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Hence, most of the results concerning this geometry are 9 summarized in the sequel. We essentially indicate succintly the cornerstones which are absolutely necessary for our explanations and descriptions of the model. In particular, this involves that no physical law changes occur shifting from a given frame embeded in a gravitational field to a uniformly accelerated relative isolated one, as we will recall [25].

We insist on the fact we do local studies, meaning we consider local charts from open subsets of the latter manifolds into a common open subset of Rn. Hence by geometric objects or computations on Rn , we mean local geometric objects or computations on the manifolds M, T M and S.

Also, it is well-known that the mathematical results displayed below are independent of the dimension when greater or equal to 4. Then it follows, from the well-known theorem of H. Weyl on equivalence of conformal structures [6, 19, 18], and because of the Weyl tensor vanishing, that the systems of differential equations 6 and 7 when completed with the latter third order system T , becomes an involutive system of order three.

um filho ter: Topics by

This is the set of our starting equations. It matters to notice that the T system is not included in the above set of PDE. And Thus, it could be considered as an acceleration tensor. And by differentiating the latter, we obtain also: A first question arises about this temperature T0: Can we consider it as the 2. Taub variational principle [29], and the two opposite non-Lorentz invariant temperature transformation laws given on the one hand by A. Planck [32], and on the other hand by H. It appears that physical interpretations could be made at two scales: Since in this case it might be an acceleration of reference associated to S, could it be the acceleration of the inflation process?

Then this acceleration would describe the cosmic temperature background evolution and perhaps might be equivalently associated to a cosmic attractive or repulsive? Nevertheless we need of course to know the Taylor coefficients. It is from this set of PDE that gauge potentials and fields of interactions could occur. It is none but the least the meaning of formal integrability of socalled involutive systems. Assuming the variation ds with respect to x0 , c0 and c 1 is vanishing, at a given fixed x, is the subset Sc1 cc10 a submanifold of J1?

Since the system of PDE defined by the involutive Pfaff system Pc , namely the c system, is elliptic i. This results of the continuous series s which are convergent whatever the fixed set of given values x, x0 , c0 and c 1. We would obtain easily what we call the second set of differential equations.

Then we give a few definitions to proceed further. More precisely, for instance, the tensors A and B in 21 must be such solutions subsheafs of the PDE We define the operators: Then from all the previous results we easily deduce: It follows that the integrals in 21 would define a deformation class in the 19 first non-linear Spencer cohomology space of deformations of global sections from Rn to a sheaf of Lie groups Gc [21, 23]. This system is defined by the first two sets of PDE 15a and 15b. For this system of Lie equations, we will begin with recalling well-known results but in the framework of the present context.

Applying the same reasoning than in the previous subsection, we first obtain the following results, which hold up to order two: In this sequence a back connection b1 and a connection c1: We rather give a way of computations to get them if really necessary! For instance, in the conformal case, we begin with the equations 29 of order three since the conformal Pfaff system is defined on J2 Rn. It underlines the skew-symmetry property of these characteristic manifolds which appear to be symmetric spaces.

The spacetime M unfolded by gravitation and electromagnetism Again, in view of physical interpretations, we put a spotlight on the tensor B. We are faced with a question: In such a process, each occurrence of a creation or annihilation of singularities of the gauge potentials A and B, would be related to a non-trivial unfolding, i. Coming from a vanishing Weyl tensor to a non-vanishing one, is in accordance with some Big-Bang concepts.

Furthermore, from relations 23 , we have the relations: Then, let i be a differential map i: We define the relativistic action S1 by: In the weak fields limit, we obtain: This generalized precession could give a possible origin for the creation of anyons in high-Tc superconductors [44] and might be an alternative to Chern-Simon theory. Nevertheless, equations 41 are deduced irrespective of the conditions We would then define a new action: The associated Euler-Lagrange equations would be analogous to 41 , but with additional terms coming from the precession.

From this point of view, the Lagrange multipliers appear to be non-homogeneous coordinates of these projective spaces. Then the variational calculus would also lead to additional precession equations giving torsion as mentioned in comments of chapter 1. Again, torsion is not related to unification but to parallel transports on manifolds which is a well-known geometrical fact [45]. Consequently the motion defined by the second term in the r. The latter separation would insure either some simplicity i.

In the latter case, one could say, a somewhat provocative way, that special relativity covariance would have to be satisfied, as much as possible, by physical laws. More precisely, we determined the difference between these two sets of formal solutions. We studied these two systems of Lie equations because of their occurrence in physics, particularly in electromagnetism as well as in Einsteinian relativity. On the basis of this concept of deployment, we made the assumption that the unfolding is related to the existence of two kind of spacetimes, namely: We shown that not all the given metrics on S can be admissible in order to have such spacetime M.

Then the deployment evolution can be trivial or not depending on occurences of spacetime singularities of the potentials of interaction forces parametrizing or dating what can be considered somehow as a kind of spacetime history. Nevertheless, in the present framework, a few physical exotic quantum effects and experiments might be revisited from a classical viewpoint: Indeed, the first summation in the r. In other words, A defines a set of physical observables and, as a consequence, the symmetric part of its 4-gradient would have to define also other physical observables.

These latter never appear in classical electrodynamics and in usual classical physics. Jewish Publication Society, , pp. Westminster Press, , p. This Psalm begins in a promising fashion, mentioning the importance of children, which are a primary concern of women throughout the Hebrew Bible. Verse 3 is totally gender neutral: In the next verse, however, the imagery becomes much more masculine and phallic: This should not imply that women did not participate in the cult in Note how Gerstenberger, 'Weibliche', p. Psalm 55 und Gewalt gegen Frauen', in Hedwig Jahnow et al. Kohlhammer, , pp.

On men and arrows, see Harry A. Hoffner, Jr, 'Symbols for Masculinity and Femininity: This was suggested to me by Dr Bonna Haberman. Routledge, , p. It is very difficult to reconstruct institutions related to the cult in ancient Israel; most of what we do know comes from the Priestly source s , which presents a particular, perhaps ideal viewpoint. Yet even in P women are not excluded; as noted by Mayer I. Gruber,67 the priestly text explicitly mentions the possibility of women becoming Nazirites, which involved not only a particularly close relationship to Yhwh, but access to the Temple for sacrifices.

I also concur with Phyllis Bird, who, in analyzing the place of women in the cult, concerning the place of women in the Israelite cult distinguishes between women in the religious hierarchy and female lay participation. During the period reflected in the Old Testament sources there appear to have been a number of changes within the cultus and in its relationship to the population as a whole that had significance for women's participation.

The progressive movement from multiple cultic centers to a central site that finally claimed sole legitimacy and control over certain ritual events necessarily restricted the participation of women in pilgrim feasts and limited opportunities for women to seek guidance, release and consolation at local shrines, which were declared illegitimate or demolished. For one aspect of the disparity between P and other conceptions of the cult, see Israel Knohl, 'Between Voice and Silence: BRETTLER Women and Psalms 43 the distance or sharpening the boundary between the professional guardians of the cultus and the larger circle of male Israelites who comprised the religious assembly.

Reorganization of the cultus under the monarchy and again in the postexilic period appears to have limited or eliminated roles earlier assigned to women. On the other hand, there appears to have been a move most clearly evident in the Deuteronomic legislation to bring women more fully and directly into the religious assembly, so that the congregation is redefined as a body of lay men and women. As the priesthood becomes more powerful and specialized, the primary cultic distinction or boundary within the community becomes between priest and laity rather than between male and female.

It is likely, for example, that the very difficult text in Judges 11 concerning Jephthah's vow, which notes a ritual in which Jephthah and her women friends go to the mountains and bewail the daughter of Jephthah's maidenhood, reflects such a ritual. In any case, the story does reflect women functioning religiously within their own world, far from 'official' religion. Scholars Press, ; see for example p. Brill, , pp. Note that in The terms 'popular' and 'official religion' must be used with caution; see J. For example, what did the ancient Israelite woman do when she, for example, wanted to pray for children or thank God for their birth?

The model of Gen. The first two chapters of Samuel offer two important examples of a woman praying that help to clarify the nature of female prayer in ancient Israel. These chapters have a long history, and are not a unified text, and are certainly not a text which comes from the period of Samuel. In constructing these ideologies, biblical authors either aim at verisimilitude, that is, they attempt to reconstruct earlier institutions as they believe they might have existed, or they are anachronistic, assuming that institutions have not fundamentally changed, and retrojecting contemporaneous institutions back into the past.

This means that the social institutions found in 1 Sam. The period that they reflect is unimportant for what follows; what is crucial is that the institutions depicted in the text likely reflect some reality. The author or editor, who depicted Hannah as praying in a certain way, would have created a scene which was consistent with the practices that he knew or imagined on some basis.

Coleson and Victor H. Eisenbrauns, , pp. BRETTLER Women and Psalms 45 affliction of your maidservant and remember me, and do not forget your maidservant, giving your maidservant a male child, then I will give him to Yhwh for his whole life, and a razor shall not go up on his head'". This prayer is in prose, using the form of a vow, a genre that we know from Num. Eli's reaction to this prayer is well known; he thinks this pray-er is drunk. This is because Hannah prayed silently—silent reading after all was quite unusual until the modern period,75 and one opinion in the Mishnah, for example, states that certain prayers must be said audibly so that the pray-er can hear them m.

There is nothing in the text to suggest that Eli had a problem with a woman praying. Why then did the editor put it in Hannah's mouth? Certainly, as several recent literary interpreters have noted, it is no accident that a psalm concerning the monarchy is placed at the beginning of a book that deals with the rise of the monarchy,78 but it is doubtful if that is a sufficient reason for this psalm's placement.

Even if one sides with these interpreters, the question must still be asked: Achtemeier, 'Omne verbum sonat: A Literary Study of the Deuteronomic History. Bailey, The Redemption of Yhwh: See the extensive royal connections developed in Polzin, Samuel and the Deuteronomist, pp. Yehezkel Kaufman, The History of Israelite Religion, II Jerusalem and Tel 46 Gender and Law compose, expressed the person's individual predicament, while individuals also had recourse to poetic prayer because it was poetic and 'official' and put them in continuity with other worshippers, past, present, and future.

Thus, from the editor's perspective, Hannah could recite the prayer in ch. The difference between Hannah's spontaneous prose prayer in ch. When we compare the [prose] prayers in the Bible to the psalms we see that in the prayers, there is not even a single word which is inappropriate to the given situation, in contrast to the psalms. The prayer of Hannah 1 Sam. A hint to the context may be found only in v. This verse served as the basis for Aviv: University of California Press, The issue of free versus fixed prayer is a major theme of the classic work by Friedrich Heiler, Prayer: A Study in the History and Psychology of Religion trans.

Samuel McComb; New York: Oxford University Press, Vow and Desire I Sam. Van Gorcum, , p. See also Clarence J. I use quotation marks to make it clear that I am referring to the literary Hannah rather than the historical Hannah; see my comments above about the historicity of this pericope. It suggests that psalms could accommodate women and their experiences, though there is no evidence for even a single psalm specifically tailored to them. No psalm singles out women's experiences, though a woman might find many ways to connect to specific aspects of certain psalms, just as Hannah is connected to only a small part of 1 Samuel 2.

Thus, one could imagine many situations in which a woman might have wanted to recite an 'official', ready-made psalm rather than composing her own prayer, and in certain circumstances, would have had to settle for a psalm that dealt with her situation in a most minor or indirect fashion. As suggested by the example of 1 Samuel 2, the recitation of particular psalms by women might have involved saying sections that were irrelevant or inappropriate. This is not at all unusual in the course of prayer—how often is the entirety of a statutory prayer relevant to a particular situation?

The pray-er effectively brackets the irrelevant or even the offensive sections, while concentrating on the part that is appropriate to the issue at hand, no matter how small the reference to that issue might be within the larger prayer. To give an example from traditional Judaism: Though there has been some discussion in the halakhic literature concerning whether women should say this phrase,85 it is typically said by women, though I doubt that it is at the center of their thoughts as they recite the grace.

One can even wonder if a woman could recite Psalm as either a prayer for fertility or as a prayer of thanksgiving after giving birth, concentrating on v. This model of secondary usage of psalms, where a particular psalm is See Orah Hayyim Especially apt to our context is Childs's observation that the superscriptions show the text's ability 'to address the changing context of the community'. In closing this exploration of Hannah's prayer, I would note that the case of Hannah, a woman, praying, is not totally isolated. There are over ten cases where women pray; for example, in Ruth 4.

Thus, to fill in the picture, it is important to turn to analogies from extra-biblical sources which represent women's voices in a clearer fashion. Analogies are fundamentally useful, but fundamentally dangerous. To what extent may we construct an ideal or typical pattern of female prayer or spirituality, and assume that ancient Israel fitted this pattern?

I certainly recognize the dangers of the analogies I am about to propose; given the paucity of the biblical evidence, I feel that they are worth pursuing, though caution must be used. See the many works cited in Erhard S. Childs, 'Psalms Titles and Midrashic Exegesis', p. BRETTLER Women and Psalms 49 My initial analogy is from a much later period in Judaism the sixteenth through nineteenth centuries , where there is an entire genre of Yiddish prayers called tkhines91 recited primarily by women, and in some cases, written by women as well.

In content, they include prayers that 'hallow women's biological lives and social roles'. This is a borrowing from the Hebrew mrnn, 'supplications'. Translations from the Yiddish Northvale, NJ: Arthur Green; New York: Crossroad, , pp. Wayne State University Press, , pp. State University of New York Press, , pp. A Reform Jewish Quarterly 40 Fall , pp. I would like to thank Professor Weissler for sending me offprints of these articles.

Jewish woman's prayer in the vernacular was also discussed by an earlier generation of scholarship; see especially Schechter, 'Woman in Temple and Synagogue', pp. Weissler, The Tkhines and Women's Prayer', p. Klirs, The Merit of Our Mother, pp. For tkhines from the Western European for special occasions connected to women's lives, see Weissler, Traditional Yiddish Literature', pp. On tkhines related to commandments connected to women's 50 Gender and Law These prayers express a wide variety of ways in which a woman might express herself; Chava Weissler has found in them 'a complicated web of resistance and accommodation, valorization and abnegation'.

Especially useful in this context is the Women's prayerbook from Italy edited by Rabbi Nina Beth Cardin as Out of the Depths I Call to You,91 a prayerbook that is representative of other contemporaneous siddurim. Reading through the siddur, one immediately feels the pull between a pray-er's desire to find a new spirituality that fits women's needs, and the counter-desire to be anchored in traditional, authoritative male , texts.

The result is that in the midst of quite creative liturgy, biblical verses or chapters are appropriated in the most unexpected ways. For example, while separating out Hallah, a woman is to recite Psalm It becomes appropriate because it contains mention of v. It might also not be too far-fetched to imagine that since the term "["11 in bodies, see Weissler, 'Mitzvot Built into the Body: Tkhines for Niddah, Pregnancy, and Childbirth'.

Weissler, 'Women's Studies and Women's Prayers', p. Riverhead Books, contains citations of many such prayers and perpetuates this genre of prayer for women. Cardin, Out of the Depths, pp. Thus, a combination of evocative terms, which in their 'original' context had nothing to do with ritual baths or intercourse, allowed the psalm to be recast for a new context. This is quite similar to an editor finding the royal psalm appropriate to Hannah, largely because of the reference to the barren woman giving birth to seven children.

In this context, it is noteworthy that royal psalms play an especially important role in this prayerbook. For example, Psalm 20, which states 'now I know that the LORD has saved his anointed one irnDQ ' is used in the ritual before going to the Mikveh and at the onset of labor. In addition to these Yiddish and Italian prayers for women, there are several Aramaic prayers that take the form of magical incantations.

These typically derive from the Cairo Genizah, and reflect 'the magical traditions of eighth- to thirteenth-century Mediterranean Jewry'. The spectrum of themes and corresponding magical acts contained in the books of magic is, as might be expected, very broad. If my preliminary Jastrow, , p. Satlow, Turning the Dish: Schiffman and Michael D.

Sheffield Academic Press, , p. Schafer, 'Jewish Magic Literature', p. An important role is also played by themes connected with the relationship between man and woman, thus all possible sorts of love charms. In the name of HYH, HWH, and YHYH, I have adjured and decreed upon you, O zodiacal sign Leo, to arise with all might and strength, force and power, to prevail against all harmful spirits and those which cause pain and sickness to the woman Habibah bint Zuhra; to represent her in prayer and petition before the King of kings and angels, the Holy One, blessed be he; to drive away all kings of demons and demonesses, lilis and liliths, evil diseases, harmful male spirits and harmful female spirits, and evil spirits, male and female; and every sort of fear and trembling, faintheartedness and feebleness of the heart, and heart seizure, and any kind of pain in her limbs or her sinews so that she be healthy and protected from any harm for all time.

Specifically, if there be within her any of the seven spirits which enter the wombs of women and deform their offspring, that she will not abort the fruit of her womb And furthermore, I adjure and decree upon you, all sorts of evil diseases, and evil pains, every kind of nausea and dysentery, indisposition, pain and infirmity within the body of the woman Habibah bint Zuhra, in the name o f.

Therefore, fulfill this adjuration so that a blessing of goodness may befall you. This brings me to my second area of analogy, which is chronologically more satisfactory, namely ancient Mesopotamia, where many of the prayers connected to women are considered 'incantations', connected to the world of magic. The following incantation is used to introduce Tikva Frymer-Kensky's new book, Motherprayer.

With tissue of muscle, the birthling was formed. In the waters of the turbulent and fearful sea, In the waters of the distant sea, where the child's limbs are ties, into the midst of which the eye of the sun does not shine— there the god Asarluhi saw him. He opened the bonds by which he was bound. He prepared the road for him, opened the route. The way is open for you, the way is clear.

She will assist you, She the creator, She who created us all. To the locks she will say, "Be loosened", the door sills are apart, the door is raised. As a desired child, bring yourself forth. An Illustrated Dictionary Austin: University of Texas Press, , pp. Lamashtu appears in post-biblical Jewish tradition as Lilith. Exceedingly great lamashtu, do not approach this person!

Be adjured by heaven, be adjured by earth! The prevalence of such material outside of Israel reinforces the distinction that must be made between ancient Israel and biblical Israel: I would wonder in this case if Cogan is sharing a tendency which Frederick H. Sheffield Academic Press, properly points to—minimizing the influence of magic on ancient Israel. While I think that Cryer overstates the case for magic in the Hebrew Bible, it is very likely that magic played a major role in ancient Israel, as it did elsewhere in the ancient Near Eastern world.

The meaning of the inscription and the pictures continues to be debated; for one reconstruction, see William G. Dever, 'Asherah, Consort of Yahweh? For a summary of various viewpoints, see Steve A. Wiggins, A Reassessment of 'Asherah': A Study BRETTLER Women and Psalms 55 This survey of Mesopotamian material suggests that women's prayers were often performed at times of great danger to women, and not surprisingly, like the amulet from the Genizah, combined magic and religion to accomplish their results.

This possibility certainly would have existed in ancient Israel, but would have not been tolerated by biblical authors, most of whom are drastically anti-magic. This is especially true of the authors of legal sections, where we find catalogues of prohibited magical practices e. Yet such practices certainly did exist, as is seen from the story of Saul visiting the woman!

Women are also depicted in the Bible as centrally involved in several of the rituals described in Susan Ackerman's study of late Judaean popular religion. Finally, one must also consider the possibility that various types of ancient Israelite female piety were not expressed in words; here I think of the rituals described in detail in Susan Starr Sered's Women as Ritual Experts: Schmidt, 'The Aniconic Tradition: Eerdmans, , pp. Schechter, 'Woman in Temple and Synagogue', pp. In this context, it is worth considering whether 2 Kgs 4.

The previous comments suggest great caution in deriving implications concerning women praying in the cult from the male-centered nature of Psalms , , or for that matter, from the majority of psalms. Finally, analogies suggest the possible existence of a whole type of specifically female prayer or ritual, which the Bible, due to its nature and ideology, would not reflect.

Thus, the material suggests that although women might have been largely excluded in the psalms, most likely because psalms were composed by male elites and reflect male ideologies, this would not exclude women from reciting the psalms or from participating in various forms of Israelite prayer. Dempsey Introduction In recent years, Ezekiel 16 has become a popular text for study, and its metaphorical language continues to stimulate lively discussions and heated debates. But few studies, discussions, and debates have focused on the text's gender-specific imagery1 and the impact that it has on the text's theological message when such imagery is viewed in conjunction with certain biblical laws inherent in Ezekiel 16 that come to the fore as the text's storyline is unraveled.

For the re readers2 of the text, Ezekiel 16 not only contains some startling theological assertions but also raises some pertinent questions as to whether or not Ezekiel's prophetic message is truly revelatory with respect to who God is, the manner in which God interacts with 1. JSOT Press, ], pp.

On the other hand, R. Weems The Lady Is a Tramp: Rhetoric and Audience in Ezekiel', in Battered Love: Fortress Press, ], pp. Weems's study is an overview and not a detailed analysis of chs. One can assume that the text of Ezekiel, and most probably the other prophetic books, was read and reread repeatedly by editors, redactors, copyists, the communit ies for which it was written, and people today. Thus, ' re readers' includes all people who have read and continue to read the text throughout time.

Using a synchronic approach, this study examines Ezekiel 16 from both a historical and literary perspective. However, its specific focus is on metaphor and related imagery and those passages where biblical law and divine judgment have an impact on one gender and vice versa, on account of the text's pervading gender-specific imagery. The study also looks at how various metaphors and images work within the 'conversation' between the speaking characters, namely, Ezekiel and Yhwh, and their audience within the world of the text, namely Jerusalem, and the 'conversation' between the implied author of the text and the text's actual readership.

Finally, the study draws some literary, ethical, and theological conclusions. Some Literary Considerations Ezekiel 16 is a 'divine' oracle that contains 'a lengthy accusation couched in allegorical terms' vv. In general the oracle conveys, because of its metaphors and imagery, a most disconcerting message, one that is, for the most part, derogatory, discriminatory, harsh, and violent. Michael Glazier, , p. For further discussion of Ezek.

Clements, Ezekiel Louisville, KY: Word Books], , p. Darr, 'Ezekiel's Justifications of God: To appreciate the prophetic agenda, we must distinguish between ancient norms of handling marital infidelity and the shocking use to which Ezekiel put them. It was a vehement ploy to communicate the necessity of the fall of Jerusalem, dragging Judah down with it'. I agree, in part, with Allen's remarks, but whether or not one can 'appreciate the prophetic agenda' with its 'disparaging depiction of the female For further discussion, see Allen, Ezekiel , pp.

Part 2, a diatribe vv. Verses , a message-reception formula v. I 8 and a command v.


With these verses, the implied author of the text makes clear to the re readers 1 that what follows is indeed a word from Yhwh; 2 that Ezekiel is the recipient of Yhwh's word, one that he is divinely charged to proclaim; and 3 that Jerusalem is a city—a people—that stands accused before Yhwh. Various scholars have proposed a variety of divisions for Ezekiel 16; see, e. Zimmerli, Ezekiel Hermeneia; Philadelphia: Fortress Press, , p. A Panorama of Passions', in J.

Four Quarters, , pp. For further discussion of vv. Liturgical Press, , p. To be noted is that Craven begins the unit at v. See Allen, Ezekiel , p. With respect to Ezekiel 16 in general and vv. He assumes as widespread the cruel but often regrettably practised offense of leaving an infant girl to die at birth, because families preferred boys. He takes for granted the degree of women's dependence on the masculine elements of society, fathers and husbands. To pursue this theme further, however, would require a more extensive discussion concerning the patriarchal structure of the biblical social world, a feature that is widely evident in the Old Testament.

Ezekiel certainly appears to accept, if not especially to endorse, such attitudes, and it is certainly open to discussion whether his priestly upbringing may have further encouraged them. Ezekiel may have accepted and endorsed patriarchal attitudes but so did the final redactors and editors who shaped Ezekiel 16 into its present form. Furthermore, Ezekiel's audience and re readers are presented with an image of a male prophet proclaiming to female Jerusalem what 'her' abominations are.

It is very clear from the imagery that a woman, portrayed and symbolized by Jerusalem, is a sinner in need of redemption and restoration. Before condemning Jerusalem vv. Ezekiel's audience and re readers are now presented with a series of other metaphors ascribed to Jerusalem. As Yhwh rehearses Jerusalem's past in allegorical language, Ezekiel's audience and re readers learn that Jerusalem was once a 'foundling child' vv.

Responsive to Yhwh's expressed desire that she should live v. However, beginning with v. Yhwh also describes Jerusalem as an idolater vv. In his confrontation with his wife Jerusalem vv.

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Yhwh then says she is like her mother, a Hittite woman who abhorred her husband and children; she is the 'daughter of her mother' vv. And, as if that were not a pointed enough statement, Yhwh verbally jabs Jerusalem again by reminding her that she is also the 'sister' of her sisters, namely Samaria, her older sister and Sodom, her younger sister, both of whom Yhwh says loathed their husbands and children vv.

Jerusalem, the middle child in the family of, presumably, three daughters, is then accused of having followed the bad examples of her sisters, which led Furthermore, those who, for whatever reason—be it conscious or unconscious— choose not to comment on the offensive use of female imagery and patriarchal attitudes that underlie Ezekiel 16 are, in their own way, also accepting and endorsing patriarchal attitudes.

Yhwh next accuses her of indirectly justifying their deeds v. By having Yhwh draw particular attention to Jerusalem's family situation, the authorial voice behind vv. Then and only then, will he take her back. Yes, Yhwh promises to take back his idolatrous, adulterous whore of a wife, and he will establish a new covenant with her. The silent voice of Jerusalem throughout the story is deafening. It is this story of Ezekiel 16, with its gender-specific metaphors, that has tremendous implications and serious ramifications for Ezekiel's audience and re readers, especially when woman Jerusalem's crimes are viewed in relationship to biblical law and divine judgment.

In all three subunits, and throughout the entire allegory, Yhwh speaks through the prophet Ezekiel. The address begins with a messenger formula: Here Yhwh is portrayed as quoting his own words addressed to Jerusalem. From Yhwh through Ezekiel, Jerusalem learns about her roots and early days of life, namely, that she: With these verses, Ezekiel's audience and re readers are being asked not only to recall how Jerusalem started out as a foundling child,10 a 'foreigner' of female gender but also to remember Jerusalem's frail, helpless, and unloved condition in her early years.

The vivid description in vv. The metaphorical language of vv. First, the image of Jerusalem as a female brings to the fore the reality of how children, particularly female children, were treated in some ancient societies. The focus on Jerusalem's ethnic background and the mention that she is responsible for abominations see v. Cody notes that 'the pejorative reminder that the Israelites were originally indistinguishable from their Canaanite neighbors prepares the accusation of typically Canaanite religious abominations hurled in vv. The hearers of the oracle can grasp the insinuation: So then, Jerusalem was abandoned not only by her mother but by her father as well.

John Knox Press, ], p. For Ezekiel's audience, the focus on Jerusalem as a foundling child from a mixed ethnic background also functions as a religious polemic against idols and those who believe in them and live their lives accordingly. Yhwh, Israel's God, who is the living God of life, is the one who takes notice of and cares for people, especially when everyone, including the gods and goddesses of other religions, has abandoned them.

And, the fact that the child is a female makes the lack of care and eventual abandonment even harder to swallow—a mother has rejected her own child, her own daughter. The throwing out of the infant female child into the open field suggests metaphorically that Jerusalem was destined for destruction. The use of this gender-specific metaphor admits of a particular attitude that was prevalent in the ancient Israelite social and patriarchal world.

This attitude is, to some extent, still prevalent today in certain contemporary social and religious spheres. What connections are the re readers of the text being asked to make because of the text's genderspecific metaphors? Fourth, the fact that no eye pitied the abandoned child to care for it out of compassion can be viewed as a serious indictment against the human community, and by extension, an indictment against the child's father as well. Yet, the focus on the absence of care at birth keeps the image of the woman in the forefront and puts the blame primarily on her.

The fact that Yhwh is the speaker in vv. Thus, Ezekiel's audience and re readers are being presented with quite a picture. While this picture can stir up feelings of sadness and guilt on the one hand, it can, on the other hand, enrage others because of 1 its overtly ethnic reference with an implied religious statement, and 2 its gender-specific imagery that is used to shape a story filled with demeaning statements and overtones that create both social and theological problems with respect to how women are viewed in society and how certain group s of people or individuals are viewed by God.

Finally, the fact that Jerusalem was a 'foundling child' has legal ramifications. In the ancient world, whenever a person or object was cast out, the one doing the casting relinquished all rights and obligations to the object cast out. Word Books, , p. The re readers of the text are confronted with the sad fact that the law safeguarded the one who casts out and not the one being cast out.

The metaphor of Jerusalem as a cast out infant makes one realize how vulnerable children were in the ancient world and still are today. Voiceless infant Jerusalem is unprotected by the law after being rejected by her parents in vv. This metaphor with its legal ramifications begs the question, 'Is not Jerusalem's early life situation still happening today in all respects in some circumstances and cultures, particularly, in some cases, when female children are involved'?

Jerusalem hears that 1 the first time Yhwh passed by her, Yhwh took notice of her;15 2 that her life is the result of Yhwh's word, hayi 'Live! Hence, Jerusalem is reminded of Yhwh's care for her. The re readers of the text are given a mixed picture of Yhwh as conveyed by the text's metaphorical language. First, Yhwh is someone who takes notice of small, insignificant outcasts in their struggles. In the case of Ezekiel 16, Yhwh cares for Jerusalem, a foundling child. Second, one sees someone who is rejected, abhorred, abandoned being given the chance for survival and not the kiss of death see v.

Third, Yhwh is someone who watches attentively the growth process. However, the phrase, we'at 'erom we'eryd 'yet, you were naked and bare' v. To be noted is that the word 'erom, 'naked', is used only in Gen. The person responsible for casting renounces any right or obligation toward the object cast. A remote parallel might be the story of the endangered ancestress Gen. Is the authorial voice that shaped the text of Ezekiel 16 making some sort of statement here in v.

And what are Ezekiel's listeners and re readers to suppose, especially since it is in reference to, metaphorically, a female as was the case in part in Gen. Fourth, Yhwh's word is seen as efficacious. The command to live goes forth, and the foundling child lives and grows! With respect to vv. Craven notes that 'the child lay beside the road, unloved and unattended, when God came by and performed the duties of a midwife'. Nor is there any evidence that Yhwh acted maternally or paternally as in Hos. Why did Yhwh not pick up baby Jerusalem who was flailing around in her birth blood?

Why did Yhwh not bathe her, salt her, swaddle her, and hold her close to his cheek? What are the re readers of the text to suppose?

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  • Are they to suppose that Yhwh did not do these things because Jerusalem is, metaphorically, a little girl and not a little boy as is the metaphorical image in Hos. So far, in Ezekiel 16, Jerusalem has yet to be cared for physically by Yhwh. Such care on the part of Yhwh does occur in vv. What kind of picture of Yhwh and Yhwh's relationship with Jerusalem is being portrayed by the authorial voice that shaped the text? And, what is Ezekiel's audience and re readers to assume about Yhwh with regard to Yhwh's supposedly genuine, wholehearted care of Jerusalem? Then, he bathed her, anointed her v.

    Von Gott will ich nicht lassen, BuxWV 220 (Buxtehude, Dietrich)

    From Yhwh's comments, Jerusalem is made to realize that she was chosen by Yhwh, that she belonged to Yhwh because of Yhwh's pledge of himself to her and because of their covenant, and that all that she is and all that she has, both materially and physically, is on account of Yhwh. The re readers of the text now see Yhwh as a God of tender love who is generous, caring, benevolent, and committed to Jerusalem. But Yhwh's espousal to Jerusalem presents a dilemma.

    On the one hand, Yhwh's deeds and compliments could be seen and heard as gestures of kindness. On the other hand they could be seen as patronizing since there is no response, verbal or otherwise, by Jerusalem to Yhwh and Yhwh's deeds. The relationship is not portrayed as a mutual one. And the woman is seen to be someone without an identity independent of what Yhwh has turned her into—the resemblance of a queen who would be fit for him, 'the king'.

    Through the metaphorical language and imagery used in vv. Then, a man's responsibility is to care for the woman vv. The woman's fame becomes equated with her beauty v. Beauty, then, in a man's eyes, is equated with the outward appearance of a woman, and she is valued not for her own independent self but for what she has become through the man's care. In essence, the woman becomes a reflection of her husband's care. The description of the relationship that exists in vv. This covenant-marital model is troublesome insofar as the intrinsic dignity and beauty of a woman are not respected, acknowledged, or affirmed.

    Furthermore, the reference to Yhwh washing the blood off of Jerusalem, his wife, is suggestive that the woman was a virgin and the blood was caused by a first coitus. It is monarchical language. The question emerges, 'Does Jerusalem have to become "regal" in order to remain loved by Yhwh? Or might such regal imagery be the result of a particular cultural and social situation that perhaps influenced the writers and rewriters of the text?

    Affirmation Turns to Accusation Ezekiel continues his oracle in vv. Here, as in vv. Yhwh continues to rehearse Jerusalem's past for her, but this time he brings to the fore her abominations vv. The waw adversative signals a shift in tone. She has misused the clothing, jewels, and food he gave to her vv.

    Furthermore, she has forgotten that it was her husband Yhwh who rescued her from death in the days of her youth v. Thus, Jerusalem is guilty of harlotry, idolatry, murder, and forgetfulness. And, one sees For further discussion, see Brownlee, Ezekiel , p. A woman's virginity and evidence of it was an important issue in the ancient Israelite world see, e. Thus, a woman's virginity, an expression of female sexuality, is connected to the law. But whether or not a man is a virgin does not seem to enter into the conversation.


    Yhwh's invective against Jerusalem continues in vv. Here Yhwh again accuses his wife of having played the whore, and now he specifically names her 'lovers': In the midst of these accusations, Yhwh recalls for Jerusalem how he had previously 'chastised' her v. Here, Jerusalem's enemies are also, metaphorically, females—the daughters of the Philistines—whom Yhwh says were ashamed of her lewd conduct. First, Yhwh exclaims to her how sick her heart is that she did so many abominations vv. Let it be entrusted to him; may my body, my soul, my life be given to the Lord our God, may he do as pleases him..

    Das ist ein' sel'ge Stunde, Darin man sein gedenkt. Praise him with heart and mouth -both of which he gave us! It is a blessed hour when we think of him. Otherwise all the time is wasted which we spend on the earth we shall become blessed and remain so in the eternity. Wenn wir geschlafen haben, Wird uns erwecken Gott.