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Lisboa, Officina de Valentim da Costa Deslandes. Londres e Nova Iorque, Routledge, The Triumph of French Cuisine. Lisboa, Officina de Miguel Rodrigues. Lisboa, Clube dos Colecionadores do Correio. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. A Study in Comparative Sociology. Nova Iorque, Hippocrene Books. Nova Iorque, Harper and Row. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, A, , A Moveable Feast: Ten Millennia of Food Globalization.

A Biography of the Fish that Changed the World. Lisboa, Livraria Editora de Mattos Moreira. The Place of Sugar in Modern History. Lisboa, Typographia de M. Roma e Bari, Editori Laterza. Joseph da, , Agiologio Dominico. Lisboa, Officina de Ignacio Nogueira Xisto.

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Lisboa, Clube do Colecionador dos Correios. Lisboa, A Esfera dos Livros. Nadia, , The Breast of Aphrodite. Nova Iorque, Columbia University Press. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.

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The Significance of Nationhood in an Uncertain World. Houndsmills e Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Carreira da Silva orgs. Ethnographies of a Changing Global Foodscape. Londres, Bloomsbury Academic, Alfragide, Casa das Letras. An Anthropology of Food and Memory. Stanford, Stanford University Press. Oxford, Oxford University Press, Lisboa, Academia Real das Sciencias de Lisboa. Experiencing Food and Drink. Oxford e Nova Iorque, Berg, Food Feasts and Drinking in History.

Houndmills e Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, Nova Iorque, Thompson-Gale, In the area of language studies there are several projects dedicated to creating digital archives of texts ancient documents, correspondence or literary texts. In the more specific field of Theatre Studies one can cite the work of the Centro de Estudos de Teatro [Centre for Theatre Studies] at the University of Lisbon [14] , in existence since and providing a regular online presence since , with several digital archives and databases on Portuguese theater.

It is a relevant project for the interdisciplinary perspective, as well as the innovative combination of text analysis, relational databases and geographic information systems. Atlas of Literary Landscapes of Mainland Portugal The entanglement of the Humanities with digital technologies in Portugal has not been limited to the digitization, analysis and academic publication of texts.

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Digital Humanities and Historical Research: From early efforts to the Google era History and Archaeology are no specific or unique cases within the general framework of the evolution of Digital Humanities in Portugal, at least with regard to the chronology of this evolution. The beginnings are also situated in the late s and early s, but it was the following decade that saw one of the major periods of development of the field in the Portuguese academia.

There are however some peculiarities that justify an emphasis on these two disciplines, in particular concerning the methods used and tools adopted.

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  6. In , this machine was still unknown to the general public and was only recognized by a minority of researchers in the scientific community. It capitalized on the enthusiasm regarding the intersection between historical research and computing which was then growing internationally, with the publication of the first volume of the journal History and Computing in the same year. Already at that time she emphasized that in the application of computing to research methods in the Social Sciences and Humanities researchers needed to leave the comfort zone represented by the quantitative approach, and to focus increasingly on the qualitative domain.

    Despite all the initiatives and publications, the truth was that the application of digital technologies, was generally viewed with skepticism. The use of databases, whether for serial, demographic or prosopographic studies, subsequently became a marked trend, with several teams in universities all over the country using these software tools in their research projects.

    However, until the mids and with rare exceptions, the IT tools used in history projects were developed by engineers and computer technicians, often with no direct intervention from the humanists in the critical process of building the computer model data, for instance, which today is considered crucial for the development of databases applied to Humanities projects. The importance and relevance of digital resources available for historical research was widely acknowledged in the mids, and the potential of the Internet for the discipline was recognized.

    Atlas of Historical Cartography Associated with some of these projects that have privileged the use of relational databases and particularly with those who had a stark territorial component, the use of geographic information systems GIS has been developed from the mids.

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    Since then GIS work has been carried out in all Portuguese universities and with very diverse thematic and temporal perspectives of analysis. In History, the creation and online availability of digital archives has also generated much interest in academia, and examples of almost all universities and History research centres in the country can be used to illustrate this interest. In some recent works, the community of researchers linked to History and Archaeology felt the need to make a balance of the implementation of digital research methodologies in these two disciplines, although the main focus has been given to developments in international terms.

    From these studies we get the idea that Digital History and Digital Archaeology in Portugal today, as it occurred in the late s, again appear to be in a new phase of importing paradigms, this time centered on the incorporation of the discourse of the Digital Humanities. What we talk about when we talk about Digital Humanities in Portugal version 2.

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    One can rely on the elaboration of a distinct discourse, adapting and reconfiguring trends coming from the past or importing expressions, concepts, methods and problems of other disciplines or other academic communities, especially from abroad. Or, obviously, one can follow both paths parallelly. In the Portuguese case, the current trend seems to be the second strategy. To a large extent it is precisely in these centers that have arisen the very practice and discourse that tend to affirm the new field in Portugal. However, the process has been less systematic, more informal, and can only be detected by paying attention to other signs away from the formalism of institutions.

    Without absolute certainties, it is likely that the year was the turning point. There are several signs that point in this direction and they are visible either through teaching or research. Helena Barbas, one of the researchers already mentioned above, has sought to stimulate the field of Digital Humanities at the New University of Lisbon at least since by offering free courses, several graduate and master courses.

    In the Literary Studies area she has proven a pioneer in the adoption of either a digital perspective to teaching, or in the incorporation of designations that currently characterize the field. But from what has been determined in an online survey of curriculum guides from several universities, the expression remains virtually absent, with one exception. Nevertheless there remain other designations that although not incorporating the trendy expression, so to speak, may also be included in the field of Digital Humanities.

    Obviously, all these examples and others who might join them, demonstrate that the field of Digital Humanities existed before the expression was assigned to it. Probably the field already existed and continues to exist whether the imported designation is used or not. The number of results obtained with a combination of all these keywords in all search fields available, including the full text of publications is very low 17 publications in thousands of references available and is restricted to an even smaller number of researchers who were extensively involved in research in Humanities using Digital Technologies already before that date.

    A similar search carried out on PORBASE, the National Bibliographic Database [74] which aggregates the major national libraries highlights the absence of these expressions, whether the search is done in the subject or the title fields, which once again demonstrates that the appropriation of the discourse connected to this field of research in Portuguese academia is still very low.

    There are obviously exceptions and the last two years have seen an increased number of references.

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    See, for example, some works of Idalete Maria da Silva Dias, since , with several communications in congresses on the theme of Digital Humanities: There are also more recent and perhaps more symbolic cases of this appropriation of a new vocabulary to describe a practice already in use for a few decades, probably pursued now in order to give a new breath to the assertion of this field of research and teaching.

    Apparently the first reference in a blog entry was made in [78] , and only a few more references can be found. In conclusion, we can say that Digital Humanities in Portugal are in a period of transition. Taking into account the generic feature that is usually associated with this field — a strong link between research in the Humanities and the incorporation of methods and tools from Digital Technologies — then the practice and the practitioners of Digital Humanities in Portugal stem from the s.

    Nevertheless, recent developments show broad acceptance for the need to renew the affirmation of a perspective for research, practice, teaching and outreach that is increasingly interdisciplinary, collaborative and internationalized. In order to popularize this trend among the research community in the Humanities, a series of events and initiatives have taken place both in Portuguese and Spanish.

    Finally, the distinction between Digital Humanities and Digital History made in this article was more instrumental than indicative of the actual situation or desired. Digital History is an integral and very active part of the Digital Humanities just as History is part of the Humanities and Social Sciences. From my perspective, using Digital Humanities with its diversity of methods and potential for thematic richness in order to strengthen interdisciplinarity is a way of asserting the place and relevance of Digital Technologies in humanistic studies.

    Portugal, at the moment, is slowly walking this path and the recent impetus given by the introduction of the Digital Humanities discourse can be seen as a way to achieve that goal.