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- Gil Vicente.
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He expresses himself in an unexpected, Dionysian way which does not always obey the aesthetic and artistic principles of balance. Vicente's works seem to show a spirit in conflict: In contrast, his works sometimes include a romanticism which combines eroticism and waggery with more erudite influences such as Petrarch. The worlds presented in Vicente's works could be considered as representative of the duality of Platonic idealism. The first world is the abstract, an ideal place of serenity and divine love that leads to inner peace, quietness, and "resplendent glory", according to his letter to John III of Portugal.
The second world, which he portrays in his farces, is the physical: His satirical works depict the second world, in which human flaws are caricatured with little regard for actual or historical truth.
Gil Vicente - Wikipedia
Though critics call attention to these anachronisms and narrative inconsistencies, it's possible that Vicente considered these errors trivial in his portrayals of an already false and imperfect world. In contrast, his representations of the mythic, symbolic, and religious aspects of Christmas , such as the figure of the Virgin Mother , the infant Jesus , and Christmas eve , demonstrate a harmony and purity which is not present in his social commentary.
Unlike plays which echo Manichaeism by presenting the dichotomy of darkness and light, Vicente's work juxtaposes the two elements in order to illustrate the necessity of both. Christmas eve, one of his common motifs, is symbolic of his philosophical and religious views: The darkness is necessary to provide contrast with the light. Like a morality play, it explores the journey of the Soul as it travels to the arms of the Mother Church. On its way, it is waylaid by the Devil and led to goodness by an Angel. These plays combine morality narratives with criticism of 16th-century Portuguese society by placing stereotypical characters on a dock to await the arrival of one of the ships which will take them to their eternal destination.
The characters are of a variety of social statuses; for example, in Auto da Barca do Inferno , those awaiting passage include a nobleman , a madam , a corrupt judge and prosecutor, a dissolute friar, a dishonest shoemaker, a hanged man, and a Jew who would have been considered bound for Hell in Vicente's time.
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For this reason, Vicente is sometimes called the "Poet of the Virgin. Vicente's comedies and farces were likely influenced by indigenous popular entertainment. Contemporaneous Spaniards, like Lucas Fernandez and Torres Naharro, may also have influenced his style.
Vicente's comedies blended slapstick and satire; in addition, his use of dialect clearly delineated the social classes of his characters. The staging of these plays maintained the simplicity of morality plays. For example, two simultaneous scenes might utilize a single curtain to divide them.
Frei Luís de Sousa ; Um auto de Gil-Vicente
This play, which shows his proficiency with the form, is comparable to a modern bedroom farce. Prior to Vicente, few dramatic stagings had taken place in Portugal. However, a few notable performances had established theatrical precedence in courtly and religious contexts. During the reign of Sancho I of Portugal — , Bonamis and Acompaniado, the first recorded Portuguese actors, put on a show of arremedillo and were paid by the King with the donation of lands.
In a document dated , Dom Frei Telo, Archbishop of Braga, refers to liturgical dramas which were performed during Catholic festivities. For example, Rui de Pina refers to one instance in which King John II himself played the part of The Knight of the Swan in a production which included a scene constructed of fabric waves.
During the action, a fleet of carracks with a crew of spectacularly dressed actors entered the room accompanied by the sound of minstrels , trumpets , kettledrum , and artillery. Vicente likely assisted in the production of these works, which include comedic scenes. Though Vicente did not invent Portuguese theatre, his works surpassed any done before that time.
Frei Luis de Sousa ; um auto de Gil Vicente
His writing in Portuguese and in Spanish shaped both modern Spanish and modern Portuguese drama. Though some of his works were later suppressed by the Inquisition, he is now recognized as one of the greatest dramatists of the Renaissance and the leading name in Portuguese theatre. The E-mail Address es field is required. Please enter recipient e-mail address es. The E-mail Address es you entered is are not in a valid format. Please re-enter recipient e-mail address es. You may send this item to up to five recipients.
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