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This was the window of opportunity that allowed them to achieve competitive rather than comparative advantages. For Roberto the answer was crystal clear at that moment. Veraguas coffee had always enjoyed great prestige due to its quality, and it was at least always possible to commercialize it.

Why not go even further to include other factors in addition to price that could differentiate the product and make it widely known and attractive to consumers at a premium price? Throughout the different stages, Roberto had identified a number of qualities that could be added to his product to differentiate it and position it in the market.

Without a doubt this gave more prestige to Santa Ana coffee, allowing it to position itself at a better price. The plan involves motivating producers to include social and environmental criteria in their coffee cultivation and processing activities. The price increase is an incentive for a company to improve its performance in aspects that received lower scores. In this way, by applying innovation to differentiate a product whose nature is standard, Roberto has dealt with a number of the issues that were affecting Santa Ana. As production grew, it was possible not only to increase product volume, but to obtain more product rated Genuine Veraguas.

The exclusive contract negotiated with the buyer has provided Santa Ana with greater negotiating power because it makes the product even more attractive for other potential buyers. The third need was to increase the focus on social and environmental issues. Faguas is a country with social problems similar to those in many other Latin American countries.

Likewise, in the past the coffee producing sector had not had a strong commitment to an environmentally friendly processing process. In his quest for differentiation Roberto had dealt with these aspects through the health clinic and the employee camps annex 4 and through investment in clean technology, such as the ecological coffee processing plant and the use of patios for sun drying the coffee annex 5.

This did not mean that all issues had been resolved. Yields could still be increased by improving technical issues, especially the irrigation system; the current system is rustic and could be improved by investment in a fertigation system, which applies fertilizers in the irrigation water. One of his concerns is that, although the Santa Ana operation is running well, the other family farms near the southern border do not have the same potential; this creates additional pressure since the Veraguas could be in some way subsidizing the other family farms. Santa Ana evolved from marketing an undifferentiated commodity to currently offering certified Genuine Veraguas estate grown coffee, whose quality makes it one of the most sought after brands in the gourmet market.

The additional factors of having social and environmental seals are the reason that this coffee brand is able to earn such a favorable price. In recent years the farm has obtained some of the following prizes for its product: The Veraguas coffee zone has a high temperature range, from 10 degrees to 28 degrees.

This favors coffee quality but also presents climatological problems that must be dealt with, such as frost and drought. With an altitude that averages 1, m. There are some coffee borers, but they are handled in an environmentally-friendly manner using traps. Sowing density is from 3, to 3, plants per manzana between 4, and 5, plants per ha ; this is complemented by the abovementioned shade grown coffee, with plants per ha. Rainfall is on the order of mm annually, and this requires alternative water sources. Cannon irrigation is used is certain parts of the property using water from three high-producing wells.

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However, in the most isolated parts of the farm, the employees must water the plants using buckets. Caturra is the predominant variety at the farm, although some lots are sown with a Catimor variety, such as Costa Rica The soils are volcanic, and coffee maturation is late, causing prolonged harvests of up to several months from December until up to April. The beans are processed in a humid ecological processing plant, which currently has two depulpers. As a result of recycling, only three cubic meters are required per quintal of processed coffee; this efficient use greatly reduces water pollution.

Wastewater is treated in wells at the end of the process. Coffee is dried in ovens that inject hot air into a channel where the beans are distributed; the ovens use firewood, but are principally fueled by the husks that are shelled from the beans in the processing process. The Santa Ana processing plant has a capacity to process 5, quintals per harvest, and at this point it handles 3, quintals per year. These factors have given the farm greater negotiating power and attract a premium price for the product. Currently ownership of this property and the others is distributed among members of the Soto family.

There are four areas under his management: All employees from farm managers to field hands enjoy benefits that are uncommon on other coffee farms. As previously mentioned, there is a clinic on the farm where employees are attended twice a week by a general physician with periodic visits from specialists, such as eye doctors, dentists, etc. Camps were also constructed with a kitchen, dining facilities, bathrooms and bunks; this is another benefit for the workers to make their workdays more agreeable.

Roberto wants all of the employees to feel like they are part of the company so that this sense of belonging translates into highly motivated workers who give their all in everything they undertake. When Roberto took control of Santa Ana, the product was marketed through a local exporter, who made contacts in the US and Europe and earned a commission. Having no intermediaries, there are no commissions, although as mentioned above there is a continuing relationship with the Torres export company to cover certain specialized services.

Obviously, this is an ideal condition for any producer, which must be streamlined to achieve long term sustainability. However, the strategy has only been applicable at Santa Ana, since according to Roberto the product from the other farms does not have the characteristics to achieve the same level of differentiation.

As previously mentioned, that contract ends in Subsequently, a negotiation process will begin that will define the future relationship between the two companies. There is also a possibility that an agreement cannot be reached, in which case Santa Ana could establish links with other buyers, who have followed the rise of Santa Ana coffee through its participation in world-famous competitions, where it won important prices. However, the good relations that have existed in the past make it likely that Seatle's and Santa Ana will continue to maintain an important alliance.

Santa Ana is vertically integrated in its production chain from the farm to the wholesale buyer. However to date, alliances with suppliers of inputs and other services have not been established. How has Roberto acquired the resources necessary to carry out the multiple investments required to increase productivity and achieve product differentiation? Mainly through debt from commercial banks in Faguas. Furthermore, the banks have determined that the company has sufficient financial backing to offset risks since properties in Veraguas have extremely high added value.

Each dollar invested was a seed sown, and these seeds have yielded sufficient fruit to cover the loans taken out over the years.

At this point, the farm has paid off the majority of its debts. However, it must be remembered that the coffee industry is currently facing a price crisis, which has closed the doors of many banks to the sector. However in the coffee business nothing is certain. At present, supply has been declining, and the ICO estimates that the harvest will produce from 90 to 95 million 60 kilo bags, while demand is estimated at million bags.

In any case, Roberto receives much higher fixed prices because he is in a differentiated market. The active interest rates Roberto has paid average Problems with the business. Although the company has been evolving favorably, it cannot be denied that there are still short and medium term problems to be solved. There are two difficult situations in the production area. The first involves the family farms that are located in the southern part of the country, which total approximately hectares.

At current conventional coffee prices, these farms do not even cover their maintenance costs. It is hard to find qualified manpower, and rainfall in the area is very high, resulting in high disease incidence. It is practically impossible to believe that differentiated prices will be obtained for this coffee due to its low quality. In order to prevent Santa Ana from subsidizing the other farms and jeopardizing its own economic stability, several other measures have been planned, such as lowering administrative costs and diversifying production by introducing managed forests.

Eventually, additional investments in the coffee processing plant must also be considered. The marketing problem involves the decision to renew the exclusivity contract with Seatle's. What conditions should be required for renewing the contract? At present, the company has 7, stores and purchases between and thousand quintals of Faguas coffee per season.

According to Roberto, over the next five years, Seatle's plans to expand to 25, stores, which could easily lead to annual purchases of a million quintals of coffee with quality similar to Santa Ana coffee from Faguas. This aggressive growth, represents a monumental challenge for Santa Ana and raises a number of questions: How can it use this to its advantage to further its consolidation? How can it expand its share of the business? Will it let others exploit the opportunity without taking sides? Despite numerous investments made by Roberto in Santa Ana, he has not been able to double its yield, and even that would be insufficient.

The purchase of new land with heights above 4, feet to produce "strictly hard beans" that Seatle's requires does not seem like a viable option, at least not in Veraguas where land costs have skyrocketed. One option could be to use a strategy that Roberto has already implemented with relative success. There are many coffee farms in Veraguas that are practically abandoned because their owners lack knowledge about the business or do not want to invest in their farms, sometimes due to lack of resources and sometimes because they think that the money invested in their farms will never return an acceptable profit.

Roberto has negotiated with at least two of these farmers to take over their farm administration. The farmer provides the resources necessary to recondition the farm, and Roberto takes responsibility for overseeing operations.

A Spanish Anthology by J. D. M. Ford

In addition, since he has the contact, Roberto offers to sell the resulting product to Seatle's, thereby ensuring acceptable production over a four-year period with a highly favorable price. What Roberto has not done so far is receive a commission for the placement of the coffee in the gourmet market, which would be fair since without his intermediation this would not be possible. If Roberto can convince a number of other farmers in similar situations to join him, he would be able to offer Seatle's more coffee and acquire a significant profit through a fair negotiated commission at the same time.

The day after the celebration, work had to be done and important decisions had to be made. Progression of production at Santa Ana Farm Year Hectares cultivated Coffee production in quintals 80 90 1, 2, 3, Note: Data has been modified to maintain confidentiality. Pictures of clinic and camp installations for employees at Santa Ana Farm Annex 5. Assessment Progress Report - General field: Nuestros instructores implementaran lo aprendido en las ocho plantas de nuestro parque agroindustrial donde llevamos a cabo el aprender haciendo.

En el presente reporte se incluyen los siguientes avances: Attach all relevant rubrics. Add more boxes if more than three outcomes were assessed. Entender los procesos de transporte y operaciones unitarias en el proceso de alimentos 2. Distinguir a los microorganismos de acuerdo a su estructura y metabolismo 2.

Discuss the meaning of the learning assessment findings in relation to desired student proficiency. Describe how these findings were used, or are being used to improve student learning very important. If changes are being made to courses or the food science program, summarize these changes. If lessons were learned during implementation of the learning assessment, and changes will be made to future assessments as a result, discuss here.

Sometimes an assessment does not go exactly as planned and it is not possible to draw conclusions reliably. If this occurred, describe what happened and what will be done in the future to remedy it. Martes y Viernes Marcel Dekker, New York. The Wiley Enciclopedia of Packaging Technology. Shelf-Life of Dating Foods. Esto para confiabilidad de los datos. Incluye todas las secciones. Aborda todos los requisitos y los relaciona. Requisitos incompletos faltan de requisitos. Aborda todos los conceptos y los relaciona.

Describe apropiadamente los materiales y equipos empleados. Los resultados carecen de unidades. Descrito en prosa, en tiempo pasado. No describe en prosa, en tiempo pasado. Tablas y Figuras con leyendas, y encabezados. Resultados esperados Descrito en prosa, y no como cuestionario pregunta, respuesta. Descrito en prosa, y no como cuestionario pregunta, respuesta. Sustenta los resultados esperados y discrepancias con lo reportado en la literatura. Concluye en base a los resultados obtenidos. Incluye recomendaciones Concluye en base a los resultados obtenidos.

Al final del documento enlista las referencias. No hay cadencia en el texto. Incluyendo todas las secciones hasta las referencias. Expresa resultados en unidades del SI. Muestran estar bien preparados, con un buen entendimiento de su proyecto. Muestran estar poco preparados, con poco entendimiento. Contenido Exponen y detallan todas las etapas en el desarrollo de su proyecto. Exponen su proyecto de manera pobre y con muy poco detalle. Los resultados carencen de unidades puntos Descrito en prosa, en tiempo pasado.

Solo se limita Contestar las preguntas. Incluye recomendaciones 9 pts Concluye en base a los resultados obtenidos. El documento no sobrepasa 8 pag. Escribe correctamente los nombres de los microorganismos, y los equipos utilizados. No hay cadencia enel texto. Total pts Anexo 7: Nombre del producto es descriptivo.

Producto es bastante original pero se basa en modificaciones de otro producto en el mercado. Nombre del producto no es descriptivo. Producto presenta modificaciones menores de un producto existente en el mercado. Producto es una copia de un producto en el mercado. Sabor y apariencia El producto es sabroso y tiene buena apariencia. El producto es sabroso pero la apariencia debe mejorar. El producto no es muy sabroso, pero gusta y la apariencia debe mejorar. El producto no gusta y la apariencia no es buena. Beneficios para el mercado meta del producto El producto es coherente y responde claramente las necesidades nutricionales del mercado meta.

Nombre, lista de ingredientes, contenido neto. Empaque falta o demuestra poco esfuerzo. Compliance with the competencies has been monitored and an objective evaluation of the learning process has been carried out, thus completing the third assessment cycle. Progress made during the last period includes: Laboratory Report Assessment Methodology. The grade point average of the five reports was as follows: For the next period, a review of the learning objectives and the implementation of evaluation surveys to assess course objective achievement has been proposed.

This report includes the following: Panamerican Agricultural School, Zamorano Name of coordinator: Knowledge of transportation processes and unit operations in food processing. Ability to use the mass and energy balance in food processing. Knowledge about unit operations required to produce a food product. Method s of Assessment These objectives are evaluated in the Food Engineering Course, which is designed to familiarize students with the principles of engineering.

In order to strengthen theoretical knowledge, the course includes the following laboratory practices: The learning is evaluated through problem solving in the laboratory report and a rubric is used as an assessment tool to evaluate the reports Annex 4. Rubric to evaluate the laboratory report. One of the proposed improvements involves including time and motion videos in the balance of mass in order to have an improved understanding of food transportation; another improvement involves using case studies to reinforce the knowledge obtained.

Ability to apply and incorporate the principles of food science in practical and real situations and problems. Apply critical thinking in new situations Method s of Assessment These learning objectives are evaluated in the New Product Development Course, where students undertake a new product development project to apply their knowledge about science and technology, in addition to using critical thinking in technical problem solving, during the technical design and development of their product. Each team was evaluated based on the presentation of the new product and the final report.

Knowledge about government regulations required for the manufacturing and sale of food. Method s of Assessment In the Food Microbiology Course, students carry out laboratory practices to determine indicator groups in food. They subsequently interpret the results of the food microbiological analysis pursuant to standards established by regulatory agencies that ensure food safety. The evaluation tool to be used is the Rubric to evaluate the laboratory report Annex 6. Rubric to evaluate the laboratory report With regard to the Meat Science and Technology Course, students carry out a course project where they formulate their own product and apply their knowledge about national and international government regulations.

This demonstrates that all the students were able to interpret the results according to the food legislation of their country or region. Improvements proposed for the next period include developing case studies of the products that did not comply with regulation. Distinguish microorganisms according to their structure and metabolism 2. Describe microbial control measures according to the context of application 3. Use chemical and biological control methods to combat microorganisms 4. Describe the various applications of microorganisms in food production 5.

Use methods of bacteria isolation and quantification. The course uses laboratory practices to strengthen theoretical knowledge. The evaluation tool to be used is the rubric to assess laboratory reports Annex 3. Rubric to evaluate laboratory reports. Summary of Key Findings The laboratory reports prepared in the General Microbiology Course were evaluated, the average scores were as follows: Six objectives aimed mainly at strengthening the technical skills of students in the program were selected.

The oral and written presentation of the special graduation project research proposal, which evaluates research objectives related to independent research of scientific information and the competent use of library resources, showed a significant improvement over the previous period. Average scores rose from 2. The minimum score increased from 2.

The report summarizes the evaluation methodologies, tools and analysis of the results obtained in the reported period. As a result of prioritization criteria, not all of the reports are included in this document. We have identified the need to continuously strengthen the faculty on the appropriate approach to competencies and SLOs, use of evaluation methods and tools and proper result measurement and analysis. Tuesdays and Fridays It is a basic course in food preservation and packaging where knowledge acquired in the basic science and food processing courses is applied. The course focuses on the different traditional and modern preservation and packaging technologies and their implications in the shelf life of food.

It fully covers the subject of plastic packaging currently dominating the market and future alternatives that could replace it. Likewise, traditional preservation techniques and modern techniques that are currently replacing them are reviewed in order to understand the causes for these changes.

Exposes students to the dynamism of the market, which is affected by new technologies in food preservation and packaging, new packaging materials and container designs, new social concerns, economic factors, rationalist consumer tendencies, minimal processing and recycling. Recommend processes for food preservation and packaging according to the product and its distribution environment and use. Evaluate quality control parameters of plastic material used in food packaging. Explain the role of corporate responsibility in reducing environmental through food preservation and packaging.

Cooperate in the preparation of a packaging system for a food product. Summary of Learning Evaluation: Evaluation Strategies Percentages 1. The Wiley Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology. The evaluation process must be permanent, systematic and continuous, and the collection and analysis of information must be used to demonstrate the technical and pedagogical performance of the professors, leading to decision making that fosters their professional development and to the continuous improvement of Academic Excellence.

In view of the above, this document sets out the proposed organization, the course and module evaluation processes with their respective schedules, the responsible parties and general principles about the process. The information will be collected from three sources: The primary information source has been student input. A number of Departments organized Focus Groups, evaluation by peers or personal interviews to support the professor in improving the PEA.

It is necessary to reinforce evaluation processes carried out by professors and students increase student participation, observation by peers and implementation of improvements by professors, among others d. The technical process of sending surveys and generating reports through Blackboard offers some support, but improvements can still be made to make it more efficient. Different software possibilities are being analyzed e.

Information analysis is basically descriptive, it is necessary to establish triangulation of different methods and information sources. Because this is a sensitive subject, the processes must be implemented gradually moving from the common assessment paradigm to a paradigm that supports the professional development of the faculty and uses integral evaluation as an input. Cerda The procedure involves collecting information from the three sources mentioned: The proposed initiative corresponds to the design and pilot phase of the evaluation process; different mechanisms and software are being studied to make the collection, analysis and monitoring of improvement commitments more efficient as part of the continuous improvement cycle.

Description of evaluation type Information collection instruments Probable implementation time Students and professor peers 1. Intermediate and final student evaluation 2. Support to course improvement processes 3. Observation by professor peers, visits to classes and production and analysis of videos, among others post training 4. Focus groups as requested by the department head Intermediated and final course survey Intermediate feedback pre and post observation rubrics, Interview guide I period I period I period Professor evaluated 1.

Self-assessment, professor analysis about co-assessment results 2. Analysis of professor commitments 2.

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Subsequently, it will socialize the results with other departments that have evaluations scheduled for the following week, when it is an intermediated evaluation, or in week 15 when it is the final evaluation. This to ensure data reliability. Summary 5 pts 5 pts 4 pts 3pts Maximum words in one sole paragraph. Includes Objective s , methodology, results and conclusions. Covers all requisites and clearly relates them. Covers the requisites, but they are not interrelated. Incomplete requisites missing. Missing 3 or more requisites. Introduction 10 pts 10 pts 9 pts 8 pts Theory: Describes the fundamentals for understanding the exercise.

Includes the objective of the exercise. Incomplete description of concepts missing concepts. Missing 3 or more concepts. Includes the objective of the exercise Experimental procedure 15 pts 15 pts pts pts Another person can read the description and repeat the experiment. Another person could not read the description and repeat the experiment. The activities are presented in chronological order. Not in past tense prose. Incorrect description of equipment or materials.

Appropriately describes the materials and equipment used. Written in past tense prose. Results 15 pts 15 points points points Describes results in a logical sequence. Describes results in a logical sequence. Results lack units Only calculations and results are presented. Not written in past tense prose. Tables and graphs are self-explanatory without returning to the text. Lacks heading in tables or graphs to understand the information they contain. Discussion 20 pts 20 points points points Evidence of understanding Discusses results in a logical sequence. Discusses results in a logical sequence.

Only presents calculations and results. Not written in prose. Actual results Covers all of the discussion questions Omits one of the discussion questions. Omits two of the discussion questions. Omits more than two of the discussion questions. Explanation of discrepancies Expected results and discrepancies are supported by scientific literature Expected results and discrepancies are supported by scientific literature Relationship with experiment objectives Strengths and weaknesses of project design How to avoid difficulties in future experiments?

Recommendations on using the exercise as a learning experience Conclusion 10 pts 10 pts 9 pts 8 pts What can be concluded from the results and discussion? Conclusion based on results obtained. Includes recommendations Conclusion based on results obtained. General conclusion unrelated with results obtained Conclusion not based on results obtained. Repeats the results References 5 pts 5 pts 3 pts 1 pt 0 pts Text references cited after each paragraph. Reference listed at document end. References listed at document end. Follows the format presented in the writing guide for graduation projects Follows the format presented in the writing guide for graduation projects Log Book 5 pts Writing quality 10 pts 10 pts 9 pts 8 pts Grammar Words written correctly with accents.

Uses linking words to structure the information. Proper capitalization and correct use of singular and plural, verb conjugation. Paragraphs are composed of more than two sentences. Sentence length is no more than 3 lines. Words are written correctly except for the omission of some accents. The names of the microorganisms and equipment used are not correctly written Some accents are omitted and verb conjugation is incorrect.

The writing is jerky and there are spelling errors. Sentence exceeds 3 lines. The summary should be no more than words use a minimum font size of 11 pt, minimum line spacing of 1. Technical style The names of the microorganisms and equipment used are correctly written. Results are expressed in IS units. The names of the microorganisms and equipment used are correctly written. Rubric for evaluating Food Engineering laboratory reports Attribute 1 5 points 2 6 points 3 All report sections are included in an orderly fashion. The diagrams are included and labeled.

Diagrams are included and are clearly and precisely labeled. Clear and precise diagrams are included and make the report easier to understand. Data and Calculations Calculations are not shown or the results are inaccurate and not adequately labeled. Some calculations are demonstrated and the results are labeled.

Some calculations are demonstrated and the results are correct and appropriately labeled. All of the calculations are demonstrated and the results are correct and appropriately labeled. Results and Discussion Only the results were written. Results were written with limited explanation. Explanation of some of the results.

Explanation of all results. Conclusions Little or no reflective effort is demonstrated. Some conclusions only showing what was learned from the experiment. Logical and clearly explained conclusions. Includes whether the hypothesis was proven and what was learned from the experiment. Logical and superbly explained conclusions. Includes whether the hypothesis was proven possible error sources and what was learned from the experiment. Clear and precise presentation delivered in a professional manner.

Moderately clear and precise presentation delivered in a somewhat professional manner. Little clarity in presentation delivered unprofessionally. Preparation Demonstrate that they are well prepared with a deep understanding of their project. The more important dimension of seductiveness lies in the fact that Don Juan has for centuries seduced both writers and readers within the realm of literature-a much larger and far more malleable universe than that of everyday reality.

March, y Estelle Irizarry. Henry Thurston-Griswold offers Valera scholars an opportunity to reconsider the credibility of the aesthetic creed of Spain's Don Juan Valera. Pursuant upon the fact that numerous critics and scholarly studies have attempted in vain to classify Valera's eclectic style, Thurston-Griswold chooses instead to reevaluate the nineteenth-century author's writings in light of the philosophical stance he held.

The book is divided into four long chapters with an introduction and a conclusion, a list of works consulted, and a limited index. Written in clear, crisp prose, this Valera study begins with a precisely stated premise, followed by well-organized, well-documented chapters on Valera's biography and aesthetic creed, critical commentary on the author's philosophy, and a discussion of the novels.

Thurston-Griswold skillfully matches previous critical stances with citations from primary sources to come to grips with the often-cited divergence between Valera's aesthetic creed and his writing. It should be noted that while Thurston-Griswold refers often to Valera's critical writing and touches all bases when discussing the novels characterization, themes, plots, use of language, and narrative technique , there is scant reference to Valera's poetry or drama.

The discussion of the theme of love fails to cite directly Carole Rupe's study, although the work is listed in the bibliography. Teresia Taylor Hardin-Simmons University. This is a most welcome volume. The introduction is mainly thematic and is divided into the following sections: The anthology includes poems from Uceda's first published volume, Mariposa en cenizas , to her latest work, Del camino de humo in press.

Uceda's poetry is dense, especially from the Poemas de Cherry Lane on. This is difficult and disturbing writing, reflecting a private struggle with the largest question of all, the question of Being. And behind this question, the perplexities of naming and identity. As a passionate, uneasy meditation on the enigma of existence, such poetry challenges us to go beyond naming, beyond the certainties of categories and schema, for a kind of understanding that partakes of the vivid clarity of dream. Uceda sees her poetry along such visionary lines.

Yo no suprimo el plano real cotidiano Uceda, who is an original and intensely visionary poetic voice of contemporary Spain, deserves far more recognition than she has so far received. This volume amply demonstrates that originality. Dichos ensayos coinciden en enfocarse sobre sutilezas en la oeuvre celiana no elucidadas a pesar de estudios anteriores. No es posible citar todos los ensayos por falta de espacio, pero se recomiendan a todos los estudiosos de la obra celiana para futuras investigaciones sobre el genial gallego.

Thus, readers might expect to find essays representative of a variety of theoretical tendencies, but they may be disappointed by the narrower criteria more accurately delineated by the second quote. Save the brief forward by Rolando Hinojosa and Luis Leal's contribution, the rest were penned by practitioners of historically based cultural critique.

Yet, while no one should judge the greater spectrum of Chicano criticism on the basis of this collection, the essays are generally informative, and a few, like Genaro Padilla's study of New Mexican women's autobiography or Elizabeth J. Most significantly, the collection displays the talents, interests, and methodology of some of the leading figures of what can be called the second generation of Chicano critics, those who, unlike critics of the first, have had the benefit of Chicano studies courses in their training.

A Spanish Anthology by J. D. M. Ford - Free Ebook

The second book is an example of the maturing of that second generation. Yet what defines his approach in The Dialects is the theory of cultural resistance which leads more to contrast than comparison. On the one hand is the U. However, despite a sophisticated display of current critical sources, the interpretations feel somehow dated by a bipolar division of ideological forces into good and evil reminiscent of the cold war years or when siding with the Cuban Revolution was the politically correct position for liberal U. In general, the image of Latin America is monolithic and uncritical, focusing only on the leftists' tradition of anti-U.

Strangely enough, the critic's rhetoric empowers the very writing he wishes to attack by making the U. He then posits a model for the U. Most telling is the underlying irony of a Chicano text, a hybrid product of on-going cultural fusion, arguing in such clear-cut binary terms. The author admits that this kind of cultural production, arising from a fluid border existence which he has attributed to Chicano writers and even to his own critical position, no longer fits within the oppositional structure he has used throughout the text. Theorizing is, however, always problematic and much more so in our present condition of multiple and mass competition for critical positioning, that is, unless one brackets the field into unproblematic units through the imposition of some abstract formula or ideology extraneous to the material studied, principles which resolve problems a priori.

However, from the position of the last paragraph it becomes impossible to speak of our and their Americas, thus placing the entire text into an idealized space outside the reality of the historical period in which it appears. Both books are necessary reading for anyone who intends to keep abreast of developing Chicano critical thought. Este libro constituye el tercer tomo de otros dos ya publicados por los autores en la misma editorial. El lector necesita tener a mano ambos tomos, debido a las referencias que se hacen a menudo en este nuevo volumen. Se puede recomendar como libro de consulta para cualquier curso subgraduado o graduado que trate el tema afrocubano.

Para este asunto son fundamentales los trabajos de Rolena Adorno.

Visor de obras.

Sirve muy bien para repasar de manera conjunta la realidad americana del siglo XVI. Indudablemente, hay que aplaudir el acceso de Dianne M. Latin America and the Caribbean is the result of years of collaboration among librarians and other scholars to compile a complete interdisciplinary guide to Latin American Studies.

This reference has 5, annotated entries describing the major reference sources of all of the Latin American countries including former possessions of England and Holland. Arranged by subject areas, the entries fit into fifteen chapters: Noted specialists have written introductory essays establishing the major contours of each field for the past twenty-five years; major bibliographies fist and annotate these key sources.

Author, title, and subject indexes plus a detailed table of contents multiply access to all the materials. A glance at two areas, Spanish American and Brazilian Literature, provides a sampling by which to judge the entire book. In concentrating on literature since , these two scholars profile the field with a thoroughness satisfying both to experts and to beginners.

Woodbridge, the doyen of Spanish American bibliographers, again evidences his expertise in the entries that cover this diverse field: David Jackson, of the University of Texas, Austin, introduces Brazilian Literature in a preliminary essay, the Brazilianist and noted bibliographer, Lawrence Hallewell, of the University of Minnesota, selected and annotated the materials for literature and linguistics of this country. There is no separate section and essay for linguistics, although it is included for both Spanish America and Brazil.

In other words, for reasons undoubtedly related to space, this subject matter, in spite of receiving individual attention to the Handbook of Latin American Studies since , is divided between two separate if cognate disciplines, literature and anthropology. And although the present volume compares well both in the humanities as well as the social sciences, it has almost nothing on applied arts or the sciences.

Like every good reference book, Latin America and the Caribbean has the extrinsic value of describing the state of a field. Clearly the sciences in Latin America even ecology do not command world attention. The applied arts have not as yet deserved scholarly focus. The absence of these fields represents a reality, not interpretation or selection. These popular items probably appear indirectly within the references listed in the included categories. The editors are to be commended, however, for the new fields meriting attention: Although dispersed throughout the text; Blacks and Indians are not neglected, e.

Databases, a small section with seven entries on the Humanities, reflects the growing technology of Latin American Studies. Film, under performing arts, receives due space. Unequalled in Latin American reference books to date, the present work is a landmark of information and coordination. Surely anyone can quibble with the criteria for excluding or privileging certain fields. In this case, the compilers have satisfied mainly academia but in so doing they accommodate other clienteles as well.

Editor Covington and the forty-nine contributors deserve congratulations. This is the thesis around which Antonio Cussen has constructed a fascinating account of the Revolution from Bello's perspective as a statesman and writer who sought to reconcile his faith in the Augustan model of power and his desire for political change.

As Cussen so aptly puts it: Cussen's excellent book is at once a profound study of the ideological principles and pragmatic issues that governed the colonists' quest for independence, and a perceptive analysis of Bello's poetry in its artistic as well as its socio-political connotations. Using all the resources a scholar can muster to make the results of his investigation precise and reliable, Cussen has managed to elucidate the complexity of Bello's position regarding such questions as monarchical rule, republicanism, and the Guayaquil negotiations.

Bello's sentiment for the Libertador, as expressed in letters, documents, and verse ran the gamut from displeasure, indignation, and overt animosity on the one hand, to esteem and acclamation on the other. En esta obra de argumento sencillo, lo que predomina son los detalles y el retrato de los personajes.

En fin, La maestra normal , que bien merece su fama, es una de las obras maestras de la novela realista en la Argentina. Daniel Texas Christian University. Este modelo surge en la lectura de cada texto. Wells y Mario Vargas Llosa. Su arquitectura es asediante y reiterativa. El discurso en este excelente estudio pierde un poco de fluidez por el frecuente mal empleo del punto y coma como substituto de la coma.

With this book Kadir places himself squarely among a new breed of literary critics cum historians Stephen Greenblatt, Jerome McGann, Brook Thomas, and others who have forged what has come to be known as the New Historicism. Combining solid scholarship, a sensitive eye and ear, and a new approach, Kadir's book is a strikingly original look at the source documents of the age of discovery. Closely examining the writings of Columbus and a wide range of other chroniclers, conquerors, and colonizers of America, South and North, he carefully analyzes their tortuous attempts to show that their mission in the New World was preordained and justified by biblical prophecy.

Kadir shows how Columbus wrote his own script for this drama of discovery, casting himself as leading man. In the culmination of the final chapter, Kadir examines five drafts of a memorandum written by Columbus in his final years of desperation and defeat. Written in varying tones and points of view, including first, second, and third person narrations, Kadir shows us Columbus straining to his limits, in a kind of literary death rattle, to extract the last ounce of power from his own words.

The Question of the Other , traces the ideology behind the texts of discovery. Analiza la obra de cuatro autores que se han ocupado del tema negro en Venezuela: Estos autores adoptan distintas posturas ante el problema negro. Y al adoptarlas nos convencen de que la literatura negra venezolana existe y es digna de tomarse en serio.

En Tambor , el poeta interpreta la experiencia afro-venezolana desde el margen de la existencia negra. La obra de Lewis, como sus anteriores sobre la literatura negra colombiana Treading the Ebony Path. This work discusses questions that confront thoughtful scholars in all fields of learning; Merrell does to Borges what Borges does to others: Merrell's study is divided into a preface followed by seven chapters, each with a brief introductory summary.

An Interlude is included between the third and fourth chapters. Each chapter in this volume gyrates around Borges with direct reference to broad themes prevalent in his time. At the end following the notes there is a valuable works cited section that offers a bibliography of the principal studies related to Borges and his concern for scientific matters. Chapter 1 relates the ancient controversy between realism and nominalism and concludes with an analysis of fiction and reality.

The second chapter explores the issue of ubiquitous paradoxes, a favorite theme of Borges. Chapter 3 continues to explore the matter of paradox as well as the problems of randomness and order, the infinite and the finite, and continuity and discontinuity. The Interlude that follows illustrates various affinities between scientific and literary imagination. Chapter 4 studies the Einsteinian universe as related to Borges's library of Babel. The almost constant preoccupation with time is the topic of Chapter 5. The next chapter introduces the perplexities of quantum theory along with the rupture of symmetry, and in the final chapter, Merrell considers the problems of natural language as a communicative medium.

The basic thrust of Merrell's inquiry is to map connecting lines between Borges's work and certain aspects of twentieth-century mathematics, logic and physics, and to some extent, philosophy and science. Based on a postmodern perspective, this inquiry dips into the continuous stream of intellectual and artistic endeavor in an attempt to demonstrate how multiple textual threads are intricately intertwined. In Chapter 7 he concludes that Borges's intention is to provoke the reader with unexpected aesthetic juxtapositions. It is Borges's intention to force readers to view things from many perspectives and to expand their mental outlook.

The notion of a theory of meaning or interpretation should be abandoned. There is no message, but in the end Borges is not able to liberate himself entirely from his desire for a message. Fully aware that finally there is nothing, Borges is heroically condemned to continue the search and never turn back. This very readable, carefully written, and well documented book is of great value. It deals with complex issues in terms that are easily understood. Students and scholars alike will find a great deal of useful information in its pages.

This learned volume represents an important contribution to the understanding of relationships between contemporary literature and science. Oberhelman Texas Tech University. Balance, in fact, is one of At Face Value 's many strengths. In addition to categorizing and examining in great depth the common procedures of self-writing as practiced in Spanish America, Molloy is also attentive to eccentric texts that eschew the prominent conventions. Moreover, she explores many theoretical issues, such as the generic ambiguity of the autobiography, the problematic role of memory, the importance of geographical, psychological, and temporal distance, and the relationship of autobiography to national epic in a period of emerging national identity.

At Face Value's most important contributions to the study of Spanish American autobiography, however, are Molloy's perceptive analyses of narrative strategies. Among the most engaging chapters of At Face Value are those that explore the ideological biases of texts. Molloy's analyses of these texts expose them as exercises in cultural elitism, with occasional undertones of racism or ethnic superiority, and acts of communion or bonding of members of conservative circles as defense against perceived threats, such as immigration and social mobility, to the privileged social class.

Conversely, Molloy's analysis of Norah Lange's Cuadernos de infancia reveals an aggressively non-conformist and experimental posture in a text that was favorably received by a mainstream critical community determined to discern in the respectable genre of childhood memoirs a retreat from Lange's previously eccentric and sometimes scandalous works. Albujar, and the Condesa de Merlin, is generally sympathetic and always illuminating.

Her chapters on Ocampo, Sarmiento, and Vasconcelos are certain to be important resources for future study of these wellknown figures. While Molloy's analytical skills are undoubtedly her foremost asset, one must also admire her clear, forceful, and highly readable literary style, the breadth of her knowledge, and her exhaustive scholarship. Moreover, the text itself has virtually no editorial inaccuracies, such as misspellings, punctuation errors, or inconsistencies. In short, At Face Value is a fascinating study in the relationship of autobiographical writing in Spanish America to family, community, nation, history, and politics and to other genres of literature.

I recommend it very highly for all academic libraries and for anyone with an interest in Spanish American literature, culture and history. Parsons University of Scranton. All commonalities, including such elements as the creation of Macondo, the use of reappearing characters and episodes, the presence of magical realism, humor, and hyperbole, and an ever-increasing awareness of the reader, are then linked to their later manifestations in the longer fiction.

Analysis of individual stories is brief, averaging one page in length, and typically includes pertinent historical or biographical information, a plot summary, and a critical interpretation followed by comparative or contrasting viewpoints by other critics. These excerpts in the main deal with general topics, such as literary influences, literature and politics, the theme of solitude, and the treatment of reality in fiction. They contain very little specific information about the author's short fiction. Three are excerpted from book-length studies, while a fourth originally formed part of a Festschriften collection.

In several specific cases, for example, some of the ideas developed in these essays have already been discussed or referred to at length in other sections of the book. In another instance of such repetition, Oberhelman, while analyzing the collection, Innocent Erendira in Section One, provides a twelve-line summary of the main points of an essay that is then reproduced almost in its entirety in Section Three. Another problem caused by including excerpted versions of essays that were published elsewhere in their entirety occurs in the abbreviated version of the essay written by Regina Janes in Section Three.

One can assume that in the original unabridged version, initial documentation of Vargas Llosa's comments appeared in a portion of the essay omitted in this abridged version. Such shortcomings are partially ameliorated by an excellent Selected Bibliography that contains relevant explanatory notes, a precise chronology of the uncollected stories, and a valuable summary of available English translations. This volume wisely makes no claim to provide extensive new perspectives on the stories but does complete the admirable and important task of both synthesizing major ideas on the topic and providing a useful chronology of the stories in Section One.

Section Two the interviews would be more appropriate in a less-specific study of the author, while Section Three selected critical perspectives often repeats in detail ideas that have been summarized in the initial segment of the volume. Latin American women and their cultural creations, as Claudia Schaefer notes in her introduction to Textured Lives , have become the focus of a number of studies seeking to trace relationships among gender, class and aesthetic production within the social and historical contexts binding them.

The focal point of her analysis concerns each woman's treatment of relationships of power: Indeed, in each woman's case, Schaefer examines the ways in which the intimate conflicts of the female body and mind parallel and reflect what is going on or wrong with the Mexican social body.


  1. Star Trek III: The Search for Spock: Movie Tie-In Novelization.
  2. Hispania. Volume 76, Number 2, May 1993.
  3. World Report 2010: Events of 2009 (Human Rights Watch World Report (Paperback)).

Kahlo's art is thus shown to reflect her personal, tragic parody of traditional prescriptions for women's art as well as the cultural conflicts occurring as Mexico moves out of precapitalism and becomes a modern technological culture. Castellanos' essays employ techniques adopted from fiction, the insider's view of the liberal ideals of the Mexican state, and an ironic narrative voice which never forgets that the abyss between political reality and utopian desire is unbridgeable.

Castellanos as a cultural critic never finds herself within a comfort zone, caught as she is between the forces of tradition and those of modernization: Where Castellanos' quest for redemption focuses on the social body, here the physical body of Brimmer and the psychological body of Beloff are the objects of redemption. Schaefer argues that the Mexican intellectuals' retreat from the social and political crisis of the seventies transforms the private body of these two women protagonists into the site of sacrifice and martyrdom in order to demonstrate the triumph of individual will.

Schaefer successfully demonstrates in each case how the historical circumstances within which these women work are central to their treatment of the relations existing between women and institutions of power in Mexico. We are also told that the boom corresponds to Modernism or vanguardismo and the post-boom to Postmodernism or postvanguardismo. The book examines twenty-five novels published between and