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Um curso colegial me deu o basico. Com a maquina mesmo, entendeu? If you want we can talk. Eu sabia muito pouco, muito pouco. De leitura muito pouco. Como eu escolho isso? The original language was as indicated in the text. The original quotation is shown below:. Eu gostava muito disso.

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E os jogos que vinham eram muito melhores do que qualquer coisa que eu poderia fazer. Porque ele entrava, dava uma aula, liberava todo mundo, e a turma ia jogar futebol. Cabo de… no modem… Na verdade cabo serial, pra conectar computadores. Pra poder se comunicar. Era mais barato pegar um mouse, quebrar e fazer.

A gente arrancava o mouse [picks up an imaginary mouse, rips off its cord and removes the isolation with teeth], juntava os fios, colocava… Demorava menos de dez minutos pra fazer um cabo. In terms of understanding your experience and how you…. Maybe when or why I got interested in computer science. This happened when I was six years old and I got an Atari—a video game. And this was my first contact with some electronic device.

I was able to compute on something. Yes, I asked for it. I saw it on television. I was a kid, just a small kid, so this was just for the fun. Eleven I already knew that I wanted a computer, not a video game. But in the end, video games are programmed. So, I decided I wanted to do that for my life. They are organized thematically in the book. The original transcription below shows the passages in the original order:. Devia ter 13, 14 anos. Pra ser mais preciso, eu acho que foi Mas eu tinha acesso porque eu fazia um sistema pra escola. O curso em que a gente tinha estudado, o panorama era interessante tecnologicamente porque era um grupo de jovens que tinham….

Mais ou menos da mesma idade. The number 17 is an incorrect on-the-fly calculation based on the year in which he remembers those things occurring — and his year of birth. E isso era legal, esse prazer era…. The original quotes are shown below:. Eu comecei a fazer faculdade em 91… 92, isso, Na Petrobras foi quando eu meio que comecei a sentir a crise do meu supertecnicismo.

Eu sempre fui assim, pego o livro, engulo ele, e vou experimentando tudo que tem ali pra ser experimentado sobre aquilo. A reserva de mercado acabou em 88, 89, alguma coisa assim. Eu fiquei… Na verdade, como contratado. Ela contrata uma empresa externa, terceirizada e obriga essa empresa: Era isso que eu queria fazer da vida.

Antes, bem antes, muitos anos antes. E usa tecnologia de ponta e tal. Quando ela atinge a mim eu fico possesso. Porque… Porque eles falavam muito assim: Come se faz [unclear]. E depois eles perguntaram: Rio Grande do Sul, ta? Mas foi uma coisa fortuita. E isso fez InterJ uma coisa deixada cada vez mais de lado. Olha, a gente… Nada de InterJ. Nunca trabalhava mais com InterJ. Que era a tecnologia de EIT. So, if you could tell me how you first heard about Lua, and your experience with it, from the very beginning.

I was probably looking for a scripting language to embed in our application, and through forums, and googling, and other things came across it as an option. So it was really forums, googling and searching for ideas. Well, we were trying to figure out what kind of scripting language to use. We really needed something, and so decision had to be made what we were gonna use.

And the other fairly obvious choice would have been Python. And basically I decided… Based on what I was reading Lua sounded like the best approach, and I can tell you why in a minute, so then we just started attempting to implement it and it continued to snowball from there. Well, one thing I was most concerned about was sandboxing, security, making sure that there were no holes internally inherently in the language.

That there were reasons to worry about it. I am sure that a real Python expert would be able to refute this. But what little I found, while I was searching, the notions I got, on my web-based research, seemed to imply that. And the other thing of course that made Lua great was the purpoted efficiency, simplicity of integration. Like IO or anything. We needed a language to primarily reference the objects inside our own system and to be able to script them. And so when you decided to use it, how did you go about learning how to actually do that? What kind of resources did you use?

No, I mean, I regularly read the newsgroup, obviously, or the mailing list. And I went to the Lua meet up, when was it, last year or the year before, in San Jose. So yeah, I guess it was a year and a half ago. It was in the Adobe building, in San Jose. But it was fairly early on, so I knew enough to ask annoying questions at the meeting.

Tell me more about it, why you decided to go and what were your impressions from that specific event. Well, my reason to go was to get some sense of how serious this is. To ask a few questions. To talk with some people about it. More and more now I am very confident about our choice but [unclear]. Who are the other people who use it and why do they use it? So, was about the people who use it or was it about Roberto and company showing up from Brazil? I think I only came for half a day. I think it was a multi-day event.

How to conjugate the subjunctive - Present Tense

It was very nice. The community… Its a young… I should say, seemingly young… Not in age, not in person-age, but a young community. Where people are… They are just making a very good, robust, efficient language. But still at the point where they are willing to not worry too much about legacy stuff. Will this break compatibility? Because I am busy. I am getting plenty of information and valuable help through the mailing list. I guess English language is the lingua franca for Lua as well.

From what I can tell. I speak German fluently, I could possibly… I would parse French, but not very much. Well, if it were in German, I could manage. But if it were in Portuguese or Spanish or something… no. And of course the question is: What are the primary interests of the caretakers of the language? Is it to satisfy their academic ambitions?

Is it a language to highlight their work on the programming language theory? Or is it something for practical use? Practical as in you think they care more about this than academic issues, or do you think they could do both at the same time? Perhaps it is harder, it might be harder for me to determine than if it were for example at Stanford, then I could… A It would be easier to meet the people or I would know somebody who knows somebody who knows them or something like that.

So, in this context it is certainly more opaque. So, once I discovered that, it was like: Did you pay any attention early on to the fact that Lua was based in Brazil? I guess I take a global perspective on things like that. Programming in Perl is written by Larry Wall. And the Lua book was written by Roberto. And so just reading the book it was pretty clear that the guy who made this language was a really smart guy, and he valued principles that I valued: JavaScript suffered from premature standardization.

There is this web browser, the web blew up, so everybody is using JavaScript. And then they thought: And so there is a lot of cruft and nasty things. The way that arrays and [unclear]. Because it was standardized so early, because it had a huge community. It had a small community and less momentum. So the designers could, when they realized they made a mistake, throw it out, unify the concepts under a different way of thinking.

The different abstractions that went from Lua 3 to 4 to 5. So, this goes back to what you were saying about Lua having small community being a blessing? But fundamentally, at [unclear] levels, JavaScript is a lot like Lua without the meta stuff. Petrobras has this huge body of code that they use for simulating all kind of oil, whatever. But at the same time, because they were very old, the interface was very clunky. You had to prepare a data file with numbers, would have to in specific columns. Because it was in Fortran, probably. And they wanted to do something easier for the people who were using those problems.

And typically you would have a diagram of your simulation and what you did before we went in is that they had this program and they had to remember that line 5 column 3 you had to put a [unclear] or whatever. And no one new really, so they used to make mistakes. If you shift one columns, it would not have any error messages. And this was much easier for them, the engineers. And Petrobras wanted to do this for several, at least a dozen different simulators.

So, we talked to them and came up with an idea: This was kind of a typical problem. You would write a simple text file that would say: I want this diagram and in this diagram when I click this entity you should show this kind of a menu and do this kind data validation, things like that.

And then when I am done I want this data to be output in this format. So we wrote this language to spec this kind of task.

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Eu acho natural Lua ser assim. But we never targeted any industry. Lua was meant to be used for Tecgraf projects and just that. So, if it was mostly meant to be used inside Tecgraf, why was the mailing list in English? The mailing list… The mailing list was never meant to be used by at Tecgraf. Around that time, I remember now, we wrote this article in Dr.

What is the subjunctive?

So we created the mailing list for that, so that other people could answer our questions. It was in February And maybe create a mailing list. Yeah, in a way. But most… If we were going to get a community, maybe we should have a mailing list so that they could talk among themselves? To not have to answer everyone individually.

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An interview with Roberto, the second in , conducted several days later. About fourty minutes from the beginning:. When we started Lua… This is one of the things that people do not… When we say in our paper, that paper about the history of Lua, that it went beyond our most optimistic expectations, this is not very true. For instance, when we started, we never created a language for ta-ta-ti-ta-ta-ta.

We really created a language to solve this specific problem we had at the time. Yes, I loved programming languages. They needed to solve, they needed a programming language for this specific problem. I had one… [Laughs. I think… I think Luiz sent mail to [long pause] to some groups. Just announcing that there was Lua. And then some people started using it. Something we wanted, that I remember… Again someone gave us this idea to try to sell Lua.

So, we decided we were not going to sell it. But after that we noticed that there were people using it and people were liking it, and we were liking that idea of other people using Lua. That kind of… touched… satisfying. A kind of gratification for us, gratifying, whatever. And so we started to feel good about that. And now then, so at some point you then transitioned from that group being sort of not very important, but a source of some kind of satisfaction, to…. And then we published the article: But one thing that I thought was interesting was… So you wrote Lua as a specific solution for a specific problem at Tecgraf, right?

But then almost immediately, within the same year, you have this paper about it. Yes, but notice that this paper is, for instance, one page and is what they call, it was as a kind of a tool fair…. Portuguese-English Translation Forum

But I mean, the caderno, the tool book, was just one paper relating what was being exposed in this kind of fair of tools. It was a kind of practical part of this academic conference. And the academic conference in this case, the Symposio Brasileiro …. But can you tell me, do you remember how you ended up sending this paper there, even this short paper?

I think they still have this in software engineering. I remember sometime later them asking us to review papers for instance, and there was one or two grades related to how does these apply to real situations or how much this is really used, or things like that. But that was not, I mean, it was academic because we always have this pressure to publish so if we can generate a publication, we always try to do that.

But so this was just kind of: TecGraf was kind of stable and was not demanding that much. So now when you design… so in those later versions of Lua when you said you changed them with an eye toward what would be more useful… In this case they were designed with this [external] audience in mind rather than Tecgraf?

Would those actually had been the same thing? I mean, if you actually tried to change Lua in a way always to fit better what Tecgraf needed, would it be different today? Not exactly specific things, Specific things that emerged, more than people asked. Problems that emerged, in different environments. One instance, one example is embedded devices. Tecgraf never used Lua in embedded devices. Now they use, but I am not sure if they would try to use it, if they would push Lua in this direction by themselves.

That was something that from… people outside started to use Lua on those very different devices, on very small computers. That put more pressure to make Lua really portable.

Amanhã você vai entender

So, that was our goal, must run on that. It was a very large variety of computers that Tecgraf had, so from the beginning it was very portable. That was very exciting: I think that they got… with some reason I think they got a little offended with the change to 4.

I think this was the first change that we saw that it could hurt Tecgraf but we are going to do it anyway. But we knew that it was going to have some problems, was going to be a big incompatibility. And so I think that why I say it was a kind of break[ing] point. For any new user of Lua. Even for those that decided to change.

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For instance, [a colleague], he had that system, […]. It was a big system. It was already ready in 4. Por volta de , isso. E o que aconteceu no ano de ? A gente realmente fez isso, a gente usou Java pra construir o cliente, que a gente queria rodar pela intranet, etc, etc, no navegador.

A gente fez esse corte. Eu acho que a gente pulou o 4. The Python mailing list quote was originally in Portuguese also. Eu acho muito legal o Roberto conseguir…. A gente tem um cliente. Mas acho que vou voltar da Microsoft. Porque se usar Lua e der errado, meu chefe vai dizer que eu sou maluco. Lua reflete, no fundo, essa genialidade dele. Porque eu acho que merece. Foi eu que participava, sempre li esse site, e epa, vamo fazer. Eles me pedem nunca nada. E eu olhei pra aquilo e foi assim: O que vou fazer com isso?

Uma parte era em C, uma parte era em Lua. A ideia de ser uma tecnologia nacional… [pause], bem estruturada [pause]. Uma proposta pra um framework mesmo, de desenvolvimento pra Internet. This happens because in Brazil you use the gerund to describe something you are doing now, since in Portugal, you use the infinitive. Brazilians sometimes replace the preposition a with em or para with verbs of motion. In many such cases, the proclisis would be considered awkward or even grammatically incorrect in EP, in which the pronoun is generally placed after the verb enclitic place , namely ele viu-me.

The Orthographic Agreement Portuguese speaking countries signed an orthographic agreement in It will be mandatory in Brazil in Some people love to eat them dotting each bite with some good hot red pepper sauce. We LOVE so much coxinhas that there is even a blog just about it: Do you want to try to make it yourself?? They are making fun of a really popular brazilian way of speaking: Diminutives are also used to denote affection, intimacy, courtesy, and sometimes even a pejorative tone. The grass is so green. It seems at times that everyone in the country has some sort of nickname.

It can be a little bit tricky in the beginning, but the more you pratice, the closer you get to mastering this language. In the following picture you can see some common prepositions in comparison with preposition in English:. There are seven students and one teacher among us. Many students have difficulties to make difference between: Rio de Janeiro and Bahia. To use the correct preposition in this case you must learn the gender of the countries in Portuguese.

We have a helpful list for you:. These three words have some important differences that you need to know! The stew is best prepared over low heat in a thick clay pot. However, it gained its own version in Brazil and became a very popular dish among brazilians and also foreigners. The taste is strong, moderately salty but not spicy, dominated by the flavors of black bean and meat stew. Change the water every three hours, for minimum 24 hours.

Cover with cold water, bring to a boil over medium heat. Continue to cook over low heat. As each meat in turn becomes fully cooked and tender test with a fork remove from the kettle, let cool, cut into bit-size pieces, and reserve. When the black beans are fully cooked and soft about 1. In a large frying pan heat the lard, and cook the bacon in it until browned and crispy. Remove the bacon cubes, and in the same lard, fry the garlic and onion until soft and transparent, but not browned. Stir entire contents of frying pan plus the reserved meats and bacon, into the beans in the kettle.

Let cook over low heat for 20 minutes for flavors to blend. Serve accompanied by Mineiro-style kale, thick slices of peeled oranges, white rice, farofa recipe to follow , and caipirinhas to drink. What did you think about my friend? This place is really cool Eg 2: So here we go with one more useful expression in case you are at a stadium: Look at the example below: After one of our posts on Facebook showing the a comparitive between few words in Brazilian Portuguese and European Portuguese, I received a lot of emails and ibox messages asking for more information about this topic.

So here we are! I hope you enjoy it! Method Heat the chicken breasts, water and salt in a large saucepan over medium-high flame. Bring to a boil, and then reduce heat to medium-low and simmer until the chicken is cooked through and tender, 20 to 30 minutes.

Remove the chicken and reserve the poaching liquid. When the chicken is cool enough to handle, shred it with your fingers. Clean out the saucepan, and then add the oil and heat over medium-high flame. Saute the onion in the oil until translucent, 2 to 3 minutes. Then add the tomato and cook down for 2 or 3 minutes. Add the chicken, salt and pepper and continue to simmer until most of the liquid is cooked away. Remove from heat, stir in the cream cheese and adjust seasoning to taste. In another saucepan, mix 2 cups of the reserved broth with the flour, oil, salt and pepper and stir together until smooth.

Then set the saucepan over medium flame and cook, stirring constantly, until the batter forms a smooth mass and pulls away from the sides of the pan. Chill the dough and chicken for at least an hour. Flatten a golf ball-sized piece of dough into a round. Place a tablespoon of the chicken filling in the middle of the round and bring the sides of the dough up to encase the filling. Shape the dough into a little drumstick. Repeat with the remaining dough and filling.

Take a coxinha and dip it in the beaten egg and let the excess drip off. Then roll it in the breadcrumbs and set it on a baking sheet. Repeat with the remaining coxinhas. Coxinhas Variations The type of cheese used for coxinhas in Brazil is called Catupiry and is similar to American cream cheese. Definitely use it if you can find it. Eliminate the tomatoes from the filling if you like. Add a squeeze of lime to the filling for extra flavor. Do you want some coffee? We live close to you. To form the diminutive, you need to pay attention to the end of the noun: