Many were German Jews that had settled in the area, later founding companies and building synagogues. For a time, an age of opulence and grand architecture returned to North Philadelphia, centered on what is now zoned as the Historic North Broad Street Mansion and Speculative Housing Districts. Gentlemen's Clubs, upscale restaurants and shopping districts grew in this southern tier for a brief moment in history, peaking in the late s.
Thriving commercial districts sprung up along the great northern avenues; Columbia renamed Cecil B. However, just as this wealth was so suddenly gained, it would just as suddenly be lost. The new money culture proved to be an unstable foundation for a lasting community, and like so many constructs of the Gilded Age , this core of wealth was doomed to rot. Over the next few decades The Great Depression , outsourcing , and white flight took their toll on North Philadelphia in a fashion similar to other major US cities of the mid to late 20th century, if not in a more pronounced fashion.
While residential corridors like Hope Street and Delhi Street had long housed primarily African-American residents, white residents moved out of the city as waves of poor blacks moved in. During the 40s and 50s, much of the area was racially integrated , although smaller streets were usually completely black or white.
Whites began to move out slowly at first in the late s as these residents became more affluent and Northeast Philadelphia began to develop new housing with lawns and conveniences such as modern plumbing. In most cases African Americans moved into the vacant houses and as this began to increase, true white flight began. Increasingly, people moved out of North Philadelphia not solely to move into newer homes, but to avoid facing decreasing property values and increased criminality. For a time, Lower North Philadelphia became a great center of black culture and music, most notably Jazz.
Many commercial corridors were maintained for decades, and a great many musicians came to North Philadelphia, like John Coltrane and Stan Getz. By , North Philadelphia was the city's center of African American culture home to , of the city's , Black Residents. As the century marched past middle age, many other problems symptomatic of all US cities of the time came about.
Many of the neighborhoods in North Philadelphia sprung up around one monolithic factory, which was the center of the community's income. Each factory that closed down devastated its host neighborhood.
In this way, the wave of national industrial collapse caused the rapid break up of numerous "factory neighborhoods" in the predominantly working class North Philadelphia. On the evening of August 28, a black woman named Odessa Bradford got into an argument with two police officers, one black, Robert Wells, and the other white, John Hoff, after her car stalled at 23rd Street and Columbia Avenue. The officers then tried to physically remove Bradford from the car. She resisted and a large crowd assembled in the area.
The Mechanical Theater Presents: A Christmas Carol at Historic Strawberry Mansion
A man tried to come to Bradford's aid by attacking the police officers at the scene, but he and Bradford were arrested. Rumors then spread throughout North Philadelphia that a pregnant black woman had been beaten to death by white police officers. Later that evening, and throughout the next two days, angry mobs looted and burned mostly white-owned businesses in North Philadelphia, mainly along Columbia Avenue.
Outnumbered, the police response was to withdraw from the area rather than aggressively confront the rioters. The race riots of became iconic for the rising ethnic tensions in the region, and the continued withdrawal of white residents. The riot, which virtually destroyed the central shopping district of North Philadelphia, signaled the beginning of the end for the North's commercial sector. The withering of the American manufacturing sector led to the closing of many of the factories that many northern neighborhoods were centered on and depended on.
Increased urban blight and the general decline of Philadelphia in the late 20th century even saw the decline of even many of the strong black communities in North Philadelphia. The great art deco office buildings and government institutions were mostly abandoned, as were the mansions of the many ruined industrialists. North Philadelphia, like many other sections of Philadelphia, is highly racially and socially segregated block by block.
A noticeable pattern in the area is that, in the southern part of North Philadelphia south of about Erie Avenue , Germantown Avenue which later becomes North 6th Street is the dividing point between the areas that are predominantly Black to the west , and the areas that are predominantly Hispanic to the east. Though this is slowly changing, with a small yet growing population of Hispanics living west of Germantown Avenue, and already significant population of Blacks living east of that street.
The area between Broad Street and 5th Street is increasingly becoming a "transition zone" between the larger predominately black area west of Broad, and the smaller predominately Hispanic area east of 5th. This section of Philadelphia has nearly equal populations of Hispanics and Blacks. Though, Germantown Avenue is still seen as a divider street, with areas between Germantown Avenue and Broad Street "more black", and areas between Germantown Avenue and 5th street "more Hispanic". East of Front street, blocks start to get more diverse, with significant populations of Hispanics, blacks, and whites.
Also, as the Hispanic community continues to grow eastward, the ethnic white enclaves of eastern North Philadelphia continues to shrink. Today, many remnants of these more prosperous eras remain. However, many historic buildings have collapsed, either from neglect or demolition, and thousands more still lie abandoned. A handful have become protected historic properties, and 67 properties and districts were added to the National Landmark of Historic Places. Several blocks, with numerous old mansions, have been re-zoned as the aforementioned historic districts.
A great many extravagant churches were built over the years, as well. Serving more than one hundred thousand Jewish residents at its height, Northeast Philadelphia consisted of ten distinctive neighborhoods, including Feltonville, Oxford Circle, Tacony, and Mayfair.
During the twentieth century, thousands of Jewish families were attracted to the area by the houses built along Roosevelt Boulevard for soldiers returning home from World War II. Today, the influx of strictly orthodox Jewish residents has given rise to a third generation of Jewish life in Northeast Philadelphia.
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Helping one in four Jewish households in crisis and in need as well as thousands of others, JFCS plays a primary role in the Greater Philadelphia community. Established through the leadership of Rebecca Gratz, the foremost American Jewish female leader of her day, it was the nation's first Jewish orphanage and heralded a record of compassion, skill, and innovation in community services.
Today, JFCS reaches out to more than 41, individuals and families each year with a wide array of programs from adoption to senior services. Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Philadelphia is the first illustrated history of this organization. With numerous historic photographs, including images from the th anniversary celebration in , this book touches on all aspects of the organization's history: Jewish South Jersey by Leonard F Vernon Book 2 editions published in in English and held by 42 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Initial Jewish settlements in South Jersey emerged in the midth century and offered a safe haven for people to re-create strong families and practice religion freely, without fear of government-sponsored violence.
Looking for work, German Jews first migrated from their community in Philadelphia to Trenton, and then spread south to Wildwood.
Holdings: The Jewish community of South Philadelphia
Although Jewish settlers were mainly known as merchants and shop owners, many towns also boast the development of the Jewish farmer. While agriculture would eventually be abandoned in favor of manufacturing, there were many extremely successful and historically significant Jewish farms that flourished in the south. Now, of course, people of the Hebrew faith are productive players in every walk of life. Jewish South Jersey touches on the many contributions made by Jewish people in the southern part of the Garden State.
Philadelphia trolleys by Allen Meyers Book 3 editions published between and in English and held by 39 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Lewis was appointed to federal judicial positions by George Washington and also advised Alexander Hamilton on the first national bank. His most important achievement was his role in the drafting and passage of An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery in Lewis purchased land in what is now Fairmount Park, including some existing buildings, and proceeded to built the mansion—which he called Summerville—sometime between and Lewis lived there until his death in at the age of He purchased Strawberry Mansion in , two years after Lewis's death.
His family was responsible for adding the Greek Revival wings to the Federal style structure erected by Lewis, ca. He served as a member of the House of Representatives , in addition to being a prominent lawyer and judge. Hemphill is, perhaps, more well known among antique collectors for his role in the limited manufacture of Hemphill and Tucker porcelain. His collaborative effort with Philadelphia porcelain maker William Ellis Tucker lasted only 6 years, from to In Strawberry Mansion was sold to the city by a landowner who had been in possession of it since Judge Hemphill's death in The purchase of the mansion, along with a great deal of the surrounding land, was part of an effort to protect the source of the city's drinking water, the Schuylkill River.
In , several women's clubs combined efforts with Mayor W. Freeland Kendrick to create a Sesquicentennial Exposition in South Philadelphia in honor of the th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Several women from the event did not want to disband, and instead sought an area to move many of the antique furniture collections to another location.
Under the supervision of the Philadelphia Museum of Art and the Fairmount Park Commission , the new Committee of renovated Strawberry Mansion to be used as a museum and place of hospitality. Funds for the renovation were donated by Joseph Horn, of Horn and Hardart 's automats.
Horn grew up in the Philadelphia area and was fond of playing in the park as a child.
Strawberry Mansion, Philadelphia
Decor and furnishings were the charge of various women's societies throughout the city who filled the rooms with exceptional period furnishings. The house officially reopened in with Mrs. Willis Martin Elizabeth Price as the first president of the Committee of