Along with other stories, the first three were collected in The Best of Raymond Z.
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His style was rough-hewn, but he plotted his work with vigour and packed it with ideas, often decidedly original: He became inactive in the s and, though he published further work from about , he never regained the popularity of his early years, although one of his finest stories, reprinted in the Best volume, was "The Restless Tide" November Marvel Science Fiction.
He published nothing in the years , but remained intermittently active through the s, when some of his work was nominated for contemporary awards. Gallun's first novel, Dawn of the Demi-Gods Book 1: Leo Valdez, the hero of the Heroes of Olympus saga returns on his flying dragon Festus and a freed Calypso. They agree to join his quest, and our demigods are gearing up for a series that will no doubt focus on the liberation of the captured oracles. Riordan has masterfully played in the same sandbox for eleven books and The Trials of Apollo is just the beginning of a new series.
Jupiter (mythology) - Wikipedia
His brilliant character development makes you compelled to keep reading. The Trials of Apollo is another fantastic addition to this world and I highly recommend this book. Want to get your own copy of The Trials of Apollo?
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Be sure to enter our giveaway: Laughing Place is a dedicated group of Disney fans, like yourself, who love Disney. Laughing Place is not endorsed by or affiliated with the Walt Disney Company, or its subsidiaries. Book Review — The Trials of Apollo: Percy Jackson , Read Riordan. Dius Fidius would thus correspond to Zeus Pistios. The functionality of Sancus occurs consistently within the sphere of fides , oaths and respect for contracts and of the divine-sanction guarantee against their breach.
Wissowa suggested that Semo Sancus is the genius of Jupiter,  but the concept of a deity's genius is a development of the Imperial period. Some aspects of the oath-ritual for Dius Fidius such as proceedings under the open sky or in the compluvium of private residences , and the fact the temple of Sancus had no roof, suggest that the oath sworn by Dius Fidius predated that for Iuppiter Lapis or Iuppiter Feretrius. Augustine quotes Varro who explains the genius as "the god who is in charge and has the power to generate everything" and "the rational spirit of all therefore, everyone has their own ".
Augustine concludes that Jupiter should be considered the genius of the universe. Wissowa advanced the hypothesis that Semo Sancus is the genius of Jupiter. Fowler has cautioned that this interpretation looks to be an anachronism and it would only be acceptable to say that Sancus is a Genius Iovius , as it appears from the Iguvine Tables. Censorinus cites Granius Flaccus as saying that "the Genius was the same entity as the Lar" in his lost work De Indigitamentis.
Mutunus Tutunus had his shrine at the foot of the Velian Hill near those of the Di Penates and of Vica Pota, who were among the most ancient gods of the Roman community of according to Wissowa. A connection between Genius and Jupiter seems apparent in Plautus ' comedy Amphitryon , in which Jupiter takes up the looks of Alcmena 's husband in order to seduce her: Hubeaux sees there a reflection of the story that Scipio Africanus ' mother conceived him with a snake that was in fact Jupiter transformed.
The god of nighttime lightning has been interpreted as an aspect of Jupiter, either a chthonic manifestation of the god or a separate god of the underworld. Iuppiter was associated with Liber through his epithet of Liber association not yet been fully explained by scholars, due to the scarcity of early documentation.
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In the past, it was maintained that Liber was only a progressively-detached hypostasis of Jupiter; consequently, the vintage festivals were to be attributed only to Iuppiter Liber. Such a derivation would find support only in epigraphic documents, primarily from the Osco-Sabellic area. The god also had a temple in this name on the Aventine in Rome, which was restored by Augustus and dedicated on September 1. Here, the god was sometimes named Liber  and sometimes Libertas.
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Other scholars assert that there was no Liber other than a god of wine within historical memory. The offer of wine to Liber was made possible by naming the mustum grape juice stored in amphoras sacrima. Secular or "profane" wine was obtained through several types of manipulation e. However, the sacrima used for the offering to the two gods for the preservation of grapeyards, vessels and wine  was obtained only by pouring the juice into amphors after pressing.
Augustine relates that these festivals had a particularly obscene character: In Lavinium they lasted a month, during which the population enjoyed bawdy jokes. The most honest matronae were supposed to publicly crown the phallus with flowers, to ensure a good harvest and repeal the fascinatio evil eye. The relationship of Jupiter with freedom was a common belief among the Roman people, as demonstrated by the dedication of the Mons Sacer to the god after the first secession of the plebs.
Later inscriptions also show the unabated popular belief in Jupiter as bestower of freedom in the imperial era. Scholars have been often puzzled by Ve d iove or Veiovis , or Vedius and unwilling to discuss his identity, claiming our knowledge of this god is insufficient.
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In other words, Veiove is indeed the Capitoline god himself, who takes up a different, diminished appearance iuvenis and parvus , young and gracile , in order to be able to discharge sovereign functions over places, times and spheres that by their own nature are excluded from the direct control of Jupiter as Optimus Maximus. Sabbatucci has stressed the feature of bearer of instability and antithesis to cosmic order of the god, who threatens the kingly power of Jupiter as Stator and Centumpeda and whose presence occurs side by side to Janus' on January 1, but also his function of helper to the growth of the young Jupiter.
In fact, the god under the name Vetis is placed in the last case number 16 of the outer rim of the Piacenza Liver—before Cilens Nocturnus , who ends or begins in the Etruscan vision the disposition of the gods. In Martianus Capella 's division of heaven, he is found in region XV with the dii publici ; as such, he numbers among the infernal or antipodal gods.
The location of his two temples in Rome—near those of Jupiter one on the Capitoline Hill, in the low between the arx and the Capitolium, between the two groves where the asylum founded by Romulus stood, the other on the Tiber Island near that of Iuppiter Iurarius , later also known as temple of Aesculapius  —may be significant in this respect, along with the fact that he is considered the father  of Apollo, perhaps because he was depicted carrying arrows. He is also considered to be the unbearded Jupiter. The nature of the sacrifice is debated; Gellius states capra , a female goat, although some scholars posit a ram.
This sacrifice occurred rito humano , which may mean "with the rite appropriate for human sacrifice". The arrow is an ambivalent symbol; it was used in the ritual of the devotio the general who vowed had to stand on an arrow. Moreover, the initial particle ve- which the ancient supposed were part of his name is itself ambivalent as it may have both an accrescitive and diminutive value. Marcus Ralla dedicated to Jupiter on the Capitol the two temples promised by L. Furius Purpureo, one of which was that promised during the war against the Gauls.
Such a correction concerns the temples dedicated on the Capitol: The two gods may have been seen as equivalent: Iuppiter Iurarius is an awesome and vengeful god, parallel to the Greek Zeus Orkios , the avenger of perjury. Pasqualini has argued that Veiovis seems related to Iuppiter Latiaris , as the original figure of this Jupiter would have been superseded on the Alban Mount, whereas it preserved its gruesome character in the ceremony held on the sanctuary of the Latiar Hill, the southernmost hilltop of the Quirinal in Rome, which involved a human sacrifice.
The gens Iulia had gentilician cults at Bovillae where a dedicatory inscription to Vediove has been found in on an ara. Such a cult once superseded on the Mount would have been taken up and preserved by the Iulii, private citizens bound to the sacra Albana by their Alban origin. Victoria was connected to Iuppiter Victor in his role as bestower of military victory. Jupiter, as a sovereign god, was considered as having the power to conquer anyone and anything in a supernatural way; his contribution to military victory was different from that of Mars god of military valour.
Victoria appears first on the reverse of coins representing Venus driving the quadriga of Jupiter, with her head crowned and with a palm in her hand during the first Punic War. Sometimes, she is represented walking and carrying a trophy. A temple was dedicated to the goddess afterwards on the Palatine, testifying to her high station in the Roman mind.
Raymond Z. Gallun
When Hieron of Syracuse presented a golden statuette of the goddess to Rome, the Senate had it placed in the temple of Capitoline Jupiter among the greatest and most sacred deities. A function similar to hers may have been played by the little-known Vica Pota. Juventas and Terminus were the gods who, according to legend,  refused to leave their sites on the Capitol when the construction of the temple of Jupiter was undertaken.
Therefore, they had to be reserved a sacellum within the new temple. Their stubbornness was considered a good omen; it would guarantee youth, stability and safety to Rome on its site. An inscription found near Ravenna reads Iuppiter Ter. Terminus is the god of boundaries public and private , as he is portrayed in literature. The religious value of the boundary marker is documented by Plutarch,  who ascribes to king Numa the construction of temples to Fides and Terminus and the delimitation of Roman territory.
Ovid gives a vivid description of the rural rite at a boundary of fields of neighbouring peasants on February 23 the day of the Terminalia. This festival, however, marked the end of the year and was linked to time more directly than to space as attested by Augustine's apologia on the role of Janus with respect to endings. Terminus would be the counterpart of the minor Vedic god Bagha, who oversees the just and fair division of goods among citizens.
Along with Terminus , Iuventas also known as Iuventus and Iuunta represents an aspect of Jupiter as the legend of her refusal to leave the Capitol Hill demonstrates. Her name has the same root as Juno from Iuu- , "young, youngster" ; the ceremonial litter bearing the sacred goose of Juno Moneta stopped before her sacellum on the festival of the goddess. Later, she was identified with the Greek Hebe. The fact that Jupiter is related to the concept of youth is shown by his epithets Puer , Iuuentus and Ioviste interpreted as "the youngest" by some scholars.
Aryaman is the god of young soldiers. The function of Iuventas is to protect the iuvenes the novi togati of the year, who are required to offer a sacrifice to Jupiter on the Capitol  and the Roman soldiers a function later attributed to Juno. King Servius Tullius, in reforming the Roman social organisation, required that every adolescent offer a coin to the goddess of youth upon entering adulthood. The Romans considered the Penates as the gods to whom they owed their own existence.
As a nation the Romans honoured the Penates publici: Dionysius calls them Trojan gods as they were absorbed into the Trojan legend. They had a temple in Rome at the foot of the Velian Hill , near the Palatine, in which they were represented as a couple of male youth.
Book Review — The Trials of Apollo: The Hidden Oracle
They were honoured every year by the new consuls before entering office at Lavinium ,  because the Romans believed the Penates of that town were identical to their own. The concept of di Penates is more defined in Etruria: Arnobius citing a Caesius states that the Etruscan Penates were named Fortuna, Ceres, Genius Iovialis and Pales; according to Nigidius Figulus , they included those of Jupiter, of Neptune, of the infernal gods and of mortal men. Martianus states they are always in agreement among themselves. The disposition of these divine entities and their repetition in different locations may be due to the fact that Penates belonging to different categories of Jupiter in region I, earthly or of mortal men in region V are intended.
Favor es may be the Etruscan masculine equivalent of Fortuna. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Roman god. For other uses, see Jupiter disambiguation. For other uses, see Jove disambiguation. God of the sky and lightning. A marble statue of Jupiter from c. Imperial cult of ancient Rome Polytheistic religion. Marcus Aurelius head covered sacrificing at the Temple of Jupiter.
Temple of Jupiter Capitoline Hill. Milan hereafter cited as ARR p. Eden, commentary on the Apocolocyntosis Cambridge University Press, , , pp. An Introduction Manchester University Press, rev. Price, Religions of Rome: A History Cambridge University Press, , vol. III Appendix V p. Servius Eclogae X 27 " unde etiam triumphantes habent omnia insignia Iovis, sceptrum palmatamque togam " "wherefore also the triumphing commanders have all the insignia of Jupiter, the sceptre and the toga palmata'".
On the interpretation of the triumphal dress and of the triumph, Larissa Bonfante has offered an interpretation based on Etruscan documents in her article: The adjective feriatus , related to feriae , "holy days," pertains to keeping a holiday, and hence means "idle, unemployed," not performing one's usual tasks. Broughton and the Roman Republic Franz Steiner, , p. The Vestals and the Flamen Dialis were the only Roman citizens who could not be compelled to swear an oath Aulus Gellius Dionysius of Halicarnassus Rom. See also ius gentium.
Wissowa , p. Rinolfi "Plebe, pontefice massimo, tribuni della plebe: Selected Studies in Roman Religion Brill, , p. Otto and his school. Bloch Prodigi e divinazione nell' antica Roma Roma Citing Livy I 34, 8— The issue of the sacrificial victims proper to a god is one of the most vexed topics of Roman religion: The "contract" with Jupiter is exceptionally detailed. All due care would be taken of the animals, but any that died or were stolen before the scheduled sacrifice would count as if already sacrificed.
Sacred animals were already assigned to the gods, who ought to protect their own property. This assumption is supported by the calendar of Philocalus , which states on the Ides of January This identification has though been challenged by A. AR IV 49, 3; Festus p. Niebuhr History of Rome II p. Tuditanus claimed they were instituted by Romulus and T.
Tatius I 16, A Conceptual Approach Brill, , p. Populus originally meant not "the people," but "army. Wissowa had already connected the Poplifugia to Jupiter: See also Jean Bayet Histoire politique et psychologique de la religion romaine Paris p. Cited by Wissowa , p. Marquardt Staatsverwaltung III American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language 4th ed. This is why the temple of Dius Fidius has an opening in the roof, in order to allow the view of the diuum i.
Collart quoted by Y. Lehmann below; Paulus p. Iovi Diano from Aquileia. Oxford University Press, p. Clarendon Press , OUP , p. Dumezil ARR above p. The carmen Saliare has: Pecunia is tentatively included in this group by Wissowa , p. Apuleius De Mundo The Oxford Classical Dictionary Oxford s. I 1, 25 manet sub Iove frigido venator ; I 22, 20 quod latus mundi nebulae malusque Iuppiter urget ; III 10, 7 ut glaciet nives puro numine Iuppiter.
Montanari Mito e Storia nell' annalistica romana delle origini Roma pp.