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This finding suggests that having more healthy practices, even among people with relatively few healthy practices, may help maintain a higher level of functional capacity. Several limitations to the present study warrant consideration.

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First, participants in this study were randomly selected age- and sex-stratified non-institutionalized individuals from the community, but their health status or concerns might be higher than non-participants. Participants in medical checkups within the last year generally have healthier life practices and more often rate their own health as good or normal compared with non-participants Mitsuhashi et al.

In addition, deaths occurred during follow-up in almost cases of the participants at baseline. In fact, a history of hypertension and heart disease among study subjects was associated with unhealthy behaviors Table 1. Second, we assessed health practices from self-reported questionnaires or physical assessments only at baseline. Healthy practices such as shorter sleeping hours, weight loss loss of body mass , and lower physical activity change with age Montgomery and Dennis, , Zhu et al.

Thus a loss in the total number of healthy practices might be inevitable among the elderly.

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However, some practices such as having ikigai life worth living or eating a variety of foods are changeable practices when someone has an incentive to improve health, even in the elderly. Third, some variables we chose in this study might not be the best indicators of individual health practices. For example, the METs score is not widely understood in the community; therefore, it would be better to assess walking hours or number of daily steps. Considering more appropriate or modifiable life-style related practices depends in the ethnicity or culture would be helpful; thus, future studies that address these factors are needed.

Although not all healthy practices were positively associated with higher-level functional capacity, the accumulation of good practices within individuals was associated with higher-level functional capacity. These results suggest that more healthy practices may help people maintain functional capacity, which may contribute to future better health and less disability.

In conclusion, our results indicate that modifying unhealthy practices, one by one, and maintaining good health practices should be recommended even in community dwellers as a strategy to prevent a decline in higher-level functional capacity. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. We wish to express our sincere appreciation to the study participants and our colleagues in the NILS-LSA for completing the survey for this study.

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National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Prev Med Rep v.

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Published online Dec Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Abstract This study aimed to clarify the effects of the accumulation of 8 modifiable practices related to health, including smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, sleeping hours, body mass index, dietary diversity, ikigai life worth living , and health checkup status, on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers. Healthy practices, Higher-level functional capacity, Social role, Community dwellers, Japan.

Introduction In today's aging society, we face the serious concern of extending the healthy lifespan of the elderly. Healthy practices Information was gathered from physical examinations, dietary assessments, and self-administered questionnaires with reference to healthy practices, as proposed by Breslow and Breslow , the Global Burden of Disease Study , and studies focused on health checkups among Japanese Seino et al. Statistical analysis All statistical analyses were conducted using Statistical Analysis System software version 9.

Results A total of subjects were included in the study. Table 1 Baseline characteristics of subjects according to the total number of healthy practices in the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging, Japan — Open in a separate window.

1. Introduction

Table 2 Odds ratios for higher-level functional capacity decline according to total number of healthy practices at baseline. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

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Discussion This study provides longitudinal evidence over a year period in community-dwelling Japanese that the accumulation of healthy practices was negatively associated with the risk for a decline in higher-level functional capacity, especially in social role. Conflicts of interest None.

Acknowledgements We wish to express our sincere appreciation to the study participants and our colleagues in the NILS-LSA for completing the survey for this study. Health practices and disability - some evidence from Alameda county. Test-retest variation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence in community-dwelling older people independent in daily living toward individual assessment of functional capacity.

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