Disobedience by any member of the Armed Forces of his superior commissioned officer. Insubordinate conduct by any warrant officer or enlisted member of the Armed Forces toward a warrant officer, non-commissioned officer or petty officer while that officer is in the execution of their office. Mutiny or sedition by any member of the Armed Forces. Misbehavior before the enemy by any member of the Armed Forces. Compelling the surrender of command, without proper authority, by any member 18 of the Armed Forces.
This article includes communicating or holding any intercourse with the enemy without proper authority to do so. Misconduct by any member of the Armed Forces while held as a prisoner of war. The general article concerning conduct unbecoming an officer. The general article applicable to all members of the Armed Forces which concerns conduct prejudicial to the good order and discipline in the Armed Forces and conduct of a nature likely to bring discredit upon the Armed Forces of the United States.
Drink as much water as possible min 2 quarts per day to maintain fluid level. Exertion, heat, injury or illnesses requires a greater need for water intake. Pale yellow urine indieates adequate hydration. Water Procurement 3 Subsurface wells and eistems. Water Indicators 20 a Abundance of lush green vegetation. Obtaining water from snow or iee: Cloth absorbs rain running down tree and drips into container see Figure VII Let sap stop running and harden during the daytime. Water Vines and Green Bamboo h Along the coast, obtain water by: Transpiration Bag 24 3. Water Preparation and Storage a.
To prevent contamination, use a clean, covered or sealed container: Snare Placement c Construction of simple loop snare: Procurement Devices 4 Hunting and fishing devices: Procurement Methods 6 Precautions: Cone-shaped shells k Avoid hairy insects, the hairs could cause irritation or infection. Plant Foods Before using the following guide use your evasion chart to identify edible plants: If you cannot positively identify an edible plant and must use an unknown plant, these guidelines may help you determine edibility. Each part of a plant roots, leaves, stems, bark, etc. Do not waste time testing a plant that is not abundant.
Two good examples of this are such familiar foods as green apples and wild onions. Even after testing food and finding it safe, eat in moderation. Using these guidelines in selecting plants for food may eliminate some edible plants; however, these guidelines will help prevent choosing potentially toxic plants. Bracken fern fiddleheads also violate this guideline. Test all parts of the plant for edibility. Some plants have both edible and inedible parts. Never assume a part that proved edible when cooked is edible raw, test the part raw before eating.
The same part or plant may produce varying reactions in different individuals. Remember smell alone does not indicate a plant is edible or inedible. The sap or juice should contact the skin. Usually 15 minutes is enough time to allow for a reaction. If any ill effects occur rinse out your mouth with water. If any ill effects occur during 31 this period, induce vomiting and drink a water and charcoal mixture.
Wait another 8 hours. If no ill effects occur, the plant part as prepared is safe for eating. Ripe tropical fruits should be peeled and eaten raw. If the fruit is soft, color does not always indicate ripeness. Cook unripe fruits and discard seeds and skin.
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Cook underground portions if possible to reduce possible bacterial contamination and ease digestion of their generally high starch content. During evasion you may not be able to cook.
Concentrate your efforts on leafy green plants, ripe fruits and above ground ripe vegetables not requiring significant preparation. Animal food gives the greatest food value per pound. Dead insects spoil rapidly, do not save. Some nuts acorns must be leached to remove the bitter taste of tannin. Use one of the following leaching methods: Keeping an animal alive is one method of preserving it. Drying and smoking removes moisture and preserves food: Protecting meat from animals and insects: Soft material acts as insulation helping keep the meat cool.
Wrap soft fruits and berries in leaves or moss. Do not store food in the shelter, it attracts unwanted animals. Evaluate available resources and situation; accomplish individual tasks accordingly. First 24 hours in order of situational needs: Care and Use of Clothing a. Wear loose and layered clothing: On the ocean in hot weather, dampen clothing: Keep clothing dry to maintain its insulation qualities, dry damp clothing in the sun or by a fire.
If you fall into the water in the winter: If no fire is available: Keep clothing clean, dirt reduces its insulation qualities: Examine clothing frequently for damage, and repair when necessary using: Improvised foot protection see Figure VI- 1: Other Protective Equipment k. Sun and snow goggles see Figure VI- 2: Gaiters see Figure VI Gaiters 1 Used to protect from sand, snow, insects, and scratches. Immediate Shelters 37 a In temperate climates, protection from wind and rain is sufficient. Snow Cave a An enclosed, insulated shelter may be required.
An enclosed, elevated shelter is needed for protection from dampness and. Construct a bed to protect from cold, damp ground using: Raised Platform Shelter a. If possible, carry a fire starting device with you. Fuel is divided into three stages; tinder, kindling, and fuel: To get tinder to bum hotter and longer, saturate ith Vaseline, Chapstick, insect repellant, aircraft fuel, etc. Gradually add larger kindling until arriving at the size of fuel to bum. Use the Teepee Fire to produce a concentrated heat source for cooking, light, or signaling.
Log Cabin or Pyramid Fires Note: Use the log cabin fire to produce large amounts of light and heat, to dry out wet wood, and provide coals for cooking, etc.
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Use fire reflectors to get the most warmth from a fire. Build fires against rocks or logs see Figure VI- Do not use porous rocks or riverbed rock — they may explode when heated. Use the Dakota fire hole for high winds or evasion situations. Establish radio contact with recovery forces, if radio equipped. Maintain communication with recovery forces until recovered. Be prepared to authenticate lAW. Cross or reverse authenticate as required.
Follow recovery force instructions, be prepared to report: If no radio, a ground-to-air signal may be your only means to effect recovery. Eocate area for landing pick-up, if practical approx. Assess any evidence of human activity at or near the site. Eocate several concealment sites around area. Plan several tactical entry and exit routes. Pack and secure all equipment. Prepare signaling devices, use as directed or as briefed.
Mentally review recovery methods aircraft, ground force, boat, etc. Assist recovery force in identifying your position. Stay concealed until recovery is imminent. For non-hoist recovery rope or unfamiliar equipment: Inventory and review the operating instructions of all communications and signaling equipment. Radio communications voice and data a.
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If you have a locator beacon, find it and turn it off - take it with you to supplement radio communications. If no immediate contact, then follow TCP. Locate spare radio and batteries-keep warm and dry. Use data burst if available. Listening — use published reception times in the TCP, or as directed by recovery forces. Signal mirror see Figure III- 2: Make a mirror from any shiny metal or glass. Radio Transmission Characteristics c. Produces one residual flash when turned off. Pattern signals-use published TCP signals: Any of the above signals used in a series of three, evenly spaced, is recognized as an international distress symbol 49 Figure III Assess the threat and apply appropriate evasion principles.
Stay or Move a. If you decide to travel, consider the following: Leave information at your start point only in permissive environment: Navigation and Position Determination a. Determine your general location: Determine cardinal directions north, south, east, and west: Margin of error increases the closer you are to the Equator for the following methods. Use this method for general direction only. Direction Using a Watch b Construction start at sunup; end at sundown: Navigator is current for approximately one week.
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The Pocket Navigator is not recommended if evading. Map Orientation with Compass Rose 3 No compass; orient map using cardinal direction obtained by the stick and shadow method, or the celestial aids stars method, d. Triangulation a Try to use three or more azimuths.
Use the compass for night navigation: Dogleg and 90 degree offset 4 Deliberate offset: Pick the easiest and safest route unless evading. Maintain a realistic pace. Take rest stops when needed. Avoid overdressing and overheating. Consider food and water requirements. Take special care of feet. Pack equipment to prevent loss, damage, pack imbalance, and personal safety. Go around obstacles, not over or through them. Travel on trails whenever possible non-tactical.
Travel in forested areas if possible. Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with no escape in case of heavy rains. Swamps, lakes and unfordable rivers: River travel may be faster and save energy when hypothermia is not a factor. May be a primary mode of travel and LOC in a tropical environment, use with caution if evading. In shallow water, use a pole to move the raft. In deep water, use an oar. Stay near inside edge of river bends current speed is less.
Do not attempt to shoot the rapids. Consider water depth before crossing without a flotation device. Ice and Snow a. Travel should be limited to areas free of hazards. Do not travel in: Obstacles to winter travel: I he snowshoe binding must be secured to the snowshoe so that the survivor's foot can pivot when walking. Binding — make as shown from continuous length of split harness webbing or from suspension lines braided lines preferred. Improvised Snowshoes 60 3 Travel is easier in early morning or late afternoon near dusk when snow is frozen or crusted.
When crossing, distribute your weight by laying flat, belly crawling, or using snowshoes. Glacier travel is hazardous and should be avoided. Avoid ridge tops during storms lightning hazard. Rock avalanches and mudslides. Avoid low areas flash flood hazard. Summer Harzards 1 Dense brush: Do not travel unless certain of reaching the destination using the water supply available. When the days are hot, travel at dawn or dusk. Follow the easiest trail possible non-tactical , avoiding: If a sandstorm occurs: In sand dune areas: Travel only when it is light.
Avoid obstacles like thickets and swamps. Part the vegetation to pass through. Do not climb over logs if you can go around them. Avoid grabbing vegetation, it may have spines or thorns use gloves if possible. Sea anchor may be adjusted to make use of existing currents. Selecting a landing point: After selecting a landing site: Do not deploy a sea anchor if traveling through coral.
Make sea ice landings on large stable ice flows. Icebergs, small flows, and disintegrating flows are dangerous: Evasion is a duty of all Service members. Guidelines for successful evasion include: Flexibility is one of the most important keys to successful evasion. The evader is primarily interested in avoiding detection. Remember that people catch people. If the evader avoids detection, success is almost assured. Do not eat food without water. The following odors stand out and may give an evader away: Initiate evasion plan of action: Use camouflage patterns see Figure I-l: Use dark colors on high spots and light colors on the remaining exposed areas mask, netting, or hat help.
The insides and the backs should have two colors to break up outlines. Use scarf, collar, vegetation, netting, or coloration methods. Use camouflage and concealment. A moving object is easy to spot.
If travel is necessary: Ground Movement 4 Avoid silhouetting see Figure Watch for trip wires or booby traps and avoid leaving evidence of travel. Peripheral vision is more effective for recognizing movement at night and twilight. An important factor is breaking up the human shape or lines that are recognizable at a distance. Some techniques for concealing evidence of travel are: This may scuff the bark, and create movement that is easily spotted.
In snow country, this creates a path of snowless vegetation revealing your route. Trash or lost equipment identifies who lost it. Secure everything, hide, or bury discarded items. Go under if unavoidable. If impractical, go over the top, presenting as low a silhouette as possible see Figure Cross at points offering the best cover such as bushes, shadows, bend in road, etc. Cross in a manner leaving your footprints parallel cross stepping sideways to the road, see Figure Observe railroad tracks just like roads.
Then align body parallel to tracks and face down, cross tracks, using a semi-pushup motion; repeat for second track see Figure Road Crossing 70 Figure Obtain professional medical treatment as soon as possible. Immediate First Aid Actions a. Chin Lift 3 If victim is not breathing: Do not remove an impaled object unless it interferes with the airway. You may cause more tissue damage and increase bleeding. For travel, you may shorten and secure the object. Use only when severe, uncontrolled bleeding will cause loss of life. Recognize that long-term use of a tourniquet may cause loss of limb.
The following directions apply ONLY in survival situations where rescue is unlikely and no medical aid is available. Wrap a wide band around the injured limb. Pass a stick, bayonet or scabbard under the tourniquet loop. Tighten tourniquet by turning stick just enough to stop arterial bleeding. Bind free end of the stick to keep tourniquet from unwinding.
This section of broken ribs is referred to as a flail segment. When breathing in, the chest moves out while the flail segment moves in. When breathing out, the chest moves in while the flail segment moves out. Treat fractures, sprains and dislocations: Eingers should be splinted in a slightly flexed position, NOT in straight position. Hand should look like it is grasping an apple. Common Injuries and Illnesses a. Moisten and wipe gently over the affected area.
Handle heat stroke victim gently. Shock, seizures and cardiac arrest can occur. Areas that cannot be rewarmed by body heat within 15 to 20 minutes of continuous skin to s ki n contact are classified as frostbite. In frostbite, repeated freezing and thawing causes severe pain and increases damage to the tissue. Handle hypothermia victim gently. Cardiac arrest can occur. Skin tissue will be sensitive. This snakebite treatment recommendation is for situations where medical aid and specialized equipment are not available.
Clean and bandage wound. The intent is to slow capillary and venous blood flow, but not arterial flow. Check for pulse below the overwrap. Do not use urine to flush or treat wounds. Compression Bandage for Snake Bite h. Use soap, if available. Cold, flu, etc, drink water, eat, rest, keep warm and dry. Longer soaking or boiling increases the concentration of tannin. Willow and aspen See Ligure V Drink the tea for colds and sore throat. Cattail See Figure V Common Plantain See Figure V Papaya See Figure V The sap will cause a severe burning sensation if applied directly to wounds.
Avoid getting sap into eyes. Sanitation and Hygiene a. Eice, fleas, ticks, bedbugs, etc.: Rules for Avoiding Illness a. Disinfect all water obtained from natural sources. Wash hands before preparing food or water. Clean all eating utensils after each meal. Prevent insect bites by using repellent, netting and clothing. Dry wet clothing as soon as possible. Try to get hours sleep per day. Radiation protection depends on time of exposure, distance from the source, and shielding. Immediate Action Shelter b If no shelter is available, dig a trench or foxhole: Cover expoied body oorti.
Present minimal profile to direokjr cl blast. Pitk ASAP, 5 minutes onsbetrered max. Additional thkknets odded to ony amount of thickness reduces received raokstion dose by orsc-holf. Bod weather; shake strongly or beot with branches. Nowoter; Wipe oil exptosed skin surlaces wifhcleor cloth or uncortominoted soil.
No rote meter, complete isolotion first days offer lost explosion. Brief exposure, 30 minutes MAX Day 8. Brief exposure, 1 hour MAX. Exposuic of 2 4 hours per dov. Radiation Shielding Efficiencies 5 Leave eontaminated equipment and elothing near shelter for retrieval after radioaetive deeay. Wash and remove skin. Filtration Systems, Settling Water c. Clues which may alert you to a biological attack: Protection from biological agents: Survival tips for biological conditions: Bottled or canned foods are safe if sealed.
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