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In fact, for decades the University of Trieste has been home to a well-known school for the training of translators and interpreters, which until the late s was the only one of its kind in Italy and whose founding in a culturally and linguistically mixed border area was not a matter of pure chance. A few facts may suffice to illustrate the relative rareness of translated literary texts. Translations of his works into other languages, especially into French and German, not to mention Italian, contributed to finally awakening an interest in his works among Triestine Italian readers and to him earning recognition as a prominent author.

He was made an honorary citizen of Trieste in Works by other Slovene Triestine authors, when translated at all, have usually been published by small houses with limited distribution some of whom are in fact Slovene and publish books in Italian sporadically ; they therefore have little chance of being read by an interested Italian-speaking audience, no matter how small. This relative lack of interest in mutual translation calls for analysis as an indicator of a more general disinterest in the Other. The question to be asked at this point is the following: Necessarily, a variety of issues are at play that involve a complex interaction of political, social, ideological, cultural, literary, and linguistic aspects to be examined from a historical and contemporary perspective.

A possible starting point may be the observation that, especially in the past, the relationship between the two ethnic communities has been strongly asymmetrical, with the Slovene community occupying the lower end of the socio-cultural demographics of the city and, therefore, in many respects a subordinate position in relation to the Italian community.

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In spite of sharing a territory for centuries and jointly shaping the life of their city, the two communities and the two peoples have had very different histories. In light of this fact, it is not surprising that Italians and Slovenes in Trieste have led largely separate lives, often ignoring each other.

High-school pupils of different age groups, some from Italian and some from Slovene schools in the area, were asked to try to make a detailed presentation of the province of Trieste for someone who did not know it. As the results show, some meaningful differences can be detected from their descriptions. These differences concern both the natural characteristics of the territory as well as an awareness or lack of it of the other ethnic community sharing the same physical space.


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For instance, the sea figures more prominently in the texts produced by the Italian pupils, while the Karst hinterland has a greater role in those written by pupils from Slovene schools. As to the presence of the Other, in some cases an awareness is totally absent, especially in Italian pupils. Perceiving the territory as ethnically homogeneous, The study gives further proof that the lives of the Italian and the Slovene communities proceed largely in parallel:.

Throughout the corpus, perhaps with the exception of two Slovene texts, whenever the distinction between the Italian majority and Slovene minority is represented, it is conceived of as neat, and those hybrid or complex identities, that contact cannot fail to produce, are disregarded. It should therefore not come across as surprising that parallel activities rather than interaction have also characterized to a considerable extent the literary and translational relations between the two communities.

As observed by the historian Angelo Ara It appears, though, that antagonisms started to be truly felt only in the mid-nineteenth century with the spread of the national revival movement, which was particularly strong in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, when it became clear that the multinational state could no longer offer a satisfactory model of co-existence to its various socio-cultural communities, who found their inferior position with respect to the dominant German-speaking community increasingly unbearable.

As Ara notes Although migration towards the urban area of Trieste had been strong from the proclamation of the free harbour at the beginning of the eighteenth century until the Spring of Nations , national awareness had not matured enough to become an agent of conflict between the two communities. Newcomers to the city — most of whom were Slovene, but there were also immigrants of various other ethnic backgrounds — became largely assimilated into the urban Italian-speaking majority.

Moving upward on the social ladder often implied a shift of language and, in the end, a change of ethnic identity Ara Also, throughout the eighteenth century, linguistic identity was linked to social status rather than being a pivotal point of national awareness Remec As national consciousness developed, ethnic belonging became an active agent in identity construction, which was found disturbing especially in certain Italian-speaking circles, whose position as the socially dominant group began to erode.

Also, the sheer number of immigrants to the city increased to such a degree that they could simply not be absorbed by the Italians Ara This suggests that economic circumstances and rapid urbanization provoked an intensification of interethnic conflicts Ara National issues came to dominate virtually every aspect of life, and battles for language rights, a symptom of complex and deep-seated national problems, were played out. As far as Trieste is concerned, this is how language wars were perceived by different segments of its population at different times.

The concession of language rights to Slovenes and Croats regularly triggered demonstrations within the Italian population, for whom the questioning of the established language hierarchy was perceived as a threat to its position, which was vulnerable to an extent since, in Austria-Hungary, Triestine Italians too were a minority, in spite of living in a city where they were numerically and culturally dominant. The central Viennese government, however, seemed rather favourable to making Slovene an official language Amtssprache — possibly as a sign of recognition of an ethnic group that was considered more loyal to the Emperor than the Italians living in the Empire and as a means of restraining burgeoning Italian national awareness.

In actual fact, the Italians perceived themselves as the legitimate owners of the territory not just because of their numerical preponderance and cultural supremacy, but also because they believed themselves to be the direct heirs of Roman civilization, which predated the settlements of the Slavs in the area by several centuries. The zenith of anti-Slavic nationalism was reached in the Fascist period , when the use of Slovene was officially prohibited. Yet it would be unjust to consider a negative attitude towards Slovenes as characteristic of the entire Italian-speaking population of the city.

In addition to the Triestine working class, for whom mutual worker solidarity was placed above ethnic identity, there were also several other individuals and groups for whom peaceful co-existence between Italians and Slovenes and Slavs in general was essential and who sought to find ways of achieving it. Among them one can find socialists like Angelo Vivante, democrats like Fabio Cusin, some Catholics as well as some irredentists, that is, anti-Austrian Italian patriots like the writer Scipio Slataper Ara The asymmetrical relationship between Slovenes and Italians evident in the political and social spheres may have also been present in the cultural sphere and, in particular, in the literary sphere, where Italians had for centuries been one of the leading nations with a highly developed literary tradition since as early as the fourteenth century and a full-fledged literary language.

The earliest Slovene texts, by contrast, date back to the early eleventh century, but for some eight centuries after that the textual production in Slovene was relatively meagre, with the exception of some more prolific periods such as the Reformation which saw, among other things, the first Slovene translation of the Bible in , followed by the Baroque period, when some fine examples of homiletic literature were produced, and the Enlightenment, with a significant output of secular plays.

But as a whole, Slovene literature did not begin to flourish until the first decades of the nineteenth century and the Spring of Nations in As to be expected, language development proceeded in parallel with literary development, although it took a long time before Slovene became accepted as a suitable medium for all kinds of literary and non-literary communication. It is also important to take into consideration the socio-political status of Slovene: Obviously, the situation with Italian was very different: In spite of the dominance of dialects in day-to-day oral communication, it had reached a state of maturity much earlier than Slovene.

The political situation between the end of the First World War and the fall of socialism in the late s only strengthened the negative attitude towards the Slovene Other and their culture, thereby worsening the relations between the two ethnic communities.

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Initially, this happened partly because of the militantly nationalist Fascist ideology, among whose prime targets were the Slavs, but also because Trieste and its surroundings were for a long time part of a disputed territory, which after the Second World War was claimed by both Italy and Yugoslavia. However, the post-war ideological circumstances made the situation worse: Italy developed into an important Western power, whereas Yugoslavia, although non-aligned, practised a softer version of communism.

The antagonism between the two ideologies was felt in a particularly strong way in Trieste where the new communist state was often viewed with great suspicion. Needless to say, such a strained relationship in no way contributed to the promotion of a productive mutual interest between the two communities, their cultures, and their literatures. Asymmetries, which are characteristic of multilingual societies, continue to persist and are certainly unavoidable, but it appears that the gain in political power has conferred upon the community some of the linguistic, literary, and cultural legitimacy which it previously lacked: There are many other signs pointing to a change in attitude, which could hardly have been imagined twenty or thirty years ago.

Interestingly, the development of a new perspective on the Slovene Other can also be observed in literary texts by Italian authors in which various attitudes towards Slovenes are expressed. Later, however, feelings of denial and, at best, indifference were gradually transformed into an interest in and openness towards the Other, as seen, for example, in novels by Fulvio Tomizza, Tullio Kezich, Renato Ferrari, and Carolus Cergoly Barut Polman The concession of language rights to Slovenes and Croats regularly triggered demonstrations within the Italian population, for whom the questioning of the established language hierarchy was perceived as a threat to its position, which was vulnerable to an extent since, in Austria-Hungary, Triestine Italians too were a minority, in spite of living in a city where they were numerically and culturally dominant.

The central Viennese government, however, seemed rather favourable to making Slovene an official language Amtssprache — possibly as a sign of recognition of an ethnic group that was considered more loyal to the Emperor than the Italians living in the Empire and as a means of restraining burgeoning Italian national awareness. In actual fact, the Italians perceived themselves as the legitimate owners of the territory not just because of their numerical preponderance and cultural supremacy, but also because they believed themselves to be the direct heirs of Roman civilization, which predated the settlements of the Slavs in the area by several centuries.

The zenith of anti-Slavic nationalism was reached in the Fascist period , when the use of Slovene was officially prohibited. Yet it would be unjust to consider a negative attitude towards Slovenes as characteristic of the entire Italian-speaking population of the city. In addition to the Triestine working class, for whom mutual worker solidarity was placed above ethnic identity, there were also several other individuals and groups for whom peaceful co-existence between Italians and Slovenes and Slavs in general was essential and who sought to find ways of achieving it.

Among them one can find socialists like Angelo Vivante, democrats like Fabio Cusin, some Catholics as well as some irredentists, that is, anti-Austrian Italian patriots like the writer Scipio Slataper Ara The asymmetrical relationship between Slovenes and Italians evident in the political and social spheres may have also been present in the cultural sphere and, in particular, in the literary sphere, where Italians had for centuries been one of the leading nations with a highly developed literary tradition since as early as the fourteenth century and a full-fledged literary language.

The earliest Slovene texts, by contrast, date back to the early eleventh century, but for some eight centuries after that the textual production in Slovene was relatively meagre, with the exception of some more prolific periods such as the Reformation which saw, among other things, the first Slovene translation of the Bible in , followed by the Baroque period, when some fine examples of homiletic literature were produced, and the Enlightenment, with a significant output of secular plays.

Fil d'Ariane

But as a whole, Slovene literature did not begin to flourish until the first decades of the nineteenth century and the Spring of Nations in As to be expected, language development proceeded in parallel with literary development, although it took a long time before Slovene became accepted as a suitable medium for all kinds of literary and non-literary communication. It is also important to take into consideration the socio-political status of Slovene: Obviously, the situation with Italian was very different: In spite of the dominance of dialects in day-to-day oral communication, it had reached a state of maturity much earlier than Slovene.

The political situation between the end of the First World War and the fall of socialism in the late s only strengthened the negative attitude towards the Slovene Other and their culture, thereby worsening the relations between the two ethnic communities. Initially, this happened partly because of the militantly nationalist Fascist ideology, among whose prime targets were the Slavs, but also because Trieste and its surroundings were for a long time part of a disputed territory, which after the Second World War was claimed by both Italy and Yugoslavia.

However, the post-war ideological circumstances made the situation worse: Italy developed into an important Western power, whereas Yugoslavia, although non-aligned, practised a softer version of communism.

Poesia italiana: il poeta italiano Sergio Mascitti pubblica sito di poesie

The antagonism between the two ideologies was felt in a particularly strong way in Trieste where the new communist state was often viewed with great suspicion. Needless to say, such a strained relationship in no way contributed to the promotion of a productive mutual interest between the two communities, their cultures, and their literatures.

Asymmetries, which are characteristic of multilingual societies, continue to persist and are certainly unavoidable, but it appears that the gain in political power has conferred upon the community some of the linguistic, literary, and cultural legitimacy which it previously lacked: There are many other signs pointing to a change in attitude, which could hardly have been imagined twenty or thirty years ago. Interestingly, the development of a new perspective on the Slovene Other can also be observed in literary texts by Italian authors in which various attitudes towards Slovenes are expressed.

Later, however, feelings of denial and, at best, indifference were gradually transformed into an interest in and openness towards the Other, as seen, for example, in novels by Fulvio Tomizza, Tullio Kezich, Renato Ferrari, and Carolus Cergoly Barut Polman The perception of Slovenes as a coarse, uncivilized, and even aggressive people did not help generate interest in their literature and culture. This had direct consequences for translation, since a negative attitude towards a community and its language usually implies a tendency to refuse translations from that language.

A shift in perspective became apparent in the early s, when political, social, and language-policy started to change. The asymmetries between the two ethnic groups began to diminish, and Slovene culture started to gain recognition in the areas of language and translation, with Slovene being learned by Italian Triestines, some Italian children attending Slovene schools, and translational exchange seeing an increase. These seem to be significant signs which point to the emergence of a new bilingual awareness in the city. The new situation of reduced asymmetries has made possible a breakthrough for Slovene translated literature.

Rather than perpetuating the clash between a prestigious central culture, on the one hand, and a less established peripheral culture, on the other hand, the two communities have begun to build a mutual relationship revolving around a common core. In other words, without sufficient common ground between the translated text and its readers, productive communication cannot take place.

However, success in their home environment only came about after potential readers became receptive to his texts, recognizing in them enough common ground. On the Slovene side, the literature of Italian Triestine authors is currently being translated to a greater extent than ever before: However, the reasons why this did not happen earlier and on a larger scale are probably more of a practical than of a political nature. As for the Slovene translational culture as a whole, its relative lack of interest in Italian Triestine literature compared to many other Italian literary texts was conditioned mainly by the personal preferences of the available literary translators already not numerous , who chose to work on classical texts for example, Dante, Boccaccio, Petrarca , modernist poetry for example, Montale, Quasimodo, Ungaretti , contemporary post-World War II novels for example, Moravia, Sciascia, Camilleri , and plays for example, Goldoni, Pirandello, De Filippo rather than on texts of Triestine literature, with the exception of some authors whose works explicitly deal with themes directly related to Slovenes and their culture, in particular when the former express a positive attitude towards the latter.

In terms of publishing activity, approximately 40 books by Slovene Triestine authors in Italian translation have been published in the city since the early s. A few came out before the mids, when the social and political climate began to change, and over one half have been published since Several Slovene Triestine authors have had their texts published by other Italian publishing houses, some of which are of national importance Rizzoli, Fazi , whereas others are or were much smaller or specialized.

The latter include the publisher Nicolodi and its successor Zandonai, both based in Rovereto and interested in the production of Central European authors. Alojz Rebula, whose writing has a religious dimension, has had some of the translations of his texts published by the well-known Catholic publisher San Paolo. In addition to literary works in Italian translation, both Slovene and Italian Triestine publishers have produced translations of works by a few Slovene authors from central Slovenia, who are not part of the Slovene community in Italy, as well as some non-literary works originally written in Slovene concerning mainly historical and cultural topics.

This is reflected, for instance, in the Slovene publishers from Italy as well as Austria being represented at the annual national book fair, along with publishers from mainland Slovenia. However, it is not only the Slovene publishing space that is increasingly being perceived as unitary, at least in terms of the accessibility of books to Slovene readers from Slovenia and from across the border.

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A sense of belonging to one and the same place physical or virtual , which is a condition for community formation, can also be detected among modern Triestine authors. In , the anthology Poeti triestini contemporanei was published by the Italian Triestine publisher Lint. It includes both Italian and Slovene poets, along with other authors who live in the city, but are not members of either of the two main ethnic groups. If the present trend continues, Trieste will become a more bilingual as well as a more translation-minded city.

The Case of Trieste and Identity and Status in the Translational Professions. The study gives further proof that the lives of the Italian and the Slovene communities proceed largely in parallel: The survey, however, was not without problems.


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The way in which the questionnaire was designed was disadvantageous to non-dominant ethnic groups. In as much as ethnicity was taken to be based on language, the results obtained deviated from the actual state of affairs, for the subjects were asked to identify their language of ordinary use Umgangssprache , which was not necessarily their native language or the language they would identify with, but, for instance, the language they would use at work or in the most general day-to-day social interaction.

Antagonisms between Italians and Slovenes notwithstanding, there were some Italian intellectuals who viewed the cooperation between the two ethnic groups with a favourable eye. These three conditions are: E daremo voce a sentimenti che fremevano dietro mura di silenzio, traverseremo mondi che ci appartengono e che mai prima avevamo nemmeno intravisto. Ognuno di questi libri nasce come un bene comune e un avvio. Read more Read less. Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Product details File Size: Pagine February 25, Publication Date: February 25, Sold by: Enabled Amazon Best Sellers Rank: Share your thoughts with other customers.

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