He also founded the eponymous publishing house in Milan in and was a mentor-like figure for the most famous Indro Montanelli , journalist and historian, founder of Il Giornale , one of the Italian biggest newspaper. Between and , he published several magazines including L'Italiano , Omnibus , and Il Borghese , a cultural and satirical weekly, conservative-oriented.
Longanesi was also an elegant and refined cartoonist and wrote several books of memoirs, characterised by a ruthless streak and Fascist nostalgic accents In piedi e seduti , Una vita , Ci salveranno le vecchie zie? Born in Bagnacavallo , Leo was son of Paolo Longanesi, director of a gunpowder factory in Lugo , and Angela Marangoni, member of a wealthy landowner family of Bagnacavallo.
In , when Leo was aged 6, the Longanesi family moved to Bologna , where according to the family wealth, Leo attended the most prestigious schools and learned French language, studing at the Galvani High School. In , Leo wrote his first printed sheet, Il Marchese , at the age of Following he wrote the monthly magazine Zibaldone dei giovani , Il Toro and Il Dominio , arousing attention for his young age and the style of writing. After the high school, Longanesi attended the University of Bologna , gaining a bachelor's decree of law.
During this time Longanesi became interested to politics, and in started a collaboration with L'Assalto "The Assault" , a Fascist newspaper in Bologna. In the same year, he knew Mino Maccari, a famous painter, who introduced him in the socialite circles of Rome.
In this moment, Benito Mussolini was establishing his police state, banning the opposition parties and imposing a cult of personality based on his figure The Duce , the leader  and the National Fascist Party , now the only legal party. Longanesi and his collaborators grew near to the new regime, and started a cultural debate on the relationship between arts and fascism.
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In , he wrote his first great work, the "Vade-mecum of the perfect Fascist". The book express, in the motto "Mussolini is always right" Mussolini ha sempre ragione , a mix of adoration and caricature of Mussolini's dictatorship. In , Longanesi started his first publishing house, L'Italiano Editions property of L'Italiano magazine, who directed , and published works of Fascist writers critical on the regime, such as Malaparte, Riccardo Bacchelli , Vincenzo Cardarelli and Antonio Baldini, Telesio Interlandi , who was later one of the major supporter of the racial laws against the Jews.
On July of the same year, Longanesi is choosen to direct L'Assalto , who managed before , when he resigned. The cause of his dismissal was strong and irriverent piece on Senator Giuseppe Tanari, financer of the squadrismo literally "squadronism" , a radical tendency inside Fascism, which members attacked, assaulted and sometimes killed political dissidents. His article was motivated by a fact happened on May Longanesi attended an displaying of conductor Arturo Toscanini at the Bologna Communal Theatre, attended also by Galeazzo Ciano , son-in-law of Mussolini, and Arpinati, Longanesi's old friend.
At the end of the piece, Ciano and Arpinati called Toscanini to play Giovinezza "Youth" , a popular song among the Fascists. Due to Toscanini refusal, Ciano and Arpinati left the theatre disappointed, and at the exit Toscanini was assaulted and slapped by radical Fascists for his dissent.
Erroneusly, Longanesi was believed to be the first slapper, mainly because one article against conductor's refusal the follwing day. He also moved L'Italiano and Il Selvaggio magazines in the capital, nevertheless both magazines were in decline and Longanesi directed them almost alone. Despite his criticisms, Longanesi was choosen by the regime to organize a literary exhibition on Mussolini for the 10th anniversary of the March on Rome , opened on 28 October After the began of the Second Italo-Ethiopian War in , Longanesi gained the role of chief of the propaganda.
For his services to the Fascism, Longanesi requested the direction of any big newspaper, gaining a refuse by the regime, that feared that new magazines and papers, espacially under the direction of critics of the dictatorship, would undermined the Fascist's strict control over the press. After a month, however, Longanesi was fired for a unpleasanted photographical service on the regime. On 3 April , Longanesi created a new magazine: Omnibus , an illsutrated news magazine on literature and arts, later described as the "father of the Italian magazines", especialy for his use of photographs and images.
Despite the immediate success of the magazine, Omnibus was forced to close on 2 February by the Ministry of Popular Culture Minculpop , apparently without reason but probably for the collaborations to the magazine by Jewish intellectuals like Moravia and anti-fascists like Pannunzio. However, thanks again to his high livel connections, in Longanesi was appointed by the Minculpop itself as its technical-artistic consultant.
Longanesi was skeptical, despite the initial popular enthusiasm, of the Italian entrance in the Second World War , thought that will be the ruin of Italy. Il nemico ti ascolta " Shut up! Enemy is listening you , " La patria si serve anche facendo la sentinella ad un bidone di benzina " The fatherland could be served also keeping watch on an petrol barrel and " Una pistola puntata contro l'Italia " A gun aimed on Italy. After the failure of the Greco-Italian War in and Tunisian Campaign in , Italy fell in crisis and grew always more subjected to Germany.
However, the new Prime Minsiter Pietro Badoglio secretly sign the armistice of Cassibile with Allied Powers on 3 September , while all Italy is under German direct military influences, and on 8 September with a proclamation , announce the switch of side from Axis to Allies, after which he fled to Brindisi with the royal family and the government, left military and public authorities without orders.
However, also in this case, Longanesi rapidly grew critical on the new anti-fascist political class, composed by old opportunists and new ambitious figures, united in a climate of political chameleontism. On January , with the end of the war, Longanesi moved to Milan with his family, while his parents moved to Imola , in the native Romagna. Simultaneously, he started the publishing of Il Libraio "The Bookseller" , a bibliographic magazine, active from to Politically, Longanesi became a prominent opponent to the new republican democracy that substitued the Fascism, stating that:.
Italy is a democracy in which one third of the citizens sigh for the past dictatorship, another wait for the Soviet one, and the last are conforming with the next of the Christian Democrats. In his pieces, he jokes on both anti-fascists "There is who believe to be an anti-fascist only because Fascism never noticed him" and ex-fascists reused in the new system "There is a question that we must never do: In the mind of Longanesi, Il Borghese should will be expression of a new right-wing anti-communist movement, who he named "Brothers of Italy's League", organizing political circles in several cities.
The movement rapidly grew, attracting both unsatisfied electors and excluded ones especially farmers by the s economic miracle. Marco Cherubini 19 ORE Luciana Grosso 17 ORE Michele Zaccardi 19 ORE Luciana Grosso 15 ORE Business Insider 15 ORE La Turchia viaggia sull'orlo del burrone e potrebbe essere il detonatore di una crisi dei paesi emergenti.
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