Thank you very much for your financial contribution! Each sponsor receives a credit on the acknowledgement page: If you check this box, the name as you enter it including the avatar from your e-mail and comment will be shown in recent donations. Your e-mail address and donation amount will not be shown. Haralovich, Mary Beth All That Heaven Allows. Color, Narrative Space and Melodrama. Angela Dalle Vacche and Brian Price eds. Color and the Moving Image. History, Theory, Aesthetics, Archive. Harvard Film Archive, item no. See Allen, Richard Photographs by Barbara Flueckiger.
Photographs of the safety print: For a detailed analysis see Brinckmann, Christine N. Cinematic Color as Likeness and as Artifact.
Amsterdam University Press, , pp. Images nouvelles pour films anciens, ou, La restauration de film et ses enjeux. Nouvelles images, approches nouvelles. Harris, Robert; Belton, John Robert Harris on Colour Restoration In: Film History , Vol. The Moving Image 4.
Report on the restoration in Professional Production , No. Timeline of Historical Film Colors. Several donors prefer to remain anonymous. Giorgio Trumpy , Research Scientist giorgio trumpy. Illustrated by Mark Brill. Illustrated by Kev Walker. Tutte le fonti da cui i mortali traggono forza sono dei varchi per il veleno. Quando i missionari di Selesnya si trasferirono nel Quartiere Shanav, dovettero affrontare il disprezzo, le beffe e infine il martirio. Illustrated by Chase Stone.
Le nostre risorse, a differenza delle loro, sono infinite. Illustrated by Scott M. Illustrated by Luca Zontini. Illustrated by Wayne England. Come costo addizionale per lanciare le Schegge d'Osso, sacrifica una creatura. Distruggi una creatura bersaglio. Illustrated by Deruchenko Alexander.
Passa in rassegna il tuo grimorio, scegli una carta con lo stesso costo di mana convertito di questa carta, rivelala e aggiungila alla tua mano. Poi rimescola il tuo grimorio. New chemistry, old agriculture. Primitive religions understood this feedback. The Antichrist 39 a form of feedback. The dichotomy is now no more than a phantasm.
It seemed, however, that Nietzsche had been the very first to recognize this form, to apply it to the pseudo-separation of the gods, to abhor Socrates and Plato who, in turn, abhorred the stray hair , mire and filth , and to aggrandize; it as the Eternal Return. If, without recompense, The Antichrist reverts to dichotomies, it marks nonetheless their breakdown. Philosophies of substance, of bodies, of things and the world; substantialisms or immediate materialisms, derived from agrarian practices.
This is familiar territory: There is air, water, fire , earth - and living beings are composed of these elements , born therefrom, returned to them , part of the cycle. States of matter and metamorphoses of states. As is often the case , as is always the case, the picture is put in place, sorted into classes that are still reunited in the same tableau by a law of reciprocal transformation.
Hence this certitude that there is nothing interstitial. Things are clean - since the dichotomy, sharp and clear, leaves no residue. And yet, the stray hair, the mire, the filth. Impossible to get an idea of them, or to make them into Ideas. The intelligible world has been laundered - in lustral waters, and at the hairdresser's. The Idea can only be clean, each hair in place, cropped, mireless, filthless, pure and purified: Filtered, differentiated, critiqued, and cleaned.
Pure Reason is pure, its hands are clean: This anguish is not restricted to idealists as one now says in order to designate varieties of realists: These malign powers of pestilence come from places outside this world, like clouds and mist" Lucretius, De rerum natura, VI. All that remains is a set of primitive entities and the force of interaction. One must begin, then, with the rain of Epicurus: Declination herds atoms together. Some of these, the germ-seeds , break up the force of interaction - whence decomposition, a return to the fall. Pieces of wood , clods of earth, as if rotted by the rains , engender small worms" Lucretius, De rerum natura, II.
It is raining, just as at the world's beginning- raining atoms upon the atomized, engendering the worm. Atom, worm, and seminal germ. A substantialism of the brink, of outer limits. The germ, at the furthermost limits of composition, reproduces the incoherent set, disrupting interaction: First or last fraction, the worm operates in the interstices - at the common boundary of matter and the living, at the cut-off point, first atom by the last. This fringe and this dissection must be retained: What is corruption if not rup ture?
These two sets will occupy us here, - for what is the limit, if not death? The Antichrist 4 1 and by Lucretius himself.
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What frightened people about Lucretius was not his materialism; it was this corruption that made even him shudder. We are once again decay- before , during, after. Dissolved, scattered, dispersed; broken, utterly and to the very limit. A good m any myths have come out of this, perhaps all of them. Has his poem ever been read as anything other than words?
And this forms the basis of physics, the catenated discourse of a comprehensible nature. But that is not comforting, or hardly at all. A scattered language and the dispersion of an intact body, letters dancing in clouds haphazardly and the world in fragments, are one and the same sadness , one and the same death. I have no guarantee that this sentence will end or that this word will join itself to others, that this tree will not suddenly turn to ashes before my eyes.
Primordial physics, original anguish. The physician, the philologist. Listen to the secret: The philosopher who has found this crowning strategy is ready to kill a God to put himself in His place. The social hierarchy is a function of fear: It collects, and capitalizes , the largest possible store of tools of enforcement- weapons and words - and thus perpetuates its domination over those who fearlosing their life, through hunger, violence and death, of losing their livelihood, their sexual pleasure, their health.
A matter of common knowledge, this business of overthrowing and stability. The one who holds power keeps it for as long as the fear he inspires is stronger than his own fear. The greatest terrors are induced by tormented despots. For this reason, Hobbes, along with nearly everybody else, wrote that fear is the basic human passion. And now whoever seeks out power must invent a new fear.
I emphasize new for the reason that the ratio of forces , at any given moment, is most often in favor of the one who is already in power: Quantitatively, the ratio favors him; hence the counter-tactic of qualitative variation. In every successful revolution, this dialectic has been understood to perfection. Capturing the enemy outside his own domain: It is easy to determine who is in command, if you can establish what it is that the oppressed fear above all else- at any given time and place and for any given culture - and who or what is inducing this anguish.
Today, fear of getting sick. The term 'sick' is the adjectival intercept of all ills; sickness has turned into the radical evil. You are afraid of being abnormal, afraid of getting sick, afraid of being demented. You are no longer afraid of starving to death, of being homeless, without covers or caresses. You are afraid of dying from sickness, not from an accident but from sickness.
What is especially interesting here is the imaginary status of this fear, inasmuch as there are no longer any, or hardly any, sicknesses. And yet you say, I am sick, he is sick, society and civilization are sick. And so it is that the real possessor of power- of moral, religious , cultural power, of economic and political power- is a very distinct, well-defined species of bourgeois: The Antichrist 43 philologists, etc.
The crusade against pollution disarms every political gathering- a promising sign. The first evidence we have o f this new state o f things are the writings o f Freud and Nietzsche. Our reading is frustrated -by the passion for dichotomies, the atavistic Iranian passion for good and evil, for health and sickness , for high and low, for hard solids and loose dust, for anything in general and its contrary, the upside down and the rightside up. Witness the ending of the evangelical litany: Ye are the salt of the earth. Do not lose the savor of salt.
If the savor is lost, it is no longer good for anything except to be thrown out and trodden under foot. Have salt in yourselves and live in peace one with another. Because it opposes fermentations, deteriorations , corruptions. It preserves, it checks the plague of war. One must have salt to live in peace. Nietzsche attacks Christianity on its own ground and the arena of combat is not the space of reversals but that of disintegration, not the dichotomy that eternally returns but the transvaluation of base matter: The New Testament is the metamorphosis of organic elements.
And that is what is new. This is my body, this is my blood. Listen to the Antichrist: Dionysian wine, dietetic bread. Bread and wine are substances, matter- living or inert? Before the chemistry of salts , crystals, organic ferments. Before Pasteur, nothing was settled, every kind of phantasm could be indulged in: All one and the same thing, having two opposed products , such as life and death, birth and corruption , genealogy and decadence.
Pasteur puts a definitive end to the De generatione et corruptione debate. Bread and wine are already transubstantiated substances. They have fermented in the dough and boiled in the must. The salt without savor, the wasted yeast, the withered branch - to be cast out. Before the miracle there was a first miracle. The azymous bread of Jewish ritual is unleavened. Panification, vinification are pre transubstantiations.
Did Christian ritual base itself upon a pre chemistry? Here, Nietzsche grasps, blindly, something to this effect: The real battle lies in this: It seems to me that Nietzsche's is a correct reading. At the wedding in Cana, water is changed to wine- Feuerbach missed the point of this entirely. Near the Samaritan's well, it is transformed into a draught of immortality. India, and the Fertile Crescent, Scandinavia and Hellenism. This new wine, which must not be poured into old bottles, is itself the blood, which must be drunk and shared for eternal life.
But, in the Passion of the Cross, with the thrust of a spear, this blood is changed to gall and water; the centurion's wine is only a vinegar sponge. I shall drain the cup to the dregs, the wine turns to vinegar, the blood becomes gall. Water remains, all ends in water where all began. The cycle loops back upon itself, a return to ordinary time. The Antichrist 45 to the end of time.
And if your brother asked you for bread and you gave him a stone instead? From inert stone to fermented bread; if the corn of wheat should die; ye are the leaven of the dough; facing Cana, the miracle of the loaves, abounding like life itself. This bread becomes the glorious body of eternity, dead now, missing from the sepulchre whose stone has been rolled away. The messenger within, seated upon a rock.
Thou art Peter and on this rock, I shall build a Church whereat the bread, the old stone of the wicked brother, will be the living body, baptized with a proper name. Peter, the rock, and the Stone Banquet, John, wine and blood. Don Juan or love. From stone to stone, the cycle is closed and begins again in the Church. In the presence of Christ, it rose into life. The stone seals the sepulchre. The cup circulates around the table.
I drink, thou drinkest , he drinks, we each drink in turn. Wine to the point of drunkenness, to the point of rupturing the principium individuationis. I am not the one who asserts this, it is Plautus, who , as far as I know, was not a Christian. The cup circulates still and the subjects have disappeared. I am you , but you, you are who? The one beside me, the other, the one opposite, or yet another? We, but who is "we"? Who is the subject? None other than the circulation. None other than the object of this circulation.
None other than the cup that circulates and the very object that is drunk. The blood of the body's circulation has become , for one moment, unanimous, the blood o f a new subject - eternal , doubtless, like the bonds uniting the group. Constitution of a unanimous body. The facts are plain: Peter contra John, one is obliged to choose, always. Once the body has become unanimous and solid, Judas leaves the feast and dies. Nietzsche did not fail to register the process: It changes its name as circumstances dictate: Socrates, for whom the wine of Bacchus is transformed into hemlock; and Christ, or rather Paul.
Paul drools it, not spirits, but gall. Drool , gall, blood rotten with poison. The action is repetitive, repeating itself in his work and repeating what the work treats. But as soon as Nietzsche presents it in these terms he is defeated in his program: And there one finds again the usual dichotomies and reversals of reversals - from one sacred to another, and nothing more. An enantiomorphic crystal, as Pasteur would say?
We must, then, speak of chemistry and, more particularly, of biochemistry, of biochemical therapeutics, to be precise. The operator of corruption is the fundamental operator of The Antichrist. The issue here is medical: Amid the night and fog of ambiguities even granite wears away once the vermin has penetrated. The Antichrist 47 in short, the products of this corruption.
A vermin or virus that all of us have, always, in our body. That is the diagnosis, whence the prognosis and the prescription: It must be starved out, cast out into the desert.
The pre-scription of a purge: Whoever Has not dressed for the wedding is beaten , starved, cast into the desert. The Antichrist is an Ante-Christ. The Nietzschean physician comes before the revolution of Pasteur. But the complete network of chemical reactions has already crystallized in other spheres. Treatise ofHippocratic medicine, treatise of the purgative: Nietzsche is of his time, sharing such pseudo-scientific follies along with the rest of Europe.
A treatise of medicine grossly defective by virtue of its pre-Pasteurian phantasms - about which Pasteurian science , at least in the social arena, could do nothing. Obsessional phantasm of cleanliness, transmitted to us by a Victorian puritanism, beyond and contrary to science.
Not a treatise on tragedy, its origins or its rules, but a tragedy in writing, functioning as a tragedy. Decomposition of the Roman empire and decadence of Europe, the spectacle of corruption spreading over humanity, designation of the worm that, as it multiplies , multiplies the gangrene, Paul, the priest, the Christian, advent of the physician and expulsion of the type.
Typology of vermin, topology of expulsion, catharsis. Exclusion of the Chandala. A time will come, is fated to come, when he will sign himself Dionysus. In the voyages toward Iran , India and the Semitic civilizations , the course set by The Birth of Tragedy is kept to , its range extended. From Hippocrates to Sophocles, from the worm to the proper name of the type, from medicine to tragedy, from purgative to catharsis, from Hellenism to western humanity: Fascism, be it said in passing, will arise in Europe out of this obsession: Rene Girard has dealt with this very well and I will not elaborate on it here.
Hence this conclusion, unavoidable by sheer weight of evidence: The Antichrist is not an antireligious treatise, not even a treatise on the history of religions; it is a treatise of religion, a religious treaty, a hierogony. Christ signifies the anointed, the sacred; Antichrist , before the sacred. Resuming - by the reinscription of tragedy, the birth of tragedy; by the resumption of biochemistry, the origin of life, the origin of life's knowledge.
And thus the declared program is carried out. We are at the third stage, scientific knowledge. I say the virus and it is a virus; I say that it must be passed through the fire and I seek out a fire that can kill the worm. But this operation has, for millenia, been performed on other terrains, on the same culture. The culture broth is aptly named: The vermin is the invalid positive stage ; the invalid has been declared to be evil metaphysical stage ; and the evil, malevolent one turns out to be SOMEONE religious stage.
In the classical age, scientific discourse passed over into philosophy, without translation - in its results and its semantics. Only its syntax is carried over now and no one sees anything more in it. A fine trick has been played. That Descartes was a geometer and Leibniz an algebrist is obvious to all but the blind; it is a little more difficult to read the mechanics of Marx, the physics of Freud, and the chemistry ofNietzsche. It can be apprehended at the level of the signifier: And yet, he maintains, I use corruption as a word free of moral toxin.
The Antichrist 49 "moralin," ''. What remains is the preparation, the primary mixture. The whole process is chemical: Corruption is indeed a reaction , the fundamental reaction, repeated countless times in the text - whence the dynamic valuation of the operation, like a valuation in chemical thermodynamics. In the course of this production energies are in play.
Energies over time , that is to say, a power. It thrives on failing energy, on its dissipation, its entropic devaluation, its decadence. And if science makes a law of this decline, one must then overturn this science, produce an increase in power, will the vital transvaluation of power and hence will the eternal return - that is, perpetual motion of the second kind.
But Nietzsche also says grace , for the second: Swamplands of reaction , of corruption: A decline in power brings decadence and reaction. A rise in power must be willed; it is neither natural nor inevitable. The eternal return and the exclusion ofreason, of that feeble scientific reason that asserted the contrary. Christianity is the abasement of power. Try to produce the incorruptible, or the indecomposable, or the infrangible.
The deviation of Hyperboreans. Stone, ice , the deep-frozen; in the cold place beyond death; the deafened man; Peter in the garden: As north and south, crystallization at the antipodes, at a maximum deviation from decay. The sirocco , the south wind, will unmake the crystallized, frozen stone; it remobilizes power; the elements dance haphazardly, go no matter where, without a yes , without a no, to the labyrinth of perilous admixture- towards reaction, equalized energies, decay.
Two chemical states in opposition: The goal, in any case: The distillation, as is often the case, is effected by sublimation. The element retained is exceptionally small, almost nothing: It is straightforward science: Through pity the loss of force increases and multiplies. By way of confirmation, the amount thus lost is incommensurable - irrational ratios are, after all, ab surd - with the quantum of the cause. Hence its power of multiplication. At one go, all of the new sciences: The chemistry of corrupting reactions is ascribed, with all due exactitude, to conditioning physics on the one hand and to conditioned biochemistry on the other.
That life increases and power decreases.
Etan and retombee, to use Bergson's terminology in which there are, precisely, two sources. People began to dream that the secret of the contradiction could well lie in biochemistry. The Antichrist 5 1 and to repeat the old language: Thus , the return of the old medicaments, the search for a purgative to eliminate microbes, the principles of sickness. Physics, chemistry, Darwinism, framed by Greek tragedy and medical practice.
The aphorism, at one blow, recovers the field of discourse. Evil is henceforth in the blood, multiplying itself and infecting the organism. Christianity has distilled and then extracted the malefic quasi nihil. The theologian has it in the blood; he is the vector of the infection's infection, he poisons the world. Nana the Golden Fly has the virus in her and she 'is the virus. German philosophy has a Protestant pastor for grandfather.
Not the father, absent in passage, but the grandfather, as with Sartre. The infection is transmitted genealogically, and from theologian to philosopher, in whom it becomes universalized as a concept - gaunt, pallid, pale. In universalizing itself it becomes cosmopolitan: The majority, half the earth. How it spreads and where it spreads. Here is the parasite, and the parasitology. On this point, reread La conquete de Plassans. The microbe is anaerobic: Compare Buddhism , the positivist religion: Without hypocrisy it has discovered the medical, therapeutic reality of things.
Listen to Ecce Homo: The impossibility of expunging uncleanliness, denominated in its religious context; as sin, within its medical context of dietetic hygiene. Conversely, Christianity prohibits the expulsion of filth - it closes the public baths. This evil must be designated and the transformations noted. The rock becomes dust; and blood, likened to alcohol, becomes sludge , slobber, poison, venom. What makes these liquids dangerous are the parasites , worms, germs, pains infinitesimally small. This is said at once as metaphor and as positive discourse. Next, name the carrier, the vector: To be expelled , to be banished, driven from the table, cast into the desert to starve.
It will be the terror of posterity, a place for raising venomous serpents. For the serpent's resounding echo we must turn to chemistry- to the Pasteur Institute. From this, the rest can be deduced. Wagner is the indispensable scapegoat of all liberal Nietzscheans , j ust as Nietzsche is the indispensable scapegoat of all Wagnerites. Curiously, the Nazis are the only ones who can b e simultaneously pro-Nietzsche and pro-Wagner. In the book entitled Nietzsche contra Wagner, Nietzsche republishes, with a few changes, many texts about Wagner that he wrote after his break with the musician.
Nietzsche first says that, in his younger years, he approached the modem world full of hopes as well as illusions: I interpreted Wagner's music as an expression of a Dionysian power of the soul. It is plain what I misunderstood in, equally plain what I read into , Wagner and Schopenhauer- myself. Then he continues with a statement of the basic opposition between the Dionysian and the Christian which is not explicitly named but is obviously meant: Every art, every philosophy, may he considered a remedy and aid in the service of either growing or declining life: But there are two kinds of sufferers: Wagner responds to this dual need of the latter no less than Schopenhauer: Conversely, those who suffer most and are poorest in life would need mildness, peacefulness, and goodness most- what is today called humaneness - in thought as well as in deed, and, if possible, a god that would be truly a god for the sick, a healer and "savior".
Nietzsche tells us that his passionate surrender to Wagner was a legitimate misunderstanding. He mistook one type of suffering for the other because, even though they are poles apart, antipodes, the two types of sufferers , Wagner and himself, are also very close,. It is understandable that a rather naive young man would mistake the one for the other. The confusion was permissible and it would be wrong to infer from it that Nietzsche ever sympathized with the Christian aspects of Wagner.
Thus , in the text I have just read Nietzsche acknowledges the presence of Christian elements in the early Wagner but he pretends that they were more or less hidden. This is disingenuous, to say the least. Many Christian elements remain somewhat covert in Wagner. A good example would be Brunehilde in The Valkyries. Walter Kaufmann New York: Viking Press, This is as quintessentially Christian as the intervention of Elizabeth to save Tannhauser when the knights form a violent circle around him. But there are also many Christian elements in the early Wagner that are quite explicit.
You do not need very good eyes to see them in Tannhauser, or in Lohengrin. Christian elements are everywhere in Wagner, even from the beginning. Nietzsche is not quite truthful in this version of his relationship with Wagner; yet there is another version that is even more. In this second version, he goes even further in distorting Wagner's e arly work. It is not enough for him to pretend that all Christian elements in Wagner were only implicit before Parsifal; he does not acknowledge their presence at all , and places the early Wagner squarely on the side of Pagan tragedy in the Nietzschean sense, on his side , the so-called Dionysian side.
Why would Nietzsche do that sort of thing? He is not happy with the interpretation of the Wagnerism that he gave in The Gay Science. The idea that he might have mistaken Christian suffering in any form for the tragic suffering that he espouses makes him look a little stupid, or it undermines the sharpness of the difference between the two.
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Perhaps he perceives the ambiguousness of the argument and thus invents the myth of an early Wagner who is one hundred percent D ionysian. Nietzsche wants to exonerate himself from all blame in his relationship with Wagner.
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He never made a mistake. He wants to justify, from his so-called Dionysian standpoint, both his earlier admiration for and his later hostility to Wagner. It is the only work of Wagner that came after Nietzsche broke with his former idol. Nietzsche exaggerates the discrepancy between this last work and the earlier works. According to this line of argument , Wagner made a complete about-face at the very moment when Nietzsche was reinforcing his long standing and unchanging opposition to everything Christian.
Wagner is guilty of a form of apostasy. He abandoned his former ideals. The difference between these two versions of Nietzsche's critique of Wagner is that according to the first, there is no genuine tragic, pagan and Dionysian dimension even in the early Wagner. Here is a text that corresponds to that second line of argument. It was first published in The Genealogy ofMorals.
In Nietzsche contra Wagner Nietzsche gives it a more virulent ending: After all Parsifal is operetta material par excellence. Is Wagner's Parsifal his secretly superior laughter at himself, the triumph of his ultimate artistic freedom , his artistic non plus ultra - Wagner able to laugh at himself? Clearly, one should wish that; for what would Parsifal amount to if intended as a serious piece?
Must we really see in it. A curse on the senses and the spirit in a single hatred and breath? An apostasy and reversion to sickly Christian and obscurantist ideals? And not only in his art, but also in his life. We should remember how enthusiastically Wagner once followed in the footsteps of the philosopher Feuerbach. Nietzsche and Contradiction 57 Feuerbach's slogan of "healthy sensuality" sounded to Wagner, as to many other Germans. Had he learned differently in the end? For it seems, at least , that he finally had the will to teach differently.
Did the hatred against life become dominant in him, as in Flaubert? The preaching of chastity remains an incitement to anti-nature. PN The Antichrist versus Parsifal. Dionysus versus the Crucifie d. The two opposites are equivalent. As in a Hollywood movie , the ending reveals what you truly are. This is the fairy tale view of Nietzsche contra Wagner, the view that Nietzsche himself wanted us and himself to believe.
The hard nucleus of the anti-Wagnerian stance is Parsifal. All the constantly quoted texts of Nietzsche on Parsifal are of the s ame ilk as this one, all extremely contemptuous, even insulting. The same is true of most unpublished fragments. They keep harping in highly repetitive fashion upon the themes of the text I just read, sometimes in an even more abusive language. They all condemn what they call Wagner's sickening and senile surrender to the Christian God. This emphasis on Parsifal is certainly strategic in part- if this work is what Nietzsche says it is.
H it is the only Christian work of Wagner , the younger Nietzsche can be absolved of any complicity with the Christian inspiration of Wagner. But this emphasis on Parsifal does not seem merely strategic. At times, his arguments sound rational and dispassionate but, at other times, his contempt becomes so excessive that it sounds more like hatred. Any allusion to Parsifal arouses the strongest feelings in him. The force of his indignation is so convincing that it is taken at face value.
Even the Nazis can concur this time. The idea that this remarkable consensus is an illusion and that it could be shattered must sound far-fetched at best.