powerful presence and unvarying journeys. Il a douze ans. Je le lui tendais le plus souvent au-dessus de la page de droite. Il reposait le graphite, et je lui tendais cette fois le stylo en faisant un claquement de langue: In November , she proposed that Janmari trace in a sketchbook.
Until May , they met in her studio three or four times a week. I handed a ballpoint or felt-tip pen to Janmari, and he began a series of small waves or circles. Depending on which side I extended the pen to him, he began on either the left-hand page or the right-hand page. I usually handed it to him above the right-hand page. On reaching the bottom of the page, he turned the page himself and continued on the right-hand page, and so on. He traced with his right hand.
Sometimes he used his left hand, in which case he began in the middle of the page.
He quickly became tired at the time, and he sometimes stopped before the end of the first page. Whenever I traced a vertical line from top to bottom, Janmari completed the rectangle by tracing the other three sides on his own. Soon I no longer needed to draw the line on the page. I just made the gesture in the air, and he drew all four sides.
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Then he set the pen down; I handed it back to him again, and he filled the frame with little circles or wavelets. We made the grids together. I began to sketch the left-hand vertical line in the air, Janmari traced the frame and then put down the pen; I performed the gesture of the second vertical line in the air, he traced it and aligned the others. He set the pen down before making circles again, from top to bottom, respecting the separations formed by the vertical lines.
I tried to vary the shapes. When he began a series of wavelets or circles, I sometimes took a piece of graphite and laid it flat on the paper. Janmari took it and traced a rectangle. He set down the graphite, and this time I handed him the pen while clucking my tongue. He immediately responded by resuming the circles or wavelets and filling the rectangle without going outside the frame. As for the graphite circle, I often had to get him started in the air. But not always—Janmari could trace it entirely by himself. Clucking my tongue could cause him to switch from one sign to another, which was how one day, when he had begun tracing circles, I made the sound, and he switched to tracing wavelets up to the right-hand edge of the page.
Then he resumed the circles, on the left, and I made the sound again and he drew wavelets. After a while, he internalized this rhythm and alternated on his own—sometimes with a certain difficulty—between circles and wavelets, which ended up forming two columns. When he had finished a page, I sometimes handed him a colored pencil.
He colored the circles, beginning and ending whenever and wherever he wanted. One day, I interrupted him while he was tracing circles; I traced colored bands, and he continued the circles, keeping inside the limits of the bands.
It took him around ten or fifteen minutes to fill a page. During that time, I went to draw a bit farther away in the studio. Once he got to the bottom of the page, he continued or else waited for me to come back. He traced sitting down, but the sitting position was painful for him he was ill at the end of his life , and around April, he started to stand. He traced more slowly, his circles and wavelets becoming less regular, and he lost strength.
He died one month after tracing the last page. Essay by Bertrand Ogilvie. About Extracts Exhibitions In French. The map constitutes the path that leads us to this unsuspected place in which the mute child stands, and where the adult will be able to stand in turn, hoping to transform himself into a sign and become an opportunity for a relationship, an act.
This is what the entire project of the maps is about: This is how, through a sort of choreographic invitation or provocation, paths and journeys, roamings and routes interweave until shared dances, both trivial and sublime, unpredictably appear around the most basic and essential gestures of life. Little by little, the autistic children join in the common activities. However, these seemingly identical activities must be named differently depending on who carries them out. The fact that they are shared, carried out in common, does not mean that they are identical.
Washing, preparing, planning, cutting, cooking, distributing, and collecting: Deligny goes so far as to refuse to name what is happening then imitation? Using the infinitive form also eludes the problem of the subject. As Nietzsche says, we are trapped in the prejudice of grammar that every verb requires a subject.
He understood that this thought requires a different mediation in order to be effective: He expresses an anti-normative position that may cause a scandal and be hotly debated, but he does not do so from a simple, normative position. Deligny situates himself beyond such problems: Deligny was not a psychiatrist. In fact, he preferred to call the children mute rather than autistic.
From one place to another, different hands did the tracing: The modes of transcription also change: Superimposing tracing paper caused a centripetal territory to appear inside which the children circulated in every direction, drawn by presences, gestures, objects, or nodes of life. Objects were interspersed throughout the territory: Il est le fils de Camille Deligny et de Louise Laqueux. Il supprime les sanctions. Guy Aubert enregistre les sons.
Les demandes de stages se multiplient. Trente est un mot qui peut se redire. Il y en avait un autre, le surveillant, qui passait deux ou trois fois par jour. Il est perdu dedans. Il en sort pas. Il ne rigolait pas du tout. Il y pensait vraiment. Tout en pensant, je corrigeais: Pas de compromis possible. Alors, autant ne plus vouloir. Il attendrait les autres. Il a fini par le dire: Il ne finirait jamais. Autant dire sur la page. Une lettre minuscule en initiale y suffira donc: Car il y a un reste. Il y a ce voir et se voir. La voix est trace? Dans un lieu nouveau, il explore avec minutie.
Il ne demande toujours rien. Balivernes pour un pote , Paris, Seghers, coll. Nature et pouvoir et nature du pouvoir , Paris, Hachette, coll. Passe encore pour la lune qui peut se voir et donc se dire. Il en sera de ma mort comme de ma naissance, absolument involontaire. Six petits corps gris. Il invente un dispositif spatial, des coutumes, une cartographie, une langue infinitive. Et cette tentative surprend par sa robustesse tranquille et fait mirage: Je les voyais, les escargots, qui se vadrouillaient, tranquilles, sur la tapisserie grand luxe.
Je lui disais, au gars:. On allait croire que je me mouchais avec ma manche. Ce discours est de toujours. Et il y a des tribunaux pour enfants et adolescents, il y a des psychologues. Il y a ceux qui disent: Nous sommes le 14 juillet Quelquefois, en arrivant, vers neuf heures, je voyais un mur abattu.
Il arrive au plancher. Il est assis contre le mur. Le sang va emplir le creux. Leur paquet sous le bras et leurs souliers sans lacets aux pieds, ils suivraient. Je te mets en prison. Tu me mets en prison. Il en arrive un tout seul. Il ne vient pas de prison. Moi, je demandais un ballon de football. Ce qui ne se voit pas Prenez le mot comme vous voulez: Il dissimule son parcours universitaire, bref il est vrai: Ce texte sert de prologue au recueil. Il engage une nouvelle tentative avec des enfants autistes et entame sa longue croisade contre le langage. Il invente un dispositif spatial, des coutumes, une cartographie, une langue.
Entre et , Deligny publie sept livres. Il cite Jean Epstein. Que sont ces pages? La correspondance est immense. Les images y occupent une grande place. The answer is simple: How do you envisage readers tackling it?
In this book, I treat the two as equals: I want to stay close to the artistic activity itself. Hallucination is a critique of reality, whereby the mind produces the effects of actual perception: Hallucination was the core around which this discipline was constructed since, in the early s, anyone who suffered from hallucinations was considered mad. There seem to be two possible outcomes of hallucination: Here we come back to Flaubert, who distinguishes between joy and terror.
This is fundamental for him since it allows him to separate pathological hallucination, which operates on the side of terror, from artistic hallucination, which is joyful. The basis of the psychiatric definition is that hallucination substitutes the perceptual field with another that is utterly hallucinatory: However, this substitution implies the negation of the here and now, of the events one is actually perceiving.
In my book, I devote a number of pages to this fundamental negativity of hallucination. It is important to add that hallucination is not purely visual, of course, but auditory and verbal: This is a question that I answer only tangentially in the book. There are, of course, cases in which adults have no recourse to language; for instance, if they suffer from one of the many language-related pathological conditions, the most extreme of which is autism.
In my opinion, however, the notion of hallucination in adults who have no access to language is irrelevant, since they have no possibility of putting into words their hallucinatory experience and may subsequently be living in a perpetual state of hallucination. Psychiatry has already identified the phenomenon of people existing in a kind of permanent oeneiric state, but this is not the same thing as dreaming, since when we refer to dreams in the history of the human psyche we mean the spoken or written accounts of dreams. Like the psychiatrists of the 19th century, the Surrealists were very interested in the hypnagogic state, as this place between sleep and wakefulness is an intermediate zone where consciousness and inner vision occur at the same moment, and the temporal fissure between a dream dreamt and a dream recounted no longer exists.
There is no gap, just the intermediate space. Was one of the deciding factors for which artists to profile in your book whether they were considered to be mad? I believe that hallucination is a common occurrence, one not limited by definitions of mental illness. Surrealism naturally has a strong presence in the book as well, since it is one of the key moments in history when poets and artists became deeply interested in hallucination.
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I also touch on the history of Art Brut as put forward by Jean Dubuffet in the wake of Surrealism, but I rather ignore the questions it raises since they are peripheral to my argument. My scope is broader; the narrative starts with William Blake. Ultimately, however, I decided to start with Blake because I felt I had more original things to say about him, and because he is inextricably both a poet and an artist, which I find very interesting. Although Goya is a great Enlightenment figure, he is not a poet.
With Blake, not only are we right on the threshold of the institutionalization of alienism but the question of whether he was actually insane is a matter of continual debate, so I try to respond to this question by building up a profile of Blake. I decided to end with Polke since — either through allusion or reminiscence — he references all those who punctuate the history of artistic hallucination. French psychiatrists were very anti-clerical at the start of the 19th century, as were their hypotheses on hallucination.
They were interested in historical figures, such as Joan of Arc or Socrates, who they studied closely with a view to drawing up a psychological portrait. A further level of complication was added by the fact that the visionaries themselves were often reticent about discussing their experiences, in case they were interpreted to be not divine interventions but the work of the devil. The 19th century saw the invention of photography but engraving was the medium that originally enabled books to accompany text with images.
Engraving allows a visionary activity to enter the realm of illustration. Odilon Redon is also a paradigmatic artist for you. He began his career in Bordeaux, working as a printmaker and illustrator, and went on to become an incredible colourist. You have continually drawn attention to him as an alternative starting point for, and a major influence on, what subsequently developed in 20th-century art. I think we should get rid of overly schematic categories in order to return to the art works themselves.
Terms such as Fauvism and Cubism came from the press and from critics; although, of course, there are also terms such as Surrealism that would be difficult to dispense with, since they were coined by artists themselves. You can do away with them entirely and still envisage the history of modern art as a continuum — albeit with interruptions and displacements, gaps and anachronisms.
Postmodernism as a concept really only has meaning in relation to architecture, and the term Modernism either refers in a socioeconomic context to an overall trend of modernization or to the very particular and plainly volatile definition put forward by Clement Greenberg. Do you mean in terms of the voluntary hallucinations of Arthur Rimbaud and, before him, Charles Baudelaire? From Rimbaud, you can trace a direct line of articulation all the way to the Surrealists.
The problem with Artaud is that his experience is far more violent than that of the other Surrealists. He suffered from a malaise deep within himself and, for him, voluntary hallucination was, above all, the search for a radical alternative to the state of the world at that time. He had intense feelings about how things should be and he suffered because he was disconnected from himself and from the world in a very severe way.
You read Artaud at a very young age and you have written widely on him. Is there a period in his life that most interests you? In my opinion, he is the greatest postwar artist — on a par with Jackson Pollock, but more interesting. That art rides on the back of literature and that the images are at the service of the texts? Do you favour literature over art?
In the book, there are many pairings of artists and writers: The comparison between Turner and Rimbaud is especially interesting: Rimbaud tips a flow of words on a page, chasing them around until he finds his form, as though he is working fast to shape hot magma before it cools; similarly, Turner pours paint onto the surface of his watercolour paper and pulls the image out from within this amorphous beginning. Space seems to play a similar role for each. Within the realm of individual mythology, descriptive accounts are spatialized, and this spatialization means that we are no longer within the linear schema associated with literature.
You could say that there is a tension within 20th-century art between the constructive dimension and the performative dimension. This tension is really fundamental and to properly perceive it you most likely have to go by way of hallucination. You can see a similar approach in the pictorial field of Polke. This play of images — extending the plane, producing a volume — is very important for me. When you curate an exhibition, you establish relationships between art works to develop an argument, but these relationships should also develop for themselves, beyond the intentions of the curator.
Your Artistic Hallucination project was originally meant to be an exhibition at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis but, in the wake of the financial crisis, the project was shelved. Has this perhaps pushed you to make the experience of the book as close as possible to the exhibition that you still hope to organize in the future?
Yes, the images in this book are not there to illustrate a discourse but should be capable of generating their own discourse, like in an exhibition — all the while acknowledging that the book is not an exhibition. One little-known artist who struck me as remarkable was Marguerite Burnat-Provins. In response to her hallucinations she created a sophisticated pictorial language that has a compelling trippiness to it, oscillating between an Art Nouveau graphic style and qualities that, although she was working around , feel akin to artists of the psychedelic era of the s, like Bruce Conner.
Women have been consistently underrated in art history and I am very much a feminist in this regard. The fact that women are not properly represented distorts everything! Dorothea Tanning was a wonderful artist but she has always been underrated because she had the misfortune — and also good fortune, since they were apparently happy together — to live with Max Ernst. Whether it be Kubin or Tanning, the descriptions artists give of their hallucinatory or visionary experiences constitute a kind of matrix or mould out of which they can later produce an art work.
In the 19th century, fine art underwent a huge crisis due to a new push towards realism brought about by the invention of photography, and the rise in the power of the media. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, artists were faced with an unprecedented freedom: This is marvellously apparent in the work of Matisse. Artists searched for inspiration in numerous fields, most notably in so-called primitive art: Subject matter was no longer derived from a repertoire: Well, hallucination is perceived to be a form of biographical transformation — Jacques Lacan defined hallucination as a biographical event.
There is little about photography in this book but it occupies an important place in your own career and writing. I have always been interested in photography because I felt it could cater to the demands of realism whilst unsettling a certain academization in the art of the late s. At that time, I was fed up with some of the formalist debates surrounding painting, particularly in France, and so photography seemed to me to be a tool that allowed contact with the real world.
But I never sided with an art form locked within current events or whose objective was focused on the here and now. Hallucination is a critique of reality, but one whereby the mind produces the effects of actual perception: In terms of my own work, this is the spur. Les sciences modernes du psychisme doivent beaucoup au vocabulaire de la philosophie antique. Les voix entendues font image. UBC Theses and Dissertations. Reframing Russia in France: University of British Columbia. In contrast to existing geopolitical, diplomatic and financial studies, this dissertation applies the tools of cultural history to investigate the genesis of the Franco-Russian alliance, from the French perspective.
Drawing on a broad range of sources spanning the textual, audiovisual and material domains - many hitherto unexplored - it argues that after France's humiliating defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, a significant cadre of extra-governmental actors began to promote and enable the move by the early Third Republic to forge an alliance with Russia, considered by many to be an improbable ally.
To forge an alliance, considerable geopolitical amnesia would be required; a new "politics of imagination" would be necessary, with a politics of persuasion to set it in place.