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Enough to make some people pass out - evetually it was outlawed. In the 30's this celebration became so popular that almost all car-owners in the city participated! The parade started on Sunday in Botafogo and went all the way to Av. This photo is attributed to Augusto Malta. These were ladies who came from Bahia, and made a living selling food delicacies around town in their typical white dresses with big round skirts. They were also the priestesses of Candomble, and had a great influence in the community.

Tia Ciata may have been the most famous of these tias. In her living room meetings were often entertained with live music played by talents like Pixinguinha and Donga son of Tia Amelia. In the back lot of her house happened the samba, a term then used to denominate the ritual Candomble dance to drums and handclaps. Eventually the two beats got together, and Pelo Telefone , the first song labeled as a samba , was composed in her house. Another song that made samba history is Noel Rosa's Com que Roupa? The curious detail was that these baianas were actually men dressed in white colonial clothes, and acted as security to the blocos.

There was a percussion band and vocalist, with a women-only chorus of pastoras. The peak of these blocos was in the 30's and 40's. Today blocos still happen in Centro, and some attract as many as one million revelers. Carnaval in the streets of Rio is always free of charge. In the end of the 20's some organizers of blocos felt the need to evolve, and found inspiration in the ranchos that were somewhat more organized.

The samba gained more fluidity to be adapted to the evolution of the samba school. Mangueira, founded in is the first samba school. The nickname Estacao Primeira is because it is right at the first stop after train station Central do Brasil. In , five schools were already parading. From temporary stands for the public to watch the parades were built, and in paid tickets made their debut to take advantage of the rising international and national interest and the increasing tourist arrivals. In , the then governor Leonel Brizola , commissioned the architect Oscar Niemeyer the project of a permanent local stadium for the parades in that area, because until then the bleachers were assembled at the time of the carnival and then removed.

Galo da Madrugada

With the increase in the number of schools taking part, which made the parade more long and tiring for the public, in the parade started to be carried out in two days: Sunday and Monday for the major schools, Friday and Saturday for the lower level schools. In , the government decided to give Rio Carnival its new home in the Sambadrome. There are different types of Sambadrome tickets that are available for purchase. Grandstand tickets are general admissions tickets that are available on a first-come, first-served basis and are not allocated ahead of time. Frisas are open air box seats located along the samba runway.

Camarotes are luxury boxes situated between the frisas and the grandstands. Sector 9 is the tourist sector which are the same as grandstand tickets, with the difference being that they are allocated so people have assigned seats. Carnival ticket prices can vary depending on the ticket type, sector and season.

Rio Carnival

The cheapest sectors are 12 and Ticket sales are organised by LIESA , who will often also make tickets available at late notice via a venue often a bank announced the day before. Float with a giant Lemuel Gulliver. A float with the Dragon of Saint George. A float with a camel caravan. As the parade is taking place in the Sambadrome and the balls are being held in the Copacabana Palace and beach, many carnival participants are at other locations. Street festivals are very common during carnival and are highly populated by the locals.

Anyone is allowed to participate in the street festivals. Bandas are very familiar with the street carnival especially because it takes nothing to join in on the fun except to jump in. One of the most well known bandas of Rio is Banda de Ipanema. Incorporated into every aspect of the Rio carnival are dancing and music. The most famous dance is carnival samba, a Brazilian dance with African influences. The samba remains a popular dance not only in carnival but in the ghettos outside of the main cities. These villages keep alive the historical aspect of the dance without the influence of the western cultures.

Music is another major part of all aspects of the carnival. Traditionally, public cord blood banking has been more widely accepted by the medical community. Paraplegia is an impairment in motor or sensory function of the lower extremities.

It is usually caused by spinal cord injury or a congenital condition that affects the neural brain elements of the spinal canal. The area of the spinal canal that is affected in paraplegia is either the thoracic, lumbar, or sacral regions. Common victims of this impairment are veterans or members of the armed forces. If four limbs are affected by paralysis, tetraplegia or quadriplegia is the correct term. If only one limb is affected, the correct term is monoplegia. Spastic paraplegia is a form of paraplegia defined by spasticity of the affected muscles, rather than flaccid paralysis.

The American Spinal Injury Association classifies spinal cord injury severity. ASIA A being the complete loss of sensory function and motor skills below the injury. ASIA B is having some sensory function below the injury, but no motor function. ASIA C some motor function below level o Umbilical cord prolapse is when, during labor, the umbilical cord comes out of the uterus with or before the presenting part of the baby. The silver cord in metaphysical studies and literature, also known as the sutratma or life thread of the antahkarana, refers to a life-giving linkage from the higher self atma down to the physical body.

It also refers to an extended synthesis of this thread and a second the consciousness thread, passing from the soul to the physical body that connects the physical body to the etheric body, onwards to the astral body and finally to the mental body. As the astral body moves further away from the tangible body, some of the strings break apart and clump into a specific and sm Tetraplegia, also known as quadriplegia, is paralysis caused by illness or injury that results in the partial or total loss of use of all four limbs and torso; paraplegia is similar but does not affect the arms.

The loss is usually sensory and motor, which means that both sensation and control are lost. Tetraparesis or quadriparesis, on the other hand, means muscle weakness affecting all four limbs.

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It may be flaccid or spastic. Signs and symptoms Although the most obvious symptom is impairment of the limbs, functioning is also impaired in the torso. This can mean a loss or impairment in controlling bowel and bladder, sexual function, digestion, breathing and other autonomic functions. Furthermore, sensation is usually impaired in affected areas. This can manifest as numbness, reduced sensation or burning neuropathic pain. Secondarily, because of their depressed functioning and immobility, people with tetraplegia are often more vulnerable to pressure sores, osteoporosis and fractures, frozen joints, spasti The central nervous system CNS is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

The central nervous system is so named because it integrates the received information and coordinates and influences the activity of all parts of the bodies of bilaterally symmetric animals—that is, all multicellular animals except sponges and radially symmetric animals such as jellyfish—and it contains the majority of the nervous system. Many consider the retina[2] and the optic nerve cranial nerve II ,[3][4] as well as the olfactory nerves cranial nerve I and olfactory epithelium[5] as parts of the CNS, synapsing directly on brain tissue without intermediate ganglia.

As such, the olfactory epithelium is the only central nervous tissue in direct contact with the environment, which opens up for therapeutic treatments. In vertebrates, the brain is protected by th Velamentous cord insertion is an abnormal condition during pregnancy. Normally, the umbilical cord inserts into the middle of the placenta as it develops. In velamentous cord insertion, the umbilical cord inserts into the fetal membranes choriamniotic membranes , then travels within the membranes to the placenta between the amnion and the chorion.

The exposed vessels are not protected by Wharton's jelly and hence are vulnerable to rupture. Rupture is especially likely if the vessels are near the cervix, in which case they may rupture in early labor, likely resulting in a stillbirth. This is a serious condition called vasa previa. Not every pregnancy with a velamentous cord insertion results in vasa previa, only those in which the blood vessels are near the cervix. When a velamentous cord insertion is discovered, the obstetrician will monitor the pregnancy closely for the presence of vasa previa.

If the blood vessels are near the cervix, the baby will be delivered via cesarean section as early as 35 weeks In telecommunication, a cord circuit is a switchboard circuit in which a plug-terminated cord is used to establish connections manually between user lines or between trunks and user lines. A number of cord circuits are furnished as part of the switchboard position equipment.

The cords may be referred to as front cord and rear cord or trunk cord and station cord. In modern cordless switchboards, the cord-circuit function is switch operated and may be programmable. In early and middle 20th century telephone exchanges this task was done by a supervisory relay set known variously as junctor circuit or district junctor. Later designs made it a function of the trunk circuit or absorbed it into software.

Umbilical cord compression is the obstruction of blood flow through the umbilical cord secondary to pressure from an external object or misalignment of the cord itself. Cord compression happens in about one in 10 deliveries. Nuchal cord, when the umbilical cord is tightly around the neck of the fetus[2] Entanglement of the cord[2] Knot in the cord[2] Cord prolapse, where the umbilical cord exits the birth canal before the baby, which can cause cord compression. In persistent severe signs of fetal distress, Cesarean section may be needed. References Childbirth Complications at Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation HSCT is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.

Infection and graft-versus-host disease are major complications of allogeneic HSCT. As survival following the procedure has increased, its use has expanded beyond cancer to autoimmune diseases[4][5] and hereditary skeletal dysplasias; notably malig He was considered a leader in United States transport during the early and middle 20th century. Cord founded the Cord Corporation in as a holding company for over companies he controlled, mostly in the field of transportation.

Born in Warrensburg, Missouri, Cord had been a race car driver, mechanic and car salesman before he was offe Vocal folds open Vocal folds speaking The vocal cords, also known as vocal folds, are folds of tissue in the throat that are key in creating sounds through vocalization. The size of vocal cords affects the pitch of voice. Open when breathing and vibrating for speech or singing, the folds are controlled via the vagus nerve. They are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx.

They vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs during phonation. The outer layer is squamous, non-keratinizing epithelium. Below this is the superficial layer of the lamina propria, a gel like layer, which allows the vocal fold to vibrate and produce sound. The vocalis and thyroarytenoid muscles make up the deepest portion. The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by the ventral rami of the lower four cervical nerves and first thoracic nerve C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1. This plexus extends from the spinal cord, through the cervicoaxillary canal in the neck, over the first rib, and into the armpit.

It supplies afferent and efferent nerve fibers to the chest, shoulder, arm and hand. Structure The brachial plexus is divided into five roots, three trunks, six divisions three anterior and three posterior , three cords, and five branches. There are five "terminal" branches and numerous other "pre-terminal" or "collateral" branches, such as the subscapular nerve, the thoracodorsal nerve, and the long thoracic nerve,[1] that leave the plexus at various points along its length.

Roots The five roots are the five anterior rami o Unlike IEC connectors, they are not coded for voltage; users must ensure that the voltage rating of the equipment is compatible with the mains supply. Interconnection couplers allow a p Bungee cords equipped with metal hooks A child on a bungee cord device in Moscow, Russia A bungee cord sometimes spelled bungie , also known as a shock cord occy strap or octopus strap in Australian common usage is an elastic cord composed of one or more elastic strands forming a core, usually covered in a woven cotton or polypropylene sheath.

The sheath does not materially extend elastically, but it is braided with its strands spiralling around the core so that a longitudinal pull causes it to squeeze the core, transmitting the core's elastic compression to the longitudinal extension of the sheath and cord. Specialized bungees, such as some used in bungee jumping, may be made entirely of elastic strands. Bungee cords have been used to provide a lightweight suspension for aircraft undercarriages from before World War I, and are still used on many small homebuilt aircraft where weight remains critical.

A newly wedded couple carry wedding cords in their hands The traditional wedding cord, also known as the wedding lasso, is a piece of wedding paraphernalia used in some Christian Catholic wedding ceremonies. This is actually a representation of a loop of rosary beads made out of white satin or silk. During the wedding proper, this is traditionally formed into a figure-of-eight shape, and then placed around the neck areas of the bride and the groom after they have made their wedding vows, and are already kneeling on pillows for the pronouncement of a wedding prayer.

This cord symbolizes lifetime unity or the everlasting union of the bride and groom when they officially become husband and wife, as well as a symbol of marital protection; while the loops formed signifies their love for one another. After the wedding, this marital twine is typically kept by the bride as a wedding souvenir. Use of the traditional wedding cord for weddings is common in Hispanic countries such as Mexico, the Philippines, and Spain.

The lateral cord is a division of the brachial plexus. Cervical spinal nerves C5, C6, and C7 contribute to it. The lateral cord gives rise to the following nerves: The lateral pectoral nerve to the pectoralis major muscle The musculocutaneous nerve which innervates the biceps muscle The median nerve, partly. The other part comes from the medial cord.

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Additional images Lateral cord Brachial plexus. External links Atlas image: Spinal cord compression develops when the spinal cord is compressed by bone fragments from a vertebral fracture, a tumor, abscess, ruptured intervertebral disc or other lesion. It is regarded as a medical emergency independent of its cause, and requires swift diagnosis and treatment to prevent long-term disability due to irreversible spinal cord injury.

Lhermitte's sign intermittent shooting electrical sensation and hyperreflexia may be present. Tumors that commonly cause cord compress A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body.


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In the human body there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each side of the vertebral column. These are grouped into the corresponding cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal regions of the spine. The spinal nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system. Structure Spinal nerve Typical spinal nerve location Each spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, formed from the combination of nerve fibers from its dorsal and ventral roots.

Sensory systems

The dorsal root is the afferent sensory root and carries sensory information to the brain. The ventral root is the efferent motor root and carries motor information from the brain. The spinal nerve emerges from the spinal column through an opening intervertebral foramen between adja Japanese spinning tops with pullstrings A jumping jack toy with pullstring Chainsaw starter handle attached to a pullcord Pullcord on a transit bus Pullchain on a train emergency brake A pullstring pull string, pull-string , pullcord pull cord, pull-cord , or pullchain pull-chain, pull chain is a string, cord, or chain wound on a spring-loaded spindle that engages a mechanism when it is pulled.

It is most commonly used in toys and motorized equipment. More generally and commonly, a pullstring can be any type of string, cord, rope, or chain, attached to an object in some way used to pull or mechanically manipulate part of it. Toys Perhaps the simplest pullstring toy is the yo-yo c.

The jumping jack c. Ancient Egypt is a more complicated animated puppet paper doll that uses a pullstring to move its arms and legs up and down. Trompos and some spinning tops use a string that is wound around the top and then pulled to make it spin. More recent toys include dolls, such as Chatty C Myelomalacia is a pathological term referring to the softening of the spinal cord. Although clinical signs of myelomalacia are observed within the onset start of paraplegia, sometimes Cord topic Look up cord in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Spina Bifida

Spinal cord topic The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular structure made up of nervous tissue, that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column. Member feedback about Spinal cord: Sensory systems Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Spina Bifida butterflyinspirit. Cord unit topic A cord of wood The cord is a unit of measure of dry volume used to measure firewood and pulpwood in the United States and Canada.

Member feedback about Cord unit: Units of volume Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Numerical analysis Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Spermatic cord topic The spermatic cord is the cord-like structure in males formed by the vas deferens ductus deferens and surrounding tissue that runs from the deep inguinal ring down to each testicle.

Member feedback about Spermatic cord: Mammal male reproductive system Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Umbilical cord topic In placental mammals, the umbilical cord also called the navel string,[1] birth cord or funiculus umbilicalis is a conduit between the developing embryo or fetus and the placenta. Member feedback about Umbilical cord: Spinal cord injury topic A spinal cord injury SCI is damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function. Member feedback about Spinal cord injury: Traumatology Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Spina Bifida butterflyinspirit.

Detonating cord topic Reinforced detonation cord filled with pentaerythritol tetranitrate PETN United States Navy explosive ordnance disposal technicians double stranding detonation cord Detonating cord also called detonation cord, detacord, det. Member feedback about Detonating cord: Explosives Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Cord blood topic Cord blood umbilical cord blood is blood that remains in the placenta and in the attached umbilical cord after childbirth.

Member feedback about Cord blood: Developmental biology Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Parachute cord topic A 10 ft 3 m coil of commercial parachute cord The sheath of this commercial parachute cord is braided from 32 strands and the core made up of seven two-ply yarns. Member feedback about Parachute cord: Parachuting Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Tethered spinal cord syndrome topic Tethered cord syndrome TCS or occult spinal dysraphism sequence refers to a group of neurological disorders that relate to malformations of the spinal cord.

Member feedback about Tethered spinal cord syndrome: Spinal cord disorders Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Spina Bifida butterflyinspirit. Member feedback about The Cord: