Le classement en six rubriques en facilite la consultation: Souvent il commente la liturgie du jour. Mais aussi le salut de Dieu pour les hommes: Sur quels points insister? Deux conceptions du miracle: Je le voyais bien. Les textes qui remplissent ces trois cahiers sont des propos avant les Propos. Sur la guerre, sur l'amour, sur le rire, sur l'action, la doctrine prend forme. Les chapitres qui suivent sont relatifs aux bureaux, aux relations avec les corps administratifs et au service des lois. Voici le jardin du philosophe. Rira bien qui rira le dernier. Il fuit la France.
Il revient en France: In parallel, some lab testing have been achieved in order to compare the results given with two different scales cm up to meter scale. In this paper, we present a general description of the TER experiment with installation of the heater equipment and the surrounding instrumentation. Details of the in situ measurements of temperature, pore-pressure and strain evolutions are given for the several heating and cooling phases. The thermal conductivity and some predominant parameters in THM processes as linear thermal expansion coefficient and permeability will be discussed.
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The electron density of the plasma adjusts itself to keep the resonant frequency equal to the excitation frequency. This behaviour has been observed by an electron beam technique. When such a discharge is excited in electronegative gases, the negative ion density may be higher than the electron density.
The plasma appears as a luminous body isolated from the walls by a large sheath R. La densite electronique s'ajuste elle-meme de facon a rendre egales la frequence d'excitation et la frequence de la resonance. Ce mecanisme a ete observe a l'aide de faisceaux electroniques. Lorsqu'une telle decharge est excitee dans un gaz electronegatif, la densite des ions negatifs peut etre plus elevee, que la densite electronique, ce qui modifie la distribution du potentiel continu dans le plasma et la gaine.
Le plasma apparait comme un corps lumineux isole des parois par une large gaine plasmoide a haute frequence. Excavation of underground tunnels can be conducted by tunnel boring machines TBM or drill-and-blast. TBMs cause minimum damage to excavation walls. Blasting effects on excavation walls depend on the care with which the blasting is executed. For blast-induced damage in excavation walls, two issues have to be addressed: The test revealed that the dynamic strengths of the argillite are strain rate dependent.
The average dynamic increase factors ratio of dynamic strength to static strength for tensile and compressive strength are about 3. A high-speed video camera was used to visualize the initiation of failure and subsequent deformation of the specimens. The direct compression specimens were found to deform and fail uniformly around the circumference of the specimen, by a spalling process. The SHPB Brazilian tests indicated that failure occurred in tension along the line of load application.
Radial fractures were also observed. The test results can be used for the development of a dynamic constitutive model for the argillite for the prediction of damage in underground excavation utilizing the drill-and blast method. Effets des rayonnements de haute energie sur le cristallin de la souris. This is an important step, not only because this is the only way of maturing the specifications, but also because it strengthens the credibility of the OHSWG.
Based on the experiences of developing the Arakne Environment, the author attempts to point out some worthwhile directions for future work within the OHSWG Full Text Available In the central High Atlas of Morocco, the Liassic series present different mud-moundtype carbonate buildups, well developed in the Midelt area, towards the boundary between the Lower and the Upper Sinemurian. Near Foum Tillicht, these structures show a real evolution within the Upper Sinemunan interval, from simple small-scale bodies at the base, up to big and complex forms at the top.
Their sedimentological and palaeontological features indicate microbolites and sponge buildings developed in deep and open marine conditions, within the subphotic zone, at the lower part of the storm wave interval. These buildups are closely linked to tectonic processes as they grow on the normal synsedimentary faults which affected the central atlasic area during the Lower Liassic period, leading to the breakup of the Early Sinemurian carbonate platform and the induced installation of the Upper Sinemurian subsiding basin.
Silting by hemipelagic sediments led to death of buildings. Similar palaeogeographic changes and geodynamic evolution have been recently described from different structures in North Africa, Western Europe and North America. The Crouzille Haute -Vienne, France uranium ores.
Half a century of human and industrial adventure in Limousin. The 16 uranium deposits of the Crouzille Haute -Vienne, France have produced tons of uranium between and The main production came from the underground exploitation up to m of depth. This book presents the historical aspects of this industrial and human epopee and describes with details the underground exploitation of the ore, its processing and the rehabilitation of the site after the mines have closed down.
Une autre nature en ville: Full Text Available Confined to parks and forests, nature in French urban areas has been used as an instrument for urban planners and developers. Recent urban projects have sought to give natural systems a fuller role in territorial development. This new function can be considered a radically new approach. At the same time, current redevelopment projects must also integrate existing facilities. The redevelopment of the banks of the Seine by the Hauts -de-Seine council is a good example of this new role that nature can play in urban revitalisation.
Maps show the constraints and issues that must be taken into account. Prospective study related to the evolution of energy distribution networks. Needs of evolution of technical and organisational models of energy distribution networks with respect to energy transition scenarios in the Provence -Alpes-Cote d'Azur region. Part 1 - Hypotheses and perspectives, Part 2 - Needs of network evolution.
Study related to the impact of the electric vehicle and of photovoltaic production on electric distribution networks - Case study for Provence -Alpes-Cote d'Azur. The first part of this document aims at presenting perspectives of emergence of new energy production, consumption and storage sources, and their impacts on energy electricity, gas, heat distribution and transport networks. It is based on two scenarios: The objective was to select a limited number of aspects: The second part reports the detailed study of these issues.
It more particularly addresses technical impacts of different sectors on electric and gas networks in Provence -Alpes-Cote d'Azur, technical, economic and organisational assets of smart grid technologies, investments policies and implementation planning, and resulting evolutions for energy markets. Report on Action Research: During the school year, 17 teachers participated in independent action research studies regarding the extent to which selected instructional strategies enhanced the….
The topic of the all day institute was: What planning is going on that will work for a revitalized Terre Haute and Vigo County? During the school year, 20 teachers at South Vigo participated in independent action research studies regarding the extent to…. The high sea has been little studied within geography.
Its characteristics show that it is a complex space and do reflect its alterity. The ocean is a difficult and original fieldwork that invites to be analyzed with interdisciplinary methods geography, oceanography, climatology, biology, history, economy. The geographical approach has so far mainly been an applied geography and has focused on regional, sectorial and coastal aspects. Few are aiming at theoretical approaches or on the high seas. To define it, we offer to discuss on the terms of mobility, discontinuity, network and seascape.
Seascape - example of an interdisciplinary tool- could appear as a method for marine. Initial status of the environment. Environmental marks of the Meuse- Haute Marne underground research laboratory; L'etat initial de l'environnement. On August 3, , the French government gave the permission to the national agency of radioactive wastes ANDRA to build up a research laboratory devoted to the feasibility study of a facility for the reversible disposal of high level and long living radioactive wastes in deep geologic beds.
The site retained is located at Bure, at the boundary of the Meuse and Haute -Marne departements. Before starting the construction of this research facility, the ANDRA has carried out a careful survey of the initial environmental status of the site which will serve as a reference. This brochure presents the results of this survey: The ANDRA has implemented an environmental monitoring plan for each phase of the development of the project.
The process of constructing a project for producing electricity from wind power in Haute Saintonge and its social unacceptability. In front of increase of conflicts finding big environmental projects, approval of social players quickly became an essential condition in their realization, raising social acceptability to rank of priorities.
To illustrate my search on social acceptability, I chose to study project of presence of an industrial wind farm on municipalities of Allas Bocage and Nieul-le-Virouil in Haute Saintonge. Methodology rests on participating observation which authorizes understanding of a group.
If the social acceptability is a fragile and slow process to be built, the social unacceptability takes root durably. My problem rests on the process of construction of the social unacceptability, fruit of a different logic between promoter and local actors. My results allow me to highlight the processual dimension of the social unacceptability of one project.
The uranium of two 'private': In this book, the author tells us the short but intense history of some French uranium mines among the most famous ones: It gives also a precious description of the discovery of the spar-fluor ore of La Charbonniere mine Haute -Vienne initially discovered thanks to its radioactivity anthozonite bed and which supplied a huge amount of fluorine. It presents the main companies Scumra and Charbonnages du Dong-Trieu which have exploited these deposits and also some less-known uranium mines of Aveyron, Creuse, Correze, Cantal and Limousin.
The text is fully illustrated with cross sections and photos and gathers a large amount of geological and historical documents about mining techniques. Document available in extended abstract form only. This database has three main functions: The GEO database is a relational Oracle data base. It is installed on a data server which stores information and manages the users' transactions. The users can consult, download and exploit data from any computer connected to the Andra network or Internet.
Four geo-scientific explanations are linked to the Geo database, they are: It does not require a particular installation from the client and is accessible through the Internet navigator. This application is used for the acquisition of hydrogeological and geochemical data collected on the field and on fluid samples, as well as data related to scientific work carried out at surface level or in drifts. In France, about women suffering from human immuno-deficiency virus HIV give birth.
Estimate the number of pregnant women suffering from HIV who gave birth between January and December in West PACA, assess the difference between the therapeutics used and their adaptation during the pregnancy of women suffering from HIV. Ornithological monitoring of the wind farms of the Garrigue high plateau Aude ; Suivi ornithologique des parcs eoliens du Plateau de Garrigue Haute Aude. This document presents the monitoring of the premarital migration in the wind farm of Corbieres-Maritime on the Garrigue Haute plateau.
It aims to study the wind turbines impacts and risks on the migration. In spite of a weak mortality, the number of observed modifications in the birds habits at the approach of the wind turbines confirms the necessity of taking into account the migration phenomena in the wind farms projects. The first part of this study consists in observing and trying to interpret the effect of operating conditions and engine tuning parameters on the tendency for high-speed knocking to appear.
The different chemical families of the hydrocarbons making up conventional fuels are shown to each have a quite different behavior depending on the fuel-air equivalency ratio and the admission pressure and temperature. The influence of the lead content in the fuel and of the type of lead alkyl used is also studied.
Some experiments were performed to determine the influence of a one-point reduction in the compression ratio on the high-speed octane requirement and on the effect of fuel composition properties. Lastly, by determing the percentage of cycles accompanied by knocking at different spark advances, some indications were found for better characterizing the intensity of the phenomenon. This study is devoted to the intercomparison of NO2 and BrO vertical profiles obtained from the satellite and ground-based measurements.
Although, the ground-based observations are performed only at selected locations, they have a great potential to be used for the validation of satellite measurements since continuous long-term measurement series performed with the same instruments are available. Thus, long-term trends in the observed species can be analyzed and intercompared. However, only a relatively short time period of one year was analyzed so far which do not allow investigating seasonal variations and trends.
Furthermore, some minor discrepancies are still to be analyzed. Seasonal and annual variations will be analyzed and possible reasons for the remaining discrepancies will be discussed. Full Text Available Andra is in charge of studying the feasibility of a disposal facility for longlived high-level nuclear waste LL-HLW in a deep geological environment.
These experiments include determining the feasibility of the excavation of disposal cells for LL-HLW, consisting of 40 meter long, 70 cm in diameter, horizontal cased micro tunnels. The hydro mechanical impact of the excavation of such openings on the rock mass behaviour is continuously monitored as well as their mean term mechanical behaviour. Since LL-HLW produce heat, the impact of temperature on the surrounding rock mass and on the micro tunnel steel casing will also be studied. Specific instrumentation has been developed to study this impact.
The first step of the microtunnel excavation tests, carried out in , has led to improving the excavation method and the drilling machine. These improvements will be tested in the next step of the excavation tests planned for The THM experiment dedicated to studying the behaviour of the rock mass under thermal solicitation started early The behaviour of a steel casing in contact with the rock mass and under thermal solicitation will be studied in an experiment scheduled to start in September Physical and numerical modelling of permafrost dynamic during a climatic cycle: This manuscript deals about works realized on the permafrost modelling in porous media and its impact on the hydrogeological circulations.
During a climatic cycle, cold periods can generate permafrost ground with temperature lower than 0 C for 2 consecutive years. This peri-glacial structure propagates towards deep geological layers, and, due to its very low permeability, can stop the flow of water bodies like aquifers. After validation, these two models offer three axes of development: The Meuse- Haute Marne underground research laboratory. A scientific research tool for the study of deep geologic disposal of radioactive wastes.
The Meuse- Haute Marne underground research laboratory, is an essential scientific tool for the achievement of one of the ANDRA's mission defined in the framework of the law from December 30, about the long-term management of high-level and long-living radioactive wastes.
This document presents this laboratory: The study presented in this PhD memory aim at better define and quantify the present timeerosion processes in glacial and proglacial domain. The Glacier des Bossons, situated in theMont-Blanc massif Haute -Savoie, France , is a good example of a natural and nonanthropizedsystem which allows us to study this topic.
This glacier lies on two mainlithologies the Mont-Blanc granite and the metamorphic bedrock and this peculiarity is usedto determine the origin of the glacial sediments. Study of thermocouples for control of high temperatures; Etude de thermocouples pour le reperage des hautes temperatures. Previous works have shown that the tungsten-rhenium alloys thermocouples were a good instrument for control of high temperatures. In 'out-pile' study he determines the general characteristics of these thermocouples: The evolution of these thermocouples under thermal neutron flux has been determined by 'in-pile' study.
The observations have led the author to propose a new type of thermocouples settled of molybdenum-columbium alloys. C Dans l'etude 'hors-pile' il a determine les caracteristiques generales de ces thermocouples: L'etude 'en-pile' a permis de rendre compte de l'evolution de ces thermocouples sous flux neutroniques. Les phenomenes observes ont conduit l'auteur a proposer un nouveau type de thermocouples constitues d'alliages molybdene-niobium. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow at the Green Valley reclaimed coal refuse site near Terre Haute , Indiana.
Subsurface coal was cleaned and sorted at land surface, and waste material was deposited over the native glacial till. During , the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, improved the site by grading gob piles, filling tailings ponds, and covering the refuse with a layer of glacial drift. During , the Division of Reclamation and U. Geological Survey initiated a cooperative investigation to characterize the hydrogeology of the site and construct a calibrated groundwater flow model that could be used to simulate the results of future remedial actions.
In support of the modeling, a data-collection network was installed at the Green Valley site to measure weather components, geophysical properties, groundwater levels, and stream and seep flow. Results of the investigation indicate that 1 there is negligible overland flow from the site, 2 the prevailing groundwater-flow direction is from northeast to southwest, with a much smaller drainage to the northeast, 3 there is not a direct hydraulic connection between the refuse and West Little Sugar Creek, 4 about 24 percent of the groundwater recharge emerges through seeps, and water from the seeps evaporates or eventually flows to West Little Sugar Creek and the Green Valley Mine Pond, and 5 about 72 percent of groundwater recharge moves vertically downward from the coal refuse into the till and follows long, slow flow paths to eventual dischage points.
During the excavation of the underground tunnel in argillite formation, the Excavation Damaged Zone EDZ is expected to develop due to the stress redistribution during excavation and subsequent rock convergence. The nucleation and propagation of microcracks in EDZ can consequently affect the poro-mechanical behavior of the host rock.
The size of samples used in the present work is 20x20 mm in order to reduce the saturating time. The axis of the cylindrical sample is perpendicular to the bedding planes. The saturation condition is an important factor for the determination of the mechanical and poro-elastic properties of saturated argillite. Thus, for each sample, after putting into the triaxial cell, the confining pressure is loaded to 2 MPa and we inject distilled water both at the injection and outlet faces in order to insure the pore pressure at the two faces hold at 1 MPa.
Marie, étoile de l'évangélisation
This procedure will be keep to 72 hours. Then, the pore pressure at the injection face is increased to 1. Once the pore pressure at the outlet face reaches the same value at injection face, the sample is. The texts mainly concern the princely groups who were in power, and, at the other end of the social scale, the groups of andevo slaves.
Maison, immeuble et compagnie: The tenement building, a familiar type in the suburbs of the Hauts -de-Seine department, close to Paris, was frequently put up by speculative builders, even if the promiscuity they supposed was generally rejected by workers who would have preferred their own, individual homes. Some philanthropical builders offered complex housing types, and buildings associating accommodation and other functions work, commerce, services affected housing in the suburbs, although such types were rare in the capital itself.
Organising the complexity of urban space and its circulations, town planning operated a functional division that dissolved this mixity by going beyond existing building types. Needs, objectives, inmate classification and placement, staff, and other aspects were covered. Reports, staff and inmate interviews, study of instructional materials, and…. The theme of the conference was "Oral Language and Reading. McCarthy; opening address, "Strategies for Reading…. Effect of carbon on the oxidation of zirconium; Influence du carbone sur l'oxygenation du zirconium a haute temperature.
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The study of specimens contaminated by different amounts of carbon shows a deleterious effect of this element in the resistance of zirconium to high temperature oxidation to deg. We drew the following results: We suggest a mechanism of formation and growth of these pimples; b for a certain carbon content, the resistance to oxidation is increased by an uniform dispersion of the carbide phase and decreased, for instance, by extrusion textures. In this case, for the more marked textures, the more oriented corrosion was observed; c by burning of the carbide phase it can result a second reaction increasing the corrosion rate; d thin zirconium foils undergoes dimensional changes when scaling in oxygen.
This unusual feature is also subordinated to carbon content and specially to the carbide phase dispersion. Nous avons pu degager les resultats essentiels suivants: Nous suggerons un mecanisme de formation et de croissance de ces pustules, b la tenue du metal est d'autant meilleure que, pour une meme teneur en carbone, la phase 'carbure' est plus uniformement dispersee. En consequence, si la dispersion est mauvaise, on observe selon l'axe des textures de filage, par exemple, une corrosion preferentielle d'autant plus accentuee que les textures sont plus marquees, c la combustion de la phase 'carbure' peut engendrer une reaction secondaire susceptible d'accroitre la cinetique de corrosion, d l'expansion des grandes faces d.
Logiques touristiques en station de haute -montagne: This text starts from the teachings stemming from an evaluation of the tourist practices in the light of sustainable tourism principles, realized in within the framework of a national network piloted by the French Agency of Touristic Engineering today ODIT France, for the ski resort of Valloire, first-generation resort in the Maurienne, which development and modernization in the s kept pace with a vast real estate program.
The article investigates the stakes and difficulties of the implementation of sustainable development in Valloire, asks the question of the "cultural revolution" which the actors should achieve to change the model of economic development, and suggest some tracks to reach there. The local approach of "sustainable tourism", indeed. From a geomechanical point of view, the safety of an underground storage for the radioactive waste requires to characterize the damaged zone induced by the shaft sinking for the storage cavities. Firstly we have analysed all the mechanical tests which had been carried out from to We have observed that each series has his own coherence, in terms of elastic parameters, mechanical strength or creep capacity.
But there are some strong differences between the series. These differences, which are due to the experimental protocols and not to the material itself, have shown three important results: From these tests, we have distinguished three mechanisms that produce irreversible strains: We have described each of them by a straightforward elasto-plastic model, based on the Mohr-Coulomb or Drucker-Prager criterion, with a linear softening.
Thus we obtain a complete rheological model for the East argilites by considering simultaneously the three mechanisms multi-criterion plasticity. Lastly, from the modelling we carried out, we can conclude that: The COx Figure 1 is of a special interest because of its very favourable characteristics for being a possible host rock for the disposal of radioactive waste. In the framework of this project, a Mine-by experiment was performed in the niche GCS.
The excavation was started on Displacement and pore pressure evolution during the excavation was measured by different sensors. With regard to the bedding of COx a transverse isotropy approach was applied.
Thus the anisotropy effects caused by the bedding have been considered in coupled HM models Massmann, Intensive parameter studies in comparison with measured deformation and pore pressure data have been conducted to reduce modelling uncertainties. Fully saturated models yield very precise results in the far field wherein excavation effect has its lower impact. Rapid decline of pore pressure and continuously increasing deformation subsequent to excavation in the near field could not be interpreted even taking shrinkage and partially saturation into consideration.
During the Mine-by test, overpressures on sidewalls and reduced pressures on roof and floor were measured due to the mechanical effect on pore pressure which is induced by the bedding. Un outil de recherche scientifique pour etudier le stockage geologique profond de dechets radioactifs. Although the hydrocracking process is mainly devoted to the conversion of vacuum distillates, deasphalted oil or mixture of both into high quality middle distillates, it can also produce a residue, that after dewaxing will be a very high VI lube base oil.
In this presentation major emphasis is put on the possibility to produce very high VI lubes with high viscosity thanks to the development of the new catalytic system. Large flexibility in feedstock selection and easy control of operating variables allow the production of all grades of lube oils associated with high quality middle distillates for a large range of conversion levels. The main characteristics of the structural mechanisms were studied by high resolution electron microscopy. This paper deals with the description of the numerous order-disorder phenomena which have been observed on the cation and anion networks.
In late it provided the Government with a report analysing the geological, environmental and socio-economic aspects of the forty odd municipalities that expressed an interest in the project. After the withdrawal of the two municipalities chosen in to conduct geological investigations, the government asked Andra to re-explore the various management options for graphite and radium-bearing waste, focusing in particular on ways to manage these types of waste separately. Andra submitted a report to the Government in late A year research programme, Presentation and assessment of the research results, The public debate of , Deep geological disposal ratified by the Planning Act, The Planning Act: Selection of the Meuse and Haute -Marne site to host an underground research laboratory, The geological formation in the Meuse and Haute -Marne site, Callovo-Oxfordian clay, Siting of Cigeo's installations ; 4 - How will Cigeo operate?
Congo entre et Congo between and A quantification of the spatio-temporal dynamics of urbanization is crucial to apprehend urban morphology and its ecological effects, in order to support sustainable urban planning. This study aimed at understanding the spatial urban growth of Lubumbashi city based on the analysis of six SPOT satellites images. With the exception of the period, Lubumbashi city underwent a high average annual growth rate exceeding that observed for other cities in sub-Saharan Africa.
Our results suggest that the urbanization of Lubumbashi city followed a complex diffusion-coalescence model. The main reason of this perturbation is the combination of the rapid demographic growth with an inappropriate urban growth management.
This age is yielded by the upper intercept with the Concordia curve. The Penly nuclear power plant, at the service of a safe, competitive and CO2-free power generation in the heart of the Haute Normandie region. In less than 20 years, Electricite de France EDF has built up a competitive park of 58 nuclear power plants, with no equivalent elsewhere, which represents an installed power of Inside this nuclear park, the national power generation centre of Penly comprises 2 production units of MW each MW as a whole.
The facility generated This brochure presents the life of the power plant under various aspects: Les premiers hommes, le Big-Bang et le boson de Higgs vous intriguent?
Ce livre est fait pour vous! Embarquez, vous en savez bien assez! Monitoring and surveillance of former uranium sites in Haute -Vienne France: For more than 50 years, more than sites were prospected and mined to extract uranium in France. Haute -Vienne, in the Midwest of the country, played a leading position. Up to the present, rehabilitation of the sites is nearly complete and surveillance is the way of assessing its efficiency.
In , AREVA NC was asked to produce a report presenting the results of the ten-year monitoring and surveillance of the rehabilitated sites and their environment. This review led IRSN to recommend actions to improve the monitoring systems and minimise discharges to the environment. Results and recommendations were presented to and discussed with the pluralistic expert group GEP created in by the French ministries of environment, health and industry.
A high current high frequency ions gun; Etude et realisation d'un canon a ions du type haute frequence a debit eleve. A 10 mA protons gun has been developed for different purposes. The first part of the report studies the plasma production with a RF electromagnetic field.
Then the ion extraction process is analysed with particular reference to space charge phenomena. The last part describes a three electrode electrostatic lens which focusses the beam. Dans la premiere partie les problemes relatifs a la production et a l'entretien d'un plasma excite par un champ electromagnetique de haute frequence sont exposes. Ensuite les auteurs analysent le mecanisme de l'extraction des ions et montrent en particulier le role de la charge d'espace. Enfin on decrit un dispositif de focalisation electrostatique a 3 electrodes.
Developpement d'une methode calorimetrique de mesure des pertes ac pour des rubans supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Le travail de recherche effectue dans le cadre de ce projet de doctorat a permis la mise au point d'une methode de mesure des pertes ac destinee a l'etude des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Pour le choix des principes de cette methode, nous nous sommes inspires de travaux anterieurs realises sur les supraconducteurs conventionnels, afin de proposer une alternative a la technique electrique, presentant lors du debut de cette these des problemes lies a la variation du resultat des mesures selon la position des contacts de tension sur la surface de l'echantillon, et de pouvoir mesurer les pertes ac dans des conditions simulant la realite des futures applications industrielles des rubans supraconducteurs: La validite de la methode a ete verifiee de maniere theorique et experimentale: Par ailleurs, nous avons compare la dependance en courant et en frequence des pertes ac d'un echantillon avant et apres qu'il ait ete endommage.
Ces mesures semblent indiquer une relation entre la valeur du coefficient de la loi de puissance modelisant la dependance des pertes avec le courant, et les inhomogeneites longitudinales du courant critique induites par l'endommagement. De plus, la variation en frequence montre qu'au niveau des grosses fractures transverses creees par l'endommagement dans le coeur supraconducteur, le courant se partage localement de maniere a peu pres equivalente entre les quelques grains de matiere.
Within its scientific program to study the feasibility of a high level radioactive waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous rock COx of the eastern Paris Basin, Andra has conducted an extensive characterization of the Oxfordian and Dogger limestone formations above and below the COx.
An original methodology was applied in these wells to characterize the geology, the hydrogeology and the geochemistry of the Jurassic carbonates. This multidisciplinary effort provided a unique set of 3D data. The first purpose of this study is to integrate the geological, hydrogeological and geochemical data into a water flow conceptual model. Geological data include the study of cored wells, complete modern wire-line log sets in both cored and un-cored wells, and outcrop analogues.
Hydrogeological data include transmissivity and hydraulic head measurements in the Oxfordian and Dogger limestone formations. Geochemical data include several on site measurements pH, alkalinity, electrical conductivity, temperature and chemical and isotopic analyses performed on water samples taken at selected depths. More than one hundred hydraulic tests have been performed since to measure transmissivity distribution in the Oxfordian and Dogger limestone.
Several hydraulic testing methods were used in each well: After completion of the hydraulic tests, hydraulic heads were deduced from long term pressure measurements in open wells or in multi-packer completions; pressure monitoring lasted between a few months and more than 10 years. When a fast data-acquisition system is used for an engine, the problem often arises of associating both calculated data, such as combustion chamber volume, and measured data, such as pressure inside the cylinder. The calibration principle consists in calculating the shift between TDC and the.
Artificial snowmaking and potential water conflicts in mountain resorts. The case of Avoriaz Haute -Savoie, France. The practice of artificial snowmaking is recent s , and may use large volumes of water. In the French Alps, the total consumption is on average 20 Mm3 per year Miquel, , which corresponds to the annual consumption of drinking water for a city of more than , inhabitants such as Nice France. Moreover, snowmaking does not represent the only use of water in winter sport resorts.
The available water resource is used for drinking water, artificial snowmaking and leisure activities swimming pools, golf spas. One can speak in this context of a multifunctionality of the resource. Of particular concern is the winter season when streams reach their lowest level from December to April. These activities require that water is drawn from resources created at other times of the year. Water for snowmaking production is pumped from drinking water reservoirs, rivers, groundwater tables, artificial hydropower reservoirs, as well as from hill water reservoirs, specifically built for storing water for snow production, themselves supplied from surface water capture.
In Avoriaz Haute -Savoie, France the risk of shortages is important. The reason is that the resort is supplied by a unique lake or hillside reservoir Lake , which satisfies two particularly high-consuming water uses the water supply for production of snow and drinking water. On a finer scale, namely that of a single day in January , considerable volumes are drawn off in the space of a few hours 10, m3 on 24 January , while pumping for drinking water spreads out over several months.
Intensity of use for the production of snow can trigger water scarcity and water conflicts with other uses such as drinking water. Good management of the resource is, therefore, especially important. However, no legislation specific to artificial snowmaking has been established. Even if, at present, there is no situation involving shortages and conflicting uses at Avoriaz, the situation needs to be monitored. Study of high frequency instabilities on a cold cathode reflex discharge; Contribution a l'etude des instabilites a haute frequence dans la decharge reflex a cathodes froides.
The cold cathode reflex discharge develops a cathode sheath of several hundreds of volts, which accelerates electrons released from the cathode to high velocities along the lines of the axial magnetic field.
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On the studied pressure range 4. Les fuites de particules a travers les lignes de forces du champ magnetique statique applique deviennent en particulier trop importantes pour que le seul effet classique des collisions binaires puisse les expliquer. La discussion de resultats theoriques et une experience complementaire montrent que cette population d'electrons rapides, tres distincte de celle des electrons lents du plasma pour les pressions les plus faibles du domaine etudie 4.
This department is mainly rural except the capital where there is a strong working class tradition. Any contact between Spanish communists and French was avoided, in a context of repatriation, sometimes forced, back to pro-Franco Spain. This article will present some cases of repression against Spanish and communists that appear in reports from the police and the prefecture of the Haute -Vienne.
France, Spanish Civil War, exile, historical memory. IRSN is conducting studies in support of the safety evaluation of the geological disposal programme developed by Andra. IRSN, in collaboration with the Paris School of Mines, develops conceptual and numerical models of the underground water flows throughout the Paris sedimentary basin. The calibrated numerical model correctly represents the hydraulic heads and water salinities collected throughout the basin. At the MHM scale however, several flow patterns can still reproduce the measured heads, some of them assuming specific flow pathways along regional tectonic trends.
Considering or not such tectonic trends in the model has however an impact on the estimated radionuclide transfer times to the outlets. Even though most ANDRA and IRSN geochemical analyses suggest a dominant diffusive transport across the COX between the underlying Dogger and overlying Oxfordian aquifers, few data point out the possible existence of local vertical connections across major tectonic structures. In order to select the most plausible options for the numerical modelling, IRSN compiled published studies and carried out fieldwork analysis to provide new data for its hydrogeological conceptual model.
Relevant geological data can be considered both at the kilometre scale and at the metre scale. At the kilometre scale, the litho-stratigraphic scheme both for Dogger and Oxfordian series had previously been documented in the MHM area. Regional sedimentologic and diagenetic models are available for the Oxfordian aquifer and partially for the Dogger aquifer. Our fieldwork analysis complete these models thanks to new correlations pointed out during detailed iso-hyps mapping performed by G2R laboratory, southeast from the MHM area.
Unlike the Kimmeridgian and COX sedimentary piles, which are. Study of some ion exchange minerals which can be used in water at high temperature; Etude de quelques echangeurs mineraux utilisables dans l'eau a haute temperature. This paper describes the preliminary results of the investigation.
Si la circulation d'eau se fait a des temperatures inferieures a 45 deg. C, les resines echangeuses d'ions organiques utilisees en lit melange resolvent tres bien le probleme de l'epuration en continu. Par contre, pour des temperatures plus elevees surtout au-dessus de deg. C, leur utilisation n'est pas possible, la degradation de ces hauts polymeres etant tres rapide.
De meme, l'action des rayonnements, par exemple ceux des produits fixes par les echangeurs d'ions, detruit irremediablement les chaines organiques constituant le squelette de ces echangeurs. Nous avons donc cherche d'es composes pouvant assurer une bonne deionisation de l'eau, mais de structures telles qu'elles ne soient pas deteriorees par l'action de la temperature et des rayonnements.
Nous nous sommes particulierement orientes dans trois voies: Dans ces etudes, nous nous sommes attaches a obtenir des produits stables en presence d'eau a haute temperature, tres insolubles et non. The Paris Basin system covers approximately km 2 and consists of 27 aquiferous and semipermeable aquitard hydrogeological units of Trias to Quaternary age that are intersected by 80 regional faults. Within the sector, the Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation is a potential host for the French high and intermediate level and long lived radioactive waste.
The Callovo-Oxfordian is confined between the overlying Oxfordian aquifer and the underlying Dogger aquifer. Both the Oxfordian and Dogger are limestone aquifers characterized locally by macro-pores, regional faults that oriented along the N40 deg. E direction the Gondrecourt and Joinville faults and the N deg.
The model represents 27 hydrogeological units at the scale of the Paris Basin, and it is refined at the scale of the sector to represent 27 different layers that range in age from the Trias to the Portlandian. The model has been calibrated to observed hydraulic heads by varying the hydraulic conductivity of the individual layers, using a single continuum approach. To investigate the impact of treating the two confining layers for the clay formation, the Oxfordian and Dogger aquifers, as single continua with equivalent hydraulic properties for the combined fracture and matrix system, additional simulations have been conducted with either a dual continuum or.
A clay-stone formation of Callovo-Oxfordian age is found throughout the multilayered sedimentary fill of the Paris Basin. It is considered as a potential host rock for France's high and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. The Callovo-Oxfordian layer is located between an overlying limestone of Oxfordian age and an underlying limestone of Dogger age.. The future groundwater flows and the future evolution of the vertical hydraulic gradient in the transposition zone are of importance in the performance assessment and the safety analysis of a future repository for radioactive waste.
The study is based on numerical modelling and the established model covers the whole of the Paris basin. The studied time period corresponds to 1 million years into the future.
Calaméo - Kaléidoscope Novembre Décembre
A description of the transient geomorphologic evolution was used as input data to the groundwater flow modelling. The modelling of the. Deposition of radon decay products on the skin of balneotherapy patients in Gastein; Anlagerung von Radon-Folgeprodukten auf der Haut von Patienten bei der Baedertherapie in Gastein. Salzburg Austria ; Foisner, W. Um die Hypothese, dass die Zerfallsprodukte des Radons eine wichtige Rolle bei der therapeutischen Wirkung spielen, zu ueberpruefen, sollte das Anlagerungsverhalten der Rn-Folgeprodukte untersucht werden.
Nach einem Aufenthalt der Testpersonen von 20 Minuten in der Wanne wurde der Aktivitaetsverlauf an verschiedenen Punkten des Koerpers Unterarme, Bauch, Unterschenkel alpha-spektrometrisch gemessen. Um den zeitlichen Verlauf der Zerfallsproduktanlagerung zu untersuchen, wurde eine Versuchsperson dem Wasser jeweils fuer 10, 20, 30, 40 und 60 Minuten ausgesetzt; danach wurde wieder der Aktivitaetsverlauf ueber 30 Minuten aufgezeichnet.
Die Messungen zeigten, dass sich die Aktivitaeten der einzelnen Zerfallsprodukte auf der Haut stark unterscheiden. Einerseits scheint die Verteilung am Koerper keineswegs homogen zu sein, andererseits konnten individuelle Unterschiede zwischen den einzelnen Person beobachtet werden. Die Exposition und Messung von Kupfer- und PVC-Platten bestaetigten fruehere Ergebnisse, nach denen sich Radonzerfallsprodukte auf unbelebten Flaechen weniger stark anlagern als auf belebten. Aus der Tatsache, dass die Zerfallsprodaktivitaeten auf der Haut bemerkenswert hoch sind, erscheint ein moeglicher Zusammenhang mit der Heilwirkung seht wahrscheinlich.
Study of current instabilities in high resistivity gallium arsenide; Etude des instabilites de courant dans l'arseniure de gallium de haute resistivite. Nous montrons que ces oscillations sont associees a la progression lente d'un domaine de fort champ electrique a travers tout l'echantillon. L'etude experimentale des proprietes de ces instabilites nous a permis de differencier ce phenomene de l'effet Gunn, des effets acoustoelectriques et des effets de contacts. Nous proposons pour rendre compte de ce type d'instabilites un mecanisme de piegeage differentiel sur des impuretes repulsives, capable de depeupler la bande de conduction a champ electrique eleve et de donner naissance a un domaine de champ intense.
Le developpement qualitatif de ce modele nous permet de rendre compte de toutes les proprietes des cristaux d'arseniure de gallium de haute resistivite soumis a un champ electrique eleve: Le developpement quantitatif du modele permet de calculer les differentes grandeurs caracteristiques de ces instabilites. La comparaison avec l'experience montre une bonne concordance, les legeres divergences provenant surtout de la meconnaissance actuelle des proprietes de transport dans l'arseniure de gallium aux champs electriques eleves.
A la lumiere de ce modele, il apparait que le phenomene d'instabilite etudie peut se produire pour une gamme etendue de concentrations en centres repulsifs, et pour toute une gamme de resistivites. Ceci explique qu'il apparaisse systematiquement dans l'arseniure de gallium de moyenne et haute resistivite. Installation of a bitumen coating plant for high-activity concentrates; Installation pilote d'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats de haute activite.
Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule. Following the excellent results obtained on the industrial coating of radioactive sludges, the possibility of solidifying also the evaporation concentrates with bitumen has been considered. For high activity concentrates, the use of bitumen is however limited by two main parameters: By making use of the characteristics of a blown bitumen, it has been possible to design a high activity coating pilot plant treating concentrations of several tens of curies per litre.
Before being coated, the concentrates will be subjected to a coprecipitation treatment designed to make the radioelements insoluble. This installation will make possible, apart from technological studies, laboratory experiments on the coated material measurements on self-heating, on electrical charges, on radiolytic gases, and also lixiviation tests. Pour les concentrats de haute activite, l'emploi du bitume est cependant limite par deux parametres essentiels: Grace aux caracteristiques d'un bitume souffle, il a ete possible de concevoir une installation pilote d'enrobage haute activite contenant plusieurs dizaines de curies par litre.
Avant leur enrobage, les concentrats subiront un traitement de coprecipitation destine a insolubiliser les radioelements. En dehors des etudes technologiques, cette installation. The research started as part of a thesis on Roman roads in the Arverne and Vellave territory has recently led to the rediscovery of a milestone, lost in the storerooms of the Crozatier museum at Puy-en-Velay Haute -Loire since the end of the 19th century. A thorough reexamination of the inscription has enabled a revision of previous writings in the light of new information.
The development of a very high stability electrostatic generator ; Etude et realisation d'un generateur electrostatique a tres haute stabilite This equipment should be very useful in electron microscopy. The electrostatic generator is studied as a control system element: A theoretical study of the open loop transfer function, stability, transient response, voltage stabilization of five different control systems shows which one should be able to fulfill the requirements There follows a detailed study of drift, a description of the actual system and performance data.
Une telle performance rend cet appareillage tres utile en microscopie electronique. La generatrice electrostatique est etudiee en tant qu'element d'un systeme asservi: L'etude de cinq differents circuits de regulation en ce qui concerne leur fonction de transfert, stabilite, reponse en regime transitoire, attenuation des perturbations, permettra de choisir le systeme qui semble le mieux repondre aux exigences. Viennent ensuite une etude detaillee de la derive, la description de la realisation pratique et les resultats de mesure. Press conference of June , It presents and comments the legal frame programming law of June , 28 which introduces a national plan for radioactive materials and wastes PNGMDR which is to be updated once every three years.
Then, it describes ANDRA's missions, its role as industrial operator, its financing, and its certification level. It describes its general interest missions: It presents its project of reversible deep storage of high and intermediate level and long life wastes a facility is foreseen to operate in , the technology centre, the 'open doors day', and the project of a hollow storage site for low activity and long life wastes.
This study deals with liquid zinc embrittlement for electro-galvanized steel. A correlation can be drawn between i thermal activated-grain boundary wetting and ii crack propagation in presence of external stress. In urban planning new partnership practices seem to appear through the realization of expertises studies, projects engineering, audits…. Although the appeal to consulting firms — to consultants — and in the scientific laboratories — to researchers — by the State services or local government, exists for a long time now, the partnership between consultants and researchers is recent.
Even though this partnership is not systematic in urban planning, it brings a contribution with a high added value in the services, according to the public partners. Industrial emissions, deteriorating or improperly removed lead paint, and the use of lead additives in fuel have left a substantial burden of heavy metals, such as lead, in urban soils. Much of this lead remains near the surface where it has the potential to impact human health.