See details and exclusions. Show more Show less. No ratings or reviews yet. Be the first to write a review. Best-selling in Other Non-Fiction See all. One Line a Day: Dear Mum by from you to me Hardback, Page Hardback, Johnson then agreed to McNamara's new recommendation to add 70, troops in to the , previously committed. While McNamara recommended no increase in the level of bombing, Johnson agreed with CIA recommendations to increase them.
While the bombing ended the talks, North Vietnamese intentions were not considered genuine. In March , Robert Kennedy assumed a more public opposition to the war in a Senate speech. The fact of his opposition and probable candidacy for the presidency in , according to Dallek, inhibited the embattled and embittered Johnson from employing a more realistic war policy. The United States could reasonably expect that country to then assume responsibility for the election outcome. But Johnson was reluctant, in light of some optimistic reports, again of questionable reliability, which matched the negative assessments about the conflict and provided hope of improvement.
The CIA was reporting wide food shortages in Hanoi and an unstable power grid, as well as military manpower reductions. By the middle of nearly 70, Americans had been killed or wounded in the war, which was being commonly described in the news media and elsewhere as a "stalemate.
Westmoreland in turn requested an additional 80, to , reinforcements on top of the , soldiers already scheduled to be sent to Vietnam. In August, Johnson, with the Joint Chiefs' support, decided to expand the air campaign and exempted only Hanoi, Haiphong and a buffer zone with China from the target list. The Joint Chiefs were astounded, and threatened mass resignation; McNamara was summoned to the White House for a three-hour dressing down; nevertheless, Johnson had received reports from the CIA confirming McNamara's analysis at least in part.
In the meantime an election establishing a constitutional government in the South was concluded and provided hope for peace talks. With the war arguably in a stalemate and in light of the widespread disapproval of the conflict, Johnson convened a group of veteran government foreign policy experts, informally known as "the Wise Men" to gain a fresh, in-depth view of the war—Dean Acheson, Gen. We are making progress. Behind closed doors, he had begun regularly expressing doubts over Johnson's war strategy, angering the president.
While the Tet offensive failed militarily, it was a psychological victory, definitively turning American public opinion against the war effort. Iconically, Walter Cronkite of CBS news, voted the nation's "most trusted person" in February expressed on the air that the conflict was deadlocked and that additional fighting would change nothing.
Clark Clifford, the new Defense Secretary, described the war as "a loser" and proposed to "cut losses and get out". Johnson was initially reluctant to follow this advice, but ultimately agreed to allow a partial bombing halt and signal his willingness to engage in peace talks. When the talks failed to yield any results, the decision was made to resort to private discussions in Paris, but these were also unproductive. Despite recommendations in August from Harriman, Vance, Clifford and Bundy to halt bombing as an incentive for Hanoi to seriously engage in substantive peace talks, Johnson refused.
Only after Nixon added his urging did they do so. Even then they argued about procedural matters until after Nixon took office. I knew from the start that I was bound to be crucified either way I moved. But if I left that war and let the Communists take over South Vietnam , then I would be seen as a coward and my nation would be seen as an appeaser and we would both find it impossible to accomplish anything for anybody anywhere on the entire globe. In the mids, concerns about the Israeli nuclear weapons program led to increasing tension between Israel and neighboring Arab states , especially Egypt.
The Johnson administration attempted to mediate the conflict, but communicated through Fortas and others that it would not oppose Israeli military action. On June 8, the Israeli military attacked a U. As Israeli forces closed in on the Syrian capital of Damascus , the Soviet Union threatened war if Israel did not agree to a cease fire. Johnson pressured the Israeli government into accepting a cease fire, and the war ended on June In the aftermath of the war, the United States and Britain sponsored UN Resolution , which called on Israel to release the territory it conquered in the war.
Johnson dispatched over 20, Marines to the Dominican Republic to evacuate American citizens and restore order. Johnson's use of force in ending the civil war alienated many in Latin America, and the region's importance to the administration receded as Johnson's foreign policy became increasingly dominated by the Vietnam War. Harold Wilson , the British Prime Minister — , believed in a strong " Special Relationship " with the United States and wanted to highlight his dealings with the White House to strengthen his own prestige as a statesman.
President Lyndon Johnson disliked Wilson, and ignored any "special" relationship. Vietnam was a sore point. Wilson offered lukewarm verbal support but no military aid. Wilson's policy angered the left-wing of his Labour Party. Historian Jonathan Colman concludes it made for the most unsatisfactory "special" relationship in the 20th century.
As the economies of Western Europe recovered, European leaders increasingly sought to recast the alliance as a partnership of equals. Johnson's request that NATO leaders send even token forces to South Vietnam were denied by leaders who lacked a strategic interest in the region. Johnson refrained from criticizing de Gaulle and he resisted calls to reduce U. Johnson made eleven international trips to twenty countries during his presidency. One of the most unusual international trips in presidential history occurred before Christmas in The President began the trip by going to the memorial service for Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt , who had disappeared in a swimming accident and was presumed drowned.
The White House did not reveal in advance to the press that the President would make the first round-the-world presidential trip. The trip was 26, miles completed in only Segregationist Governor George C. Wallace entered several Democratic presidential primaries , taking a large share of the vote in several states. In June , Wallace announced that he would seek the presidency as an independent or member of a third party.
Rockefeller had appeared to be the front-runner at one point, but a divorce badly damaged his candidacy. Goldwater emerged as the prohibitive favorite in June , and he was formally nominated at the July Republican National Convention. After the nomination of Goldwater, Wallace heeded the requests of Southern conservatives to withdraw from the race.
The Democratic National Convention easily re-nominated Johnson and celebrated his accomplishments after less than one year in office. Kennedy was a widely popular choice to run as Johnson's vice presidential running mate, but Johnson and Kennedy had never liked one another.
Johnson and Goldwater both sought to portray the election as a choice between a liberal and a conservative. Goldwater was perhaps the most conservative major party nominee since the passage of the New Deal. However, Goldwater lost momentum as the campaign progressed. On September 7, , Johnson's campaign managers broadcast the " Daisy ad ," which successfully portrayed Goldwater as a dangerous warmonger.
In the Electoral College , Johnson defeated Goldwater by margin of to Democrats scored large gains in every section of the country except the Deep South in the congressional elections. In the midterm elections , Democrats lost 47 seats in the House to the Republicans, and also three in the Senate. Despite their losses, the Democrats retained control of both chambers of Congress. Republicans campaigned on law and order concerns stemming from urban riots, Johnson's conduct of the Vietnam War, and on the sluggish economy, warning of looming inflation and growing federal deficits.
As he had served less than two years of President Kennedy's term, Johnson was constitutionally eligible for election to a second full term in the presidential election under the provisions of the 22nd Amendment. Hearnes , warned that Johnson would lose the state by , votes, despite winning by a , margin in There were bright spots; in January , Johnson boasted that wages were the highest in history, unemployment was at a year low, and corporate profits and farm incomes were greater than ever; a 4.
Johnson's approval ratings stayed below 50 percent; by January , the number of his strong supporters had plunged to 16 percent, from 25 percent four months before. He ran about even with Republican George Romney in trial matchups that spring. Asked to explain why he was unpopular, Johnson responded, "I am a dominating personality, and when I get things done I don't always please all the people. As the election approached, Johnson began to lose control of the Democratic Party, which was splitting into four factions. The first group consisted of Johnson and Humphrey, labor unions, and local party bosses led by Chicago Mayor Richard J.
The second group consisted of antiwar students and intellectuals who rallied behind Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota in an effort to " dump Johnson. The fourth group included traditionally segregationist white Southerners, who rallied behind George C. Wallace and the American Independent Party. Johnson could see no way to unite the party long enough for him to win re-election. McCarthy's victory was widely seen as indicative of the strength of the anti-war movement in the Democratic Party, and Kennedy joined the race on March Historians have debated the factors that led to Johnson's surprise decision.
Shesol says Johnson wanted out of the White House but also wanted vindication; when the indicators turned negative he decided to leave. His health was not good, and he was preoccupied with the Kennedy campaign; his wife was pressing for his retirement and his base of support continued to shrink. Leaving the race would allow him to pose as a peacemaker. Humphrey entered the race after Johnson's withdrawal, making the Democratic primaries a three-way contest between Humphrey, Kennedy, and McCarthy. Kennedy cut into McCarthy's liberal and anti-war base, while also winning the support of the poor and working class.
Kennedy won a series of primary victories, but was assassinated in June by Sirhan Sirhan , an Arab nationalist. The violent clashes in Chicago between anti-war protesters marred the convention. Humphrey faced two major opponents in the general election campaign. Wallace's strongest support came from pro-segregation Southerners, but he also appealed to white working class areas in the North with his "law and order" campaign.
As a third party candidate, Wallace did not believe that he could win the presidency, but he hoped to win enough electoral votes to force a contingent election in the House of Representatives. Nixon attacked the Great Society and the Supreme Court, and indicated that he had a "secret plan" to end the Vietnam War.
Humphrey's polling numbers improved after a September 30 speech in which he broke with Johnson's war policy, calling for an end to the bombing of North Vietnam. However, Nixon won the election, narrowly edging Humphrey with a plurality of the popular vote and a majority of the electoral vote. Nixon capitalized on discontent over civil rights to break the Democratic Party's hold on the South.
He also performed well in the states west of the Mississippi River, due in part to rising resentment against the federal government in those states. Both the South and the West would be important components of the GOP electoral coalition in subsequent elections. Historians argue that Johnson's presidency marked the peak of modern liberalism in the United States after the New Deal era, and Johnson is ranked favorably by many historians. Johnson's persuasiveness and understanding of Congress helped him to pass remarkable flurry of legislation and gained him a reputation as a legislative master.
Ronald Reagan came into office in vowing to undo the Great Society, though he other Republicans were unable to repeal many of Johnson's programs. They will likely remain that way. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson , 36th President of the United States. First inauguration of Lyndon B. Johnson and Presidency of John F. Johnson Supreme Court candidates , Lyndon B. Johnson judicial appointments , and Lyndon B. Johnson judicial appointment controversies.
Civil Rights Act of Voting Rights Act of Social Security Amendments of Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War. Space Race and Space policy of the United States. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. United States presidential election, The Oxford History of the American People. Retrieved June 16, Kennedy Assassination a Conspiracy". Archived from the original on August 1, Retrieved July 6, LBJ Library and Museum.
Archived from the original on July 13, Retrieved June 7, The New York Times. At the President's Side: The Vice Presidency in the Twentieth Century. University of Missouri Press.
American Legends The Life of Lyndon B. Johnson Charles River Editors | eBay
Retrieved August 13, Justices, Presidents, and Senators: A History of the U. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved March 22, The Fierce Urgency of Now. Retrieved August 10, Evolution of the Clean Air Act".
American Legends The Life of Lyndon B. Johnson Charles River Editors
Retrieved June 18, State or Federal Responsibility? Catholic University Law Review. GDP is calculated for the calendar year. The income, outlay, deficit, and debt figures are calculated for the fiscal year , which ended on June 30 prior to Office of Management and Budget. Retrieved 23 May Retrieved August 21, Online by Gerhard Peters and John T.
Woolley, The American Presidency Project. Kennedy in the White House. Retrieved August 22, Woods, "The Politics of Idealism: Lyndon Johnson, Civil Rights, and Vietnam. Johnson, the Great Society, and the Limits of Liberalism , p. Eyes on the Prize: The CIA was reporting wide food shortages in Hanoi and an unstable power grid, as well as military manpower reductions.
Lyndon B. Johnson
By the middle of nearly 70, Americans had been killed or wounded in the war. In July, Johnson sent McNamara, Wheeler and other officials to meet with Westmoreland and reach agreement on plans for the immediate future. At that time the war was being commonly described by the press and others as a "stalemate". Westmoreland said such a description was pure fiction, and that "we are winning slowly but steadily and the pace can excel if we reinforce our successes".
In a Texas speech Johnson agreed to halt all bombing if Ho Chi Minh would launch productive and meaningful discussions and if North Vietnam would not seek to take advantage of the halt; this was named the "San Antonio" formula. There was no response, but Johnson pursued the possibility of negotiations with such a bombing pause. Johnson was quite agitated by this recommendation and McNamara's resignation soon followed.
Thousands of anti-war protesters tried to march past the hotel where he was speaking. The march was led by a coalition of peace protestors. However, a small group of Progressive Labor Party and SDS protestors activists placed themselves at the head of the march and, when they reached the hotel, staged a sit-down. Efforts by march monitors to keep the main body of the marchers moving were only partially successful. Hundreds of LAPD officers were massed at the hotel and when the march slowed an order was given to disperse the crowd.
The Riot Act was read and 51 protestors arrested. Ending in a clash with riot police, it set a pattern for the massive protests which followed. In October, with the ever-increasing public protests against the war, Johnson engaged the FBI and the CIA to investigate, monitor and undermine anti-war activists. As casualties mounted and success seemed further away than ever, Johnson's popularity plummeted.
College students and others protested, burned draft cards, and chanted, "Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today? Support for Johnson's middle position continued to shrink until he finally rejected containment and sought a peace settlement. By late summer, he realized that Nixon was closer to his position than Humphrey. He continued to support Humphrey publicly in the election, and personally despised Nixon. One of Johnson's well known quotes was "the Democratic party at its worst, is still better than the Republican party at its best".
While the Tet offensive failed militarily, it was a psychological victory, definitively turning American public opinion against the war effort. Iconically, Walter Cronkite of CBS news, voted the nation's "most trusted person" in February, expressed on the air that the conflict was deadlocked and that additional fighting would change nothing.
Johnson agreed to increase the troop level by 22,, despite a recommendation from the Joint Chiefs for ten times that number. Clark Clifford, the new Defense Secretary, described the war as "a loser" and proposed to "cut losses and get out". He then announced an immediate unilateral halt to the bombing of North Vietnam and announced his intention to seek out peace talks anywhere at any time. At the close of his speech he also announced , "I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your President".
In April he succeeded in opening discussions of peace talks, and after extensive negotiations over the site, Paris was agreed to and talks began in May. When the talks failed to yield any results the decision was made to resort to private discussions in Paris. Ironically, only after Nixon added his urging did they do so. Even then they argued about procedural matters until after Nixon took office. Given the rapid Israeli advances following their strike on Egypt, the administration "thought the situation was so tense in Israel that perhaps the Syrians, fearing Israel would attack them, or the Soviets supporting the Syrians might wish to redress the balance of power and might attack Israel".
The Soviets learned of this course correction and regarded it as an offensive move. The Soviet Union supported its Arab allies. Early in the crisis they began to shadow the U. The Soviet naval squadron in the Mediterranean was sufficiently strong to act as a major restraint on the U. He said Kosygin was angry that "we had turned around a carrier in the Mediterranean". Johnson made eleven international trips to twenty countries during his presidency. His October visit to Australia sparked demonstrations from anti-war protesters. The President began the trip by going to the memorial service for Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt , who had disappeared in a swimming accident and was presumed drowned.
The White House did not reveal in advance to the press that the President would make the first round-the-world presidential trip. The trip was twenty-six thousand nine hundred fifty-nine miles 43, Four days later, Senator Robert F. Kennedy of New York entered the race. Internal polling by Johnson's campaign in Wisconsin , the next state to hold a primary election, showed the President trailing badly.
Johnson did not leave the White House to campaign. By this time Johnson had lost control of the Democratic Party, which was splitting into four factions, each of which generally disliked the other three. The second group consisted of students and intellectuals who were vociferously against the war and rallied behind McCarthy.
The fourth group were traditionally segregationist white Southerners, who rallied behind George C. Wallace and the American Independent Party. Vietnam was one of many issues that splintered the party, and Johnson could see no way to win the war  and no way to unite the party long enough for him to win re-election. In addition, although it was not made public at the time, Johnson became more worried about his failing health and was concerned that he might not live through another four-year term.
In , he secretly commissioned an actuarial study that predicted he would die at Historians have debated the factors that led to Johnson's surprise decision. Shesol says Johnson wanted out of the White House but also wanted vindication; when the indicators turned negative he decided to leave. His health was not good, and he was preoccupied with the Kennedy campaign; his wife was pressing for his retirement and his base of support continued to shrink. Leaving the race would allow him to pose as a peacemaker. After Robert Kennedy's assassination , Johnson rallied the party bosses and unions to give Humphrey the nomination at the Democratic National Convention.
Personal correspondences between the President and some in the Republican Party suggested Johnson tacitly supported Nelson Rockefeller's campaign. He reportedly said that if Rockefeller became the Republican nominee, he would not campaign against him and would not campaign for Humphrey. In the end, Democrats did not fully unite behind Humphrey, enabling Republican candidate Richard Nixon to win the election.
Johnson anticipated court challenges to his legislative measures in , and thought it advantageous to have a "mole" in the Supreme Court who he thought could provide him with inside information, as he was able to get from the legislative branch. Abe Fortas in particular was the individual that Johnson thought could fill the bill. Johnson insisted on Fortas assuming Goldberg's seat, over Fortas's wife's objection that it was too early in his career. Fortas expressed disapproval to Johnson personally afterwards.
However, Fortas's nomination was filibustered by senators, and neither nominee was voted upon by the full Senate. When the front door of the plane closed, Johnson pulled out a cigarette—his first cigarette he had smoked since his heart attack in One of his daughters pulled it out of his mouth and said, "Daddy, what are you doing? You're going to kill yourself. I've now been President.
Now it's my time! After leaving the presidency in January , Johnson went home to his ranch in Stonewall, Texas, accompanied by former aide and speechwriter Harry J.
Perspectives of the Presidency —, published in He donated his Texas ranch in his will to the public to form the Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park , with the provision that the ranch "remain a working ranch and not become a sterile relic of the past". Johnson gave Nixon high grades in foreign policy, but worried that his successor was being pressured into removing U. During the presidential election , Johnson endorsed Democratic presidential nominee George S.
The McGovern nomination and presidential platform dismayed him. Nixon could be defeated "if only the Democrats don't go too far left," [ This quote needs a citation ] he had insisted. Johnson had felt Edmund Muskie would be more likely to defeat Nixon; however, he declined an invitation to try to stop McGovern receiving the nomination as he felt his unpopularity within the Democratic party was such that anything he said was more likely to help McGovern.
It was the first time that Connally and Johnson were on opposite sides of a general election campaign. He was urged to lose a considerable amount of weight. The following summer, again gripped by chest pains, he embarked on a crash water diet, shedding about 15 pounds 6. In April , Johnson fell victim to a second heart attack while visiting his daughter, Lynda, in Charlottesville, Virginia. The chest pains hit him nearly every afternoon—a series of sharp, jolting pains that left him scared and breathless. A portable oxygen tank stood next to his bed, and he periodically interrupted what he was doing to lie down and don the mask to gulp air.
He continued to smoke heavily, and, although placed on a low-calorie, low-cholesterol diet, kept to it only in fits and starts. Meanwhile, he began experiencing severe abdominal pains. Doctors diagnosed this problem through X-rays as diverticulosis —pouches of tissue forming on the intestine. His condition rapidly worsened and surgery was recommended, so Johnson flew to Houston to consult with heart specialist Dr. DeBakey discovered that even though two of the former President's coronary arteries were critically damaged, the overall condition of his heart was so poor that even attempting a bypass surgery would likely result in fatal complications.
With Johnson's heart condition now diagnosed as terminal, he returned home to his ranch outside San Antonio. Central Time on January 22, , Johnson suffered a massive heart attack. After he had placed a call to the Secret Service agents on the ranch, they rushed to the former President's bedroom. There, they found Johnson still holding the telephone receiver in his hand, unconscious and not breathing. Johnson was airlifted in one of his own airplanes to San Antonio and taken to Brooke Army General, where he was pronounced dead on arrival at the facility by cardiologist and Army colonel Dr.
He was 64 years old. His death meant that for the first time since , when Calvin Coolidge died during Herbert Hoover 's final months in office, that there were no former Presidents still living; Johnson had been the only living ex-President since December 26, , following the death of Harry S. As of [update] , Johnson remains the most recent former Democratic President to die. After lying in state in the Rotunda of the U. Capitol ,  Johnson was honored with a state funeral in which Texas Congressman J. George Davis, the church's pastor, and W.
Marvin Watson , former postmaster general. Johnson was buried in his family cemetery which, although it is part of the Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park in Stonewall, Texas, is still privately owned by the Johnson family, who have requested that the public not enter the cemetery , a few yards from the house in which he was born. Eulogies were given by former Texas governor John Connally and the Reverend Billy Graham , the minister who officiated at the burial rites.
The state funeral, the last for a president until Ronald Reagan's in , was part of an unexpectedly busy week in Washington, as the Military District of Washington MDW dealt with its second major task in less than a week, beginning with Nixon's second inauguration. According to biographer Randall Woods, Johnson posed in many different roles.
Depending on the circumstances, he could be:. Johnson was often seen as a wildly ambitious, tireless, and imposing figure who was ruthlessly effective at getting legislation passed. He worked to hour days without break and was apparently absent of any leisure activities. Dallek stated that Johnson had biographies on all the Senators, knew what their ambitions, hopes, and tastes were and used it to his advantage in securing votes. Another Johnson biographer noted, "He could get up every day and learn what their fears, their desires, their wishes, their wants were and he could then manipulate, dominate, persuade and cajole them.
When that man started to work on you, all of a sudden, you just felt that you were standing under a waterfall and the stuff was pouring on you. Johnson's cowboy hat and boots reflected his Texas roots and genuine love of the rural hill country. The National Park Service keeps a herd of Hereford cattle descended from Johnson's registered herd and maintains the ranch property. Biographer Randall Woods argues that Social Gospel themes Johnson learned from childhood allowed him to transform social problems into moral problems.
This helps explain his longtime commitment to social justice, as exemplified by the Great Society and his commitment to racial equality. The Social Gospel explicitly inspired his foreign-policy approach to a sort of Christian internationalism and nation building. For example, in a speech he quoted at length from the Social Creed of the Methodist Church issued in , adding "It would be very hard for me to write a more perfect description of the American ideal. History has viewed Johnson both through the lens of his historic legislative achievements, and his lack of success in the Vietnam War.
Johnson Space Center in Also named for him are Lyndon B. Johnson Elementary School in Jackson, Kentucky.
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The Naked Society is a book on privacy by Vance Packard. The book argues that changes in technology are encroaching on privacy and could create a society in the future with radically different privacy standards. Packard criticized advertisers' unfettered use of private information to create marketing schemes. He compared a recent Great Society initiative by then-president Lyndon B. Johnson, the National Data Bank , to the use of information by advertisers and argued for increased data privacy measures to ensure that information did not find its way into the wrong hands.
The essay led Congress to create the Special Subcommittee on the Invasion of Privacy and inspired privacy advocates such Neil Gallagher and Sam Ervin to fight Johnson's flagrant disregard for consumer privacy. Ervin criticized Johnson's invasive domestic agenda and saw the unfiltered database of consumers' information as a sign of presidential abuse of power.
Ervin warned that, "The computer never forgets". With his family in the Yellow Oval Room , Christmas Smiling in the Oval Office in , a few days before Richard Nixon 's inauguration. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see LBJ disambiguation. None — [a] Hubert Humphrey — Lady Bird Taylor m. Samuel Ealy Johnson Jr. United States presidential election, Presidency of Lyndon B.
First inauguration of Lyndon B. Johnson judicial appointments and Lyndon B. Johnson judicial appointment controversies. List of memorials to Lyndon B. Electoral history of Lyndon B. Johnson in popular culture Presidents of the United States on U. Kennedy and became President upon Kennedy's assassination on November 22, As this was prior to the adoption of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment in , a vacancy in the office of Vice President was not filled until the next ensuing election and inauguration.
The two slightly larger middle stones mark the final resting places of First Lady Claudia Taylor "Lady Bird" Johnson somewhat more brightly illuminated by the sun and President Lyndon B. The truth behind the conservative myths". Archived from the original on March 26, Retrieved May 21, Retrieved June 17, Archived from the original on February 9, Johnson National Historical Park: Retrieved 5 June Texas State Historical Association. Archived from the original on November 13, Retrieved July 15, Retrieved 1 July Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum.
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