Giapeto , Rea , Dione e Teti Edmund Halley nel fu nominato membro della Royal Society. Tramite i calcoli predisse il successivo passaggio che avvenne puntuale, ma che egli non vide a causa della sua morte. Le conoscenze oramai raggiunte nel campo della meccanica celeste permisero lo sviluppo di teorie legate alla formazione del sistema solare partendo dalla prima teoria esposta: Questa idea venne subito definita come teoria catastrofica. Il catalogo di Messier, per quanto innovativo, presentava delle lacune osservative causate dalla modestia dello strumento usato.
Questa scoperta, che lo fece divenire astronomo del Re, fu totalmente casuale: In questo modo egli teneva ormai in considerazione gli effetti delle perturbazioni causate da altri pianeti su diversi valori come: Nietzsche non solo conosceva molto bene le filosofie precedenti e aveva letto le teorie di Schopenhauer, ma aveva anche una buona conoscenza dei problemi cosmologici.
Questo fenomeno si ripete tutte le volte che sul Sole avviene un brillamento. Il 23 settembre del si ebbe la scoperta di Nettuno. Le vicende legate alla sua scoperta furono piuttosto complesse: La scoperta fu il trionfo della meccanica celeste e dei calcoli matematici. Suppose allora che anche i templi egizi potevano avere degli orientamenti. Le scoperte di Lockyer furono subito apprezzate. Vediamo alcune di queste eccezionali scoperte: Nel gennaio del un gruppo di astronomi guidato da Michael E. Un valido lavoro semplificativo fu portato avanti separatamente da Ejnar Hertzsprung e Henry Norris Russell.
Tuttavia, seppur il diagramma Herztsprung-Russell chiariva le tipologie e i comportamenti delle stelle, restava ancora da capire quale fosse il meccanismo evolutivo e la dinamica interna delle stelle. Successivamente si ebbe conferma che essa emetteva a 3 K: Le sue basi sono state gettate nel quando il fisico teorico Gabriele Veneziano cercando di capire la forza nucleare forte, fece una sensazionale scoperta.
Ai giorni nostri, gli studi in campo cosmologico hanno ricevuto notevoli impulsi da nuove tecniche di studio e da nuove strumentazioni. Proprio la scoperta della cosiddetta cellula di Dio rappresenta un nuovo punto di partenza verso il futuro di una nuova astronomia.
La filosofia delle stelle — prima parte. Il desiderio di conoscenza ha sempre incentivato gli studi astronomici sia per motivazioni religiose o divinatorie, sia per la previsione degli eventi: Un esempio di questa astronomia alle prime armi sono gli orientamenti astronomici dei primi monumenti megalitici come il famoso complesso di Stonehenge, i tumuli di Newgrange, i Menhir e diverse altre costruzioni concepite per la stessa funzione. Nel Neolitico, per meglio memorizzare gli astri, vennero attribuiti agli asterismi somiglianze e nomi, non sempre antropomorfi, alludenti ad aspetti ed elementi della vita agricola e pastorale.
Difficile citarli tutti, cercheremo di elencarne alcuni. Filolao , della scuola di Pitagora, che sostenne un modello di sistema solare non geocentrico: Egli pose il problema astronomico ai suoi allievi in questi termini: Ma alcuni corpi celesti come il Sole, la Luna, i Pianeti, vagano attraverso il cielo e seguono cammini complessi, con inclusione di moti retrogradi.
Essendo tali oggetti corpi celesti dovranno sicuramente muoversi in maniera conforme al loro rango elevato. Quali sono le combinazioni di moti circolari uniformi in grado di spiegare il moto comp lesso dei corpi celesti? Eudosso di Cnido introdusse il concetto di sfere omocentriche, ossia di un universo diviso in sfere aventi un unico centro di rotazione in cui si trovava la Terra; su ogni sfera vi era poi incastonato un pianeta con un moto circolare ed uniforme differente da quello degli altri.
In questo modo diede spiegazione dei movimenti retrogradi e degli stazionamenti periodici dei pianeti: Tenendo conto che il Sole ne possedeva tre, si giunge ad un sistema di ben 27 sfere. Seguono la Luna, i due pianeti interni Venere e Mercurio , il Sole, i tre pianeti esterni Marte, Giove e Saturno e infine le stelle del firmamento. Queste due ultime caratteristiche sanciscono un confine tra i luoghi sub-lunari del mutamento la Terra , e i luoghi immutabili il cosmo. Nelle sfere eteree vi erano invece collocate, secondo la concezione astronomica greca fatta propria anche da Platone, in ordine la Luna, Mercurio, Venere, il Sole, Marte, Giove, Saturno, ed infine il cielo delle stelle fisse o Primo mobile , che metteva tutte le altre sfere in movimento.
Autonio di Pitane ca. Aristarco fu anche famoso per il metodo di misura della distanza tra la Terra-Sole. In questo modo, con un semplice calcolo trigonometrico ottenne che la distanza Terra-Sole era 19 volte maggiore di quella tra la Terra e la Luna. Eratostene di Cerene , in Egitto fu invece il primo a misurare la lunghezza del meridiano terrestre.
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E per ovviare al fatto che persino le stelle fisse possedevano un lento moto irregolare, dovuto alla precessione degli equinozi scoperta da Ipparco, introdusse un nono cielo al di sopra di esse, identificandolo col primo mobile aristotelico. Questi popoli, pur non avendo a disposizione strumenti di precisione, intuirono il moto apparente dei pianeti basandosi sulla posizione di alcune stelle di riferimento nel cielo. Scoprirono anche i periodi sinodici dei pianeti Mercurio, Venere, Marte, Giove e Saturno con un margine di errore di pochi giorni, riportando in seguito le previsioni su tavolette effemeridi.
Queste ultime potevano esser consultate per sapere, in qualsiasi momento, quando un pianeta era stazionario in cielo o in opposizione.
Osservando il moto lunare, gli astronomi mesopotamici si accorsero che le fasi avevano tempi ben definiti: Fissarono un calendario di 12 mesi lunari di 29 e 30 giorni alternati in maniera non regolare, dividendo i mesi in settimane. Le conoscenze astronomiche degli egizi, in parte riscontrabili nella costruzione delle piramidi e di altri monumenti allineati secondo la posizione delle stelle, presenta come punto di forza il calendario.
Il trascorrere della vita in Egitto era fortemente legato a quella del fiume Nilo e delle sue periodiche alluvioni, le quali avvenivano con una certa costanza, in genere ogni 11 o 13 lunazioni. Questo calendario, estremamente preciso, venne utilizzato anche da Tolomeo nel II secolo d. Da ricordare che i mesi di 30 giorni erano divisi in settimane di 10 giorni e in 3 stagioni di 4 mesi detti: Sin dal a. Nel IV secolo a. A Gan De sono attribuite anche le prime osservazioni dettagliate di Giove. Il calendario era formato da 18 mesi di 20 giorni con 5 giorni addizionali.
Notevoli anche i progressi nelle previsioni del ciclo stagionale, dei solstizi e degli equinozi. Augusto dava enorme importanza agli oroscopi e il nipote di Tiberio, Germanico, tradusse in latino i Phaenomena del poeta greco Arato di Soli III sec a. Quod solum novisse parum est. Su queste egli imposta una lunga e interessante discussione, riportando e contestando le teorie degli scienziati precedenti. Nam quamdiu solita decurrunt, mgnitudinem rerum consuetudo subducit: Hic, itaque coetus astrorum, quibus immensi corporis pulchritudo distinguitur, populum non convocat: Seneca fu sempre molto interessato alla volta celeste.
Plinio fa questo con un gusto poetico e letterario, dimostrando la sua particolare vocazione per lo studio della volta celeste. I tratti fondamentali di questa concezione verranno ora evidenziati attraverso le parole da lui usate nel Naturalis Historia. Furor est profeto, furor egredi ex eo et, tamquam interna eius cuncta plane iam nota sint, ita scrutari extera, quasi vero mensuram ullius rei possit agere qui sui nesciat, aut mens hominis videre quae mundus ipse non capiat. Valenti astronomi hanno reso possibile il fiorire di questa cultura del cielo: Notte stellata Vincent Willem van Gogh.
Vincent Willem van Gogh , nacque a Zudert, piccolo paesino di anime, in Olanda. Non ebbe infanzia semplice, a causa delle regole ferree, rigorose e le continue pressioni del padre, pastore protestante. Nel fu trasferito nella filiale Goupil di Bruxelles e a maggio in quella di Londra. Vincent diede le dimissioni nel Viveva da solo, era un cristiano devoto e un membro della Chiesa riformata olandese, anche se nutriva un forte amore per tutte le chiese cristiane. Da questo momento van Gogh decise che sarebbe diventato un pittore vero e proprio. I suoi soggetti consistevano in autoritratti, paesaggi, nature morte di fiori, dipinti con cipressi, rappresentazione di campi di grano e girasoli.
Oltre psichiatri hanno tentato di classificare i suoi disturbi, con il risultato di circa 30 diagnosi diverse. Nel periodo di convivenza, Gauguin fa anche un ritratto di van Gogh, intento a dipingere gli amati girasoli, a proposito del quale Vincent esclama: Durante il soggiorno presso la casa di cura, Vincent aveva abbandonato la fede cristiana; questo lo si osserva nelle parole scritte al fratello Theo: Non mi dispiacciono queste emozioni.
Per non rimanere assente e per non esporre qualcosa di troppo pazzo, forse potresti mandare Notte stellata e il paesaggio verde-giallo, che era nella cornice di noce. Per trovare una data plausibile occorre quindi risalire al 23 maggio , quando la Luna era al primo quarto e le stelle corrispondevano maggiormente a quelle dipinte. Nel periodo di realizzazione di questa tela, i quadri di Van Gogh si caricano di significati simbolici: Una misteriosa energia sospinge il movimento delle stelle.
Il tormento che si sente nella Notte stellata, il fuoco, la luce, sono il riflesso del proprio tormento esistenziale che partono direttamente dal cuore e si esprimono nei tratti incisivi, forti, quasi violenti della pittura. Non si possono immaginare gli artisti moderni senza questo quadro.
Molti studiosi hanno condotto ricerche per trovare eventuali corrispondenze di questo tipo. La maggior parte di questi studi resta tuttora oggetto di discussione e mistero. Ma quanti di questi allineamenti sono puramente casuali e quanti sono invece il riflesso di una precisa storia culturale? Quando si parla del rapporto tra monumenti e stelle il pensiero corre inevitabilmente alle piramidi di Giza. Eppure in Italia ci sarebbe molto materiale su cui lavorare. Aosta, che portava il nome di Augusta Pretoria, venne fondata da Augusto.
Esempio di alcuni siti aperti allo studio degli Astroarcheologi: Fin dalle prime moderne misurazioni sui precisi orientamenti cardinali delle piramidi fatti da Flinders Petrie, sono stati proposti diversi metodi astronomici per comprendere il motivo di questi orientamenti.. Le deviazioni dal Nord reale usando questo modello rispecchiano le date accettate di costruzione. Molte caratteristiche architettoniche hanno suggerito la presenza di elementi astronomici.
Ognuno delle rampe di scale costruita ai lati della piramide ha 91 gradini.
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Inoltre la facciata ovest punta verso il tramonto, intorno al 25 maggio, tradizionalmente la data di transizione che delimita il periodo secco dalla stagione delle piogge. Questo allineamento si ripete anche verso meridione dove sorge Venere, evento che accade ogni otto anni. Venere e le costellazioni zodiacali dei Maya. Inoltre ad Uxmal vi sono corrispondenze con costellazioni ben precise: Sempre a Stonehenge oltre agli allineamenti solari, sono stati individuati allineamenti lunari.
Le quattro pietre del luogo delimitano un rettangolo. Aveni nota che questi non hanno mai ottenuto il consenso come per gli allineamenti solari. Vi sono siti non citati, come: Nel Battistero, il numero aureo 1. La sua forma a dodici specchi simmetrici indica certamente connessioni astronomiche non ancora identificate. Da questo rapido viaggio possiamo giungere a due conclusioni. Tetrabiblos English version — Claudio Tolomeo. OF the means of prediction through astronomy, O Syrus, two are the most important and valid.
One, which is first both in order and in effectiveness, is that whereby we apprehend the aspects of the movements of sun, moon, and stars in relation to each other and to the earth, as they occur from time to time; the second is that in which by means of the natural character of these aspects themselves we investigate the changes which they bring about in that which they surround.
The first of these, which has its own science, desirable in itself even though it does not attain the result given by its combination with the second, has been expounded to you as best we could in its own treatise by the method of demonstration. We shall now give an account of the second and less self-sufficient method in a properly philosophical way, so that one whose aim is the truth might never compare its perceptions with the sureness of the first, unvarying science, for he ascribes to it the weakness and unpredictability of material qualities found in individual things, nor yet refrain from such investigation as is within the bounds of possibility, when it is so evident that most events of a general nature draw their causes from the enveloping heavens.
But since everything that is hard to attain is easily assailed by the generality of men, and in the case of the two before-mentioned disciplines the allegations against the first could be made only by the blind, while there are specious grounds for those levelled at the second-for its difficulty in parts has made them think it completely incomprehensible, or the difficulty of escaping what is known has disparaged even its object as useless-we shall try to examine briefly the measure of both the possibility and the usefulness of such prognostication before offering detailed instruction on the subject.
First as to its possibility. A very few considerations would make it apparent to all that a certain power emanating from the eternal ethereal substance is dispersed through and permeates the whole region about the earth, which throughout is subject to change, since, of the primary sublunary elements, fire and air are encompassed and changed by the motions in the ether, and in turn encompass and change all else, earth and water and the plants and animals therein.
For the sun, together with the ambient, is always in same way affecting everything on the earth, not only by the changes that accompany the seasons of the year to bring about the generation of animals, the productiveness of plants, the flowing of waters, and the changes of bodies, but also by its daily revolutions furnishing heat, moisture, dryness, and cold in regular order and in correspondence with its positions relative to the zenith. The moon, too, as the heavenly body nearest the earth, bestows her effluence most abundantly upon mundane things, for most of them, animate or inanimate, are sympathetic to her and change in company with her; the rivers increase and diminish their streams with her light, the seas turn their own tides with her rising and setting, and plants and animals in whole or in same part wax and wane with her.
Moreover, the passages of the fixed stars and the planets through the sky often signify hot, windy, and snowy conditions of the air, and mundane things are affected accordingly. Then, too, their aspects to one another, by the meeting and mingling of their dispensations, bring about many complicated changes. If these matters be so regarded, all would judge it to follow that not only must things already compounded be affected in same way by the motion of these heavenly bodies, but likewise the germination and fruition of the seed must be moulded and conformed to the quality proper to the heavens at the time.
The more observant farmers and herdsmen, indeed, conjecture, from the winds prevailing at the time of impregnation and of the sowing of the seed, the quality of what will result; and in general we see that the more important consequences signified by the more obvious configurations of sun, moon, and stars are usually known beforehand, even by those who inquire, not by scientific means, but only by observation. Those which are consequent upon greater forces and simpler natural orders, such as the annual variations of the seasons and the winds, are comprehended by very ignorant men, nay even by some dumb animals; for the sun is in general responsible for these phenomena.
Things that are not of so general a nature, however, are comprehended by those who have by necessity become used to making observations, as, for instance, sailors know the special signs of storms and winds that arise periodically by reason of the aspects of the moon and fixed stars to the sun.
Yet because they cannot in their ignorance accurately know the times and places of these phenomena, nor the periodic movements of the planets, which contribute importantly to the effect, it happens that they often err. Why can he not, too, with respect to an individual man, perceive the general quality of his temperament from the ambient at the time of his birth, as for instance that he is such and such in body and such and such in soul, and predict occasional events, by use of the fact that such and such an ambient is attuned to such and such a temperament and is favourable to prosperity, while another is not so attuned and conduces to injury?
Enough, however; for the possibility of such knowledge can be understood from these and similar arguments. The following considerations might lead us to observe that criticism of the science on the score of impossibility has been specious but undeserved. In the first place, the mistakes of those who are not accurately instructed in its practice, and they are many, as One would expect in an important and many-sided art, have brought about the belief that even its true predictions depend upon chance, which is incorrect. For a thing like this is an impotence, not of the science, but of those who practise it.
Secondly; most, for the sake of gain, claim credence for another art in the name of this, and deceive the vulgar, because they are reputed to foretell many things, even those that cannot naturally be known beforehand, while to the more thoughtful they have thereby given occasion to pass equally unfavourable judgement upon the natural subjects of prophecy.
Nor is ibis deservedly done; it is the same with philosophy-we need not abolish it because there are evident rascals among those that pretend to it. Nevertheless it is clear that even though One approach astrology in the most inquiring and legitimate spirit possible, he may frequently err, not for any of the reasons state, but because of the very nature of the thing and his own weakness in comparison with the magnitude of his profession.
For in general, besides the fact that every science that deals with the quality of its subject-matter is conjectural and not to be absolutely affirmed, particularly One which is composed of many unlike elements, it is furthermore true that the ancient configurations of the planets, upon the basis of which we attach to similar aspects of our own day the effects observed by the ancients in theirs, Can be more Or less similar to the modern aspects, and that, too, at long intervals, but not identical, since the exact return of all the heavenly bodies and the earth to the same positions, unless One holds vain opinions of his ability to comprehend and know the incomprehensible, either takes place not at all or at least not in the period of time that falls within the experience of man; so that for this reason predictions sometimes fail, because of the disparity of the examples on which they are based.
As to the investigation of atmospheric phenomena, this would be the only difficulty, since no other cause besides the movement of the heavenly bodies is taken into consideration. But in an inquiry concerning nativities and individual temperaments in general, One can see that there are circumstances of no small importance and of no trifling character, which join to cause the special qualities of those who are born.
For differences of seed exert a very great influence on the special traits of the genus, since, if the ambient and the horizon are the same, each seed prevails to express in general its own form, for example, man, horse, and so forth; and the places of birth bring about no small variation in what is produced. For if the seed is generically the same, human for example, and the condition of the ambient the same, those who are born differ much, both in body and soul, with the difference of countries. In addition to this, all the aforesaid conditions being equal, rearing and customs contribute to influence the particular way in which a life is lived.
Unless each One of these things is examined together with the causes that are derived from the ambient, although this latter be conceded to exercise the greatest influence for the ambient is One of the causes for these things being what they are, while they in turn have no influence upon it , they can cause much difficulty for those who believe that in such cases everything can be understood, even things not wholly within its jurisdiction, from the motion of the heavenly bodies alone.
Since this is the case, it would not be fitting to dismiss all prognostication of this character because it can sometimes be mistaken, for we do not discredit the art of the pilot for its many errors; but as when the claims are great, so also when they are divine, we should welcome what is possible and think it enough. That it is also Beneficial. In somewhat summary fashion it has been shown how prognostication by astronomical means is possible, and that it can go no further than what happens in the ambient and the consequences to man from such causes-that is, it concerns the original endowments of faculties and activities of soul and body, their occasional diseases, their endurance for a long or a short time, and, besides, all external circumstances that have a directive and natural connection with the original gifts of nature, such as property and marriage in the case of the body and honour and dignities in that of the soul, and finally what befalls them from time to time.
The remaining part of our project would be to inquire briefly as to its usefulness; first distinguishing how and with what end in view we shall take the meaning of the word usefulness. For if we look to the goods of the soul, what could be more conducive to well being, pleasure, and in general satisfaction than this kind of forecast, by which we gain full view of things human and divine?
And if we look to bodily goods, such knowledge, better than anything else, would perceive what is fitting and expedient for the capabilities of each temperament. But if it does not aid in the acquisition of riches, fame, and the like, we shall be able to say the same of all philosophy, for it does not provide any of these things as far as its own powers are concerned. We should not, however, for that reason be justified in condemning either philosophy or this art, disregarding its greater advantages. To a general examination it would appear that those who find fault with the uselessness of prognostication have no regard for the most important matters, but only for this-that foreknowledge of events that will happen in any case is superfluous; this, too, quite unreservedly and without due discrimination.
For, in the first place. A second reason is that we should not believe that separate events attend mankind as the result of the heavenly cause as if they had been originally ordained for each person by some irrevocable divine command and destined — to take place by necessity without the possibility of any other cause whatever interfering. Rather is it true that the movement of the heavenly bodies, to be sure. Unchangeable destiny, while the change of earthly things is subject to a natural and mutable rate, and in drawing its first causes from above it is governed by chance and natural sequence.
For if these distinctions are thus made, it is dear that both in general and in particular whatever events depend upon a first cause, which is irresistible and more powerful than anything that opposes it, must by all means take place; on the contrary, of events that are not of this character, those which are provided with resistant forces are easily averted, while those that are not follow the primary natural causes, to be sure, but this is due to ignorance and not to the necessity of almighty power.
One might observe this same thing happening in all events whatsoever that have natural causes. For even of stones, plants, and animals, and also of wounds, mishaps, and sicknesses, some are of such a nature as to act of necessity, others only if no opposing thing interferes.
One should therefore believe that physical philosophers predict what is to befall men with foreknowledge of this character and do not approach their task under false impressions; for certain things, because their effective causes are numerous and powerful, are inevitable, but others for the opposite reason may be averted. Similarly those physicians who can recognize ailments know beforehand those which are always fatal and those which admit of aid.
In the case of events that may be modified we must give heed to the astrologer, when, for example, he says that to such and such a temperament, with such and such a character of the ambient, if the fundamental proportions increase or decrease, such and such an affection will result. Similarly we must believe the physician, when he says that this sore will spread or cause putrefaction, and the miner, for instance, that the lodestone attracts iron: And yet, since it is obvious that, if we happen to have cooled ourselves against heat in general, we shall suffer less from it, similar measures can prove effective against particular forces which increase this particular temperament to a disproportionate amount of heat.
For the cause of this error is the difficulty and unfamiliarity of particular prognostication, a reason which in most other situations as well brings about disbelief. And since for the most part the resisting faculty is not coupled with the prognostic, because so perfect a disposition is rare, and since the force of nature takes its course without hindrance when the primary natures are concerned, an opinion has been produced that absolutely all future events are inevitable and unescapable.
But, I think, just as with prognostication, even if it be not entirely infallible, at least its possibilities have appeared worthy of the highest regard, so too in the case of defensive practice, even though it does not furnish a remedy for everything. And regarded as profitable in no ordinary sense.
Recognizing, apparently, that these things are so, those who have most advanced this faculty of the art, the Egyptians, have entirely united medicine with astronomical prediction. For they would never have devised certain means of averting or warding off or remedying the universal and particular conditions that come or are present by reason of the ambient, if they had had any idea that the future cannot be moved and changed. But as it is, they place the faculty of resisting by orderly natural means in second rank to the decrees of fate, and have yoked to the possibility of prognostication its useful and beneficial faculty, through what they call their iatromathematical systems medical astrology , in order that by means of astronomy they may succeed in learning the qualities of the underlying temperatures, the events that will occur in the future because of the ambient, and their special causes, on the ground that without this knowledge any measures of aid ought for the most part to fail, because the same Ones are not fitted for all bodies or diseases; and, on the other band, by means of medicine, through their knowledge of what is properly sympathetic or antipathetic in each case, they proceed, as far as possible, to take precautionary measures against impending illness and to prescribe infallible treatment for existing disease.
Let this be, to this point, our summarily stated preliminary sketch. We shall now conduct our discussion after the manuel of an introduction, beginning with the character of each of the heavenly bodies with respect to its active power, in agreement with the physical observations attached to them by the ancients, and in the first place the powers of the planets, sun, and moon. Of the Power of the Planets. This is made more easily perceptible in the case of the sun than any other heavenly body by its size and by the obviousness of its seasonal changes, for the closer it approaches to the zenith the more it affects us in this way.
Its action therefore is precisely this, to soften and cause putrefaction in bodies for the most part, but it shares moderately also in heating power because of the light which it receives from the sun. Jupiter has a temperate active force because his movement takes place between the cooling influence of Saturn and the burning power of Mars.
He both heats and humidifies; and because his heating power is the greater by reason of the underlying spheres, he produces fertilizing winds. Venus has the same powers and tempered nature as Jupiter, but acts in the opposite way; for she warms moderately because of her nearness to the sun, but chiefly humidifies, like the moon, because of the amount of her own light and because she appropriates the exhalations from the moist atmosphere surrounding the earth. Mercury in general is found at certain times alike to be drying and absorptive of moisture, because he never is far removed in longitude from the heat of the sun; and again humidifying, because he is next above the sphere of the moon, which is closest to the earth; and to change quickly from one to the other, inspired as it were by the speed of his motion in the neighbourhood of the sun itself.
Of Beneficent and Maleficent Planets. Since the foregoing is the case, because two of the four humours are fertile and active, the hot and the moist for all things are brought together and increased by them , and two are destructive and passive, the dry and the cold, through which all things, again, are separated and destroyed, the ancients accepted two of the planets, Jupiter and Venus, together with the moon, as beneficent because of their tempered nature and because they abound in the hot and the moist, and Saturn and Mars as producing effects of the opposite nature, one because of his excessive cold and the other for his excessive dryness; the sun and Mercury, however, they thought to have both powers, because they, have a common nature, and to join their influences with those of the other planets, with whichever of them they are associated.
Of Masculine and Feminine Planets. Again, since there are two primary kinds of natures, male and female, and of the forces already mentioned that of the moist is especially feminine-for as a general thing this element is present to a greater degree in all females, and the others rather in males with good reason the view has been handed down to us that the moon and Venus are feminine, because they share more largely in the moist, and that the sun, Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars are masculine, and Mercury common to both genders, inasmuch as he produces the dry and the moist alike.
They say too that the stars become masculine or feminine according to their aspects to the sun, for when they are morning stars and precede the sun they become masculine, and feminine when they are evening stars and follow the sun. Furthermore this happens also according to their positions with respect to the horizon; for when they are in positions from the orient to mid-heaven, or again from the occident to lower mid-heaven, they become masculine because they are eastern, but in the other two quadrants, as western stars, they become feminine.
Of Diurnal and Nocturnal Planets. Similarly, since of the two most obvious intervals of those which make up time, the day is more masculine because of its heat and active force, and night more feminine because of its moisture and its gift of rest, the tradition has consequently been handed down that the moon and Venus are nocturnal, the sun and Jupiter diurnal, and Mercury common as before, diurnal when it is a morning star and nocturnal as an evening star. They also assigned to each of the sects the two destructive stars, not however in this instance on the principle of similar natures, but of just the opposite; for when stars of the same kind are joined with those of the good temperament their beneficial influence — is increased, but if dissimilar stars are associated with the destructive Ones the greatest part of their injurious power is broken.
Thus they assigned, Saturn, which is cold, to the warmth of day, and Mars, which is dry, to the moisture of night, for in this way each of them — attains good proportion through admixture and becomes a proper member of its sect, which provides moderation. Of the Power of the Aspects to the Sun.
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Now, mark you, likewise, according to their aspects to the sun, the moon and three of the planets experience increase and decrease in their own powers. For in its waxing from new moon to first quarter the moon is more productive of moisture; in its passage from first quarter to full, of heat; from full to last quarter; of dryness, and from last quarter to occultation, of cold. The planets, in oriental aspects only, are more productive of moisture from rising to their first station, of heat from first station to evening rising, of dryness from evening rising to the second station, of cold from second station to setting; and it is clear that when they are associated with One another they produce very many variations of quality in our ambient, the proper force of each One for the most part persisting, but being changed in quantity by the force of the stars that share the configuration.
Of the Power of the Fixed Stars. As it is next in order to recount the natures of the fixed stars with reference to their special powers, we shall set forth their observed characters in an exposition like that of the natures of the planets, and in the first place those of the ones that occupy the figures in the zodiac itself. Of those in Taurus, the stars along the line where it is cut off have a temperature like that of Venus and in a measure like that of Saturn; those in the Pleiades, like those of the moon and Jupiter; of the stars in the head, the one of the Hyades that is bright and somewhat reddish, called the Torch, has a temperature like that of Mars; the others, like that of Saturn and moderately, like that of Mercury; those in the tips of the horns, like that of Mars.
Of the stars in Gemini, those in the feet share the same quality as Mercury and, to a less degree, as Venus; the bright stars in the thighs, the same as Saturn; of the two bright stars in the heads, the one in the head in advance the same as Mercury; it is also called the star of Apollo; the one in the head that follows, the same as Mars; it is also called the star of Hercules.
Of the stars in Cancer, the two in the eyes produce the same effect as Mercury, and, to a less degree, as Mars; those in the claws, the same as Saturn and Mercury; the cloud-like cluster in the breast, called the Manger, the same as Mars and the moon; and the two on either side of it, which are called Asses, the same as Mars and the sun. Of those in Leo, the two in the head act in the same way as Saturn and, to a less degree, as Mars; the three in the throat, the same as Saturn and, to a les s degree, as Mercury; the bright star upon the heart, called Regulus, the same as Mars and Jupiter; those in the hip and the bright star in the tail, the same as Saturn and Venus; and those in the thighs, the same as Venus and, to a less degree, Mercury.
Of the stars in Virgo, those in the head and the one upon the tip of the southern wing have an effect like that of Mercury and, in less degree, of Mars; the other bright stars of the wing and those on the girdles like that of Mercury and, in a measure, of Venus; the bright star in the northern wing, called Vindemiator, like those of Saturn and Mercury; the so-called Spica, like that of Venus and, in a less degree, that of Mars; those in the tips of the feet and the train like that of Mercury and, in a less degree, Mars.
Of those in the Claws of the Scorpion, the ones at their very extremities exercise the same influence as do Jupiter and Mercury; those in the middle parts the same as do Saturn and, to a less degree, Mars. Of the stars in the body of Scorpio, the bright stars on the forehead act in the same way as does Mars and in some degree as does Saturn; the three in the body, the middle one of which is tawny and rather bright and is called Antares, the same as Mars and, in some degree, Jupiter; those in the joints, the same as Saturn and, in some degree, Venus; those in the sting, the same as Mercury and Mars; and the so-called cloud-like cluster, the same as Mars and the moon.
Of the stars in Sagittarius, those in the point of his arrow have an effect like that of Mars and the moon; those in the bow and the grip of his hand, like that of Jupiter and Mars; the cluster in his forehead, like that of the sun and Mars; those in the cloak and his back, like that of Jupiter and, to a less degree, of Mercury; those in his feet, like that of Jupiter and Saturn; the quadrangle upon the tail, like that of Venus and, to a less degree, of Saturn. Of the stars in Capricorn, those in the horns act in the same way as Venus and, in same degree, as Mars; those in the mouth, as Saturn and, in same degree, as Venus; those in the feet and the belly, as Mars and Mercury; and those in the tail, as Saturn and Jupiter.
Of the stars in Aquarius, those in the shoulders exert an influence like that of Saturn and Mercury, together with those in the left arm and the cloak; those in the thighs, like that of Mercury in a greater degree and like that of Saturn in a lesser degree; those in the stream of water, like that of Saturn and, in same degree, like that of Jupiter. Of the stars in Pisces, those in the head of the southern Fish act in the same way as Mercury and somewhat as does Saturn; those in the body, as do Jupiter and Mercury; those in the tail and the southern cord, as do Saturn and, in some degree, Mercury; those in the body and backbone of the northern Fish, as do Jupiter and, in some degree, Venus; those in the northern part of the cord, as do Saturn and Jupiter; and the bright star on the bond, as do Mars and, in some degree, Mercury.
The stars in Cassiopeia have the effect of Saturn and Venus; those in Perseus, of Jupiter and Saturn; the cluster in the hilt of the sword, of Mars and Mercury; the bright stars in Auriga, of Mars and Mercury; those in Ophiuchus, of Saturn and, to some degree, of Venus; those in his serpent, of Saturn and Mars; those in Sagitta, of Mars and, to some degree, of Venus; those in Aquila, of Mars and Jupiter; those in Delphinus, of Saturn and Mars; the bright stars in the Horse, of Mars and Mercury; those in Andromeda, of Venus; those in Triangulum, of Mercury.
Of the stars in the formations south of the zodiac the bright star in the mouth of Piscis Australis has an influence similar to that of Venus and Mercury; those in Cetus, similar to that of Saturn; of those in Orion, the stars on his shoulders similar to that of Mars and Mercury, and the other bright stars similar to that of Jupiter and Saturn; of the stars in Eridanus the last bright one has an influence like that of Jupiter and the others like that of Saturn; the star in Lepus, like that of Saturn and Mercury; of those in Canis, the others like that of Venus, and the bright star in the mouth, like that of Jupiter and, to a less degree, of Mars; the bright star Procyon, like that of Mercury.
Such, then, are the observations of the effects of the stars themselves as made by our predecessors. Of the Effect of the Seasons and of the Four Angles. Of the four seasons of the year, spring, summer, autumn, and winter, spring exceeds in moisture on account of its diffusion after the cold has passed and warmth is setting in; the summer, in heat, because of the nearness of the sun to the zenith; autumn more in dryness, because of the sucking up of the moisture during the hot season just past; and winter exceeds in cold, because the sun is farthest away from the zenith.
For this reason, although there is no natural beginning of the zodiac, since it is a circle, they assume that the sign which begins with the vernal equinox, that of Aries, is the startingpoint of them all, making the excessive moisture of the spring the first part of the zodiac as though it were a living creature, and taking next in order the remaining seasons, because in all creatures the earliest ages, like the spring, have a larger share of moisture and are tender and still delicate.
The second age, up to the prime of life, exceeds in heat, like summer; the third, which is now past the prime and on the verge of decline, has an excess of dryness, like autumn; and the last, which approaches dissolution, exceeds in its coldness, like winter. Similarly, too, of the four regions and angles of the horizon, from which originate the winds from the cardinal points, the eastern one likewise excels in dryness because, when the sun is in that region, whatever has been moistened by the night then first begins to be dried; and the winds which blow from it, which we call in general Apeliotes, are without moisture and drying in effect.
The region to the west is itself moist, because when the sun is therein the things dried out during the day then first begin to become moistened; likewise the winds which blow from this part, which we call by the general name Zephyrus, are fresh and moist. The knowledge of these facts is useful to enable One to form a complete judgement of temperatures in individual instances. Thus the heating stars in the cold periods and the moistening stars in the dry periods are weaker, and similarly in the other cases, according to the quality produced by the mixture.
After the explanation of these matters the next subject to be added would be the natural characters of the zodiacal signs themselves, as they have been handed down by tradition. For although their more general temperaments are each analogous to the seasons that take place in them, certain peculiar qualities of theirs arise from their kinship to the sun, moon, and planets, as we shall relate in what follows, putting first the unmingled powers of the signs themselves alone, regarded both absolutely and relatively to one another. The first distinctions, then, are of the so-called solstitial, equinoctial, solid, and bicorporeal signs.
For the sun turns when he is at the beginning of these signs and reverses his latitudinal progress, causing summer in Cancer and winter in Capricorn. Two signs are called equinoctial, the One which is first from the spring equinox, Aries, and the One which begins with the autumnal equinox, Libra; and they too again are named from what happens there, because when the sun is at the beginning of these signs he makes the nights exactly equal to the days.
Of the remaining eight signs four are called solid and four bicorporeal. The solid signs, Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, and Aquarius, are those which follow the solstitial and equinoctial signs; and they are so called because when the sun is in them the moisture, heat, dryness, and cold of the seasons that begin in the preceding signs touch us more firmly, not that the weather is naturally any more intemperate at that time, but that we are by then inured to them and for that reason are more sensible of their power.
The bicorporeal signs, Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, and Pisces, are those which follow the solid signs, and are so called because they are between the solid and the solstitial and equinoctial signs and share, as it were, at end and beginning, the natural properties of the two states of weather. Of Masculine and Feminine Signs. Again, in the same way they assigned six of the signs to the masculine and diurnal nature and an equal number to the feminine and nocturnal. An alternating order was assigned to them because day is always yoked to night and close to it, and female to male. Now as Aries is taken as the starting-point for the reasons we have mentioned, and as the male likewise rules and holds first place, since also the active is always superior to the passive in power, the signs of Aries and Libra were thought to be masculine and diurnal, an additional reason being that the equinoctial circle which is drawn through them completes the primary and most powerful movement of the whole universe.
The signs in succession after them correspond, as we said, in alternating order. Same, however, employ an order of masculine and feminine signs whereby the masculine begins with the sign that is rising, called the horoscope. These, since their reason and their significance are directly derived, we think it superfluous to enumerate, since the quality resulting from such conformations can be explained in connection with those predictions wherein it is obviously useful.
Of the Aspects of the Signs. Of the parts of the zodiac those first are familiar one to another which are in aspect. These are the ones which are in opposition, enclosing two right angles, six signs, and degrees; those which are in trine, enclosing one and one-third right angles, four signs, and degrees; those which are said to be in quartile, enclosing one right angle, three signs, and 90 degrees, and finally those that occupy the sextile position, enclosing two-thirds of a right angle, two signs, and 60 degrees.
We may learn from the following why only these intervals have been taken into consideration. The explanation of opposition is immediately obvious, because it causes the signs to meet on one straight line. But if we take the two fractions and the two superparticulars most important in music, and if the fractions one-half and one-third be applied to opposition, composed of two right angles, the half makes the quartile and the third the sextile and trine.
Of the superparticulars, if the sesquialter and sesquitertian be applied to the quartile interval of one right angle, which lies between them, the sesquialter makes the ratio of the quartile to the sextile and the sesquitertian that of trine to quartile. Of these aspects trine and sextile are called harmonious because they ara composed of signs of the same kind, either entirely of feminine or entirely of masculine signs; while quartile and opposition are disharmonious because they are composed of signs of opposite kinds. Of Commanding and Obeying Signs.
Again they say that the parts which are equally removed from the same tropical sign, whichever it may be, are of equal power, because when the sun comes into either of them the days are equal to the days, the nights to the nights, and the lengths of their own hours are the same.
Ma ammettiamo pure per assurdo che il programma non fosse in differita. Da dove si dovrebbe evincere? Infine - dulcis in fundo - due momenti "alti", il musical di Romeo e Giulietta e addirittura la Tosca spiegata dall'"erede" di Roberto Saviano , Francesco Micheli , recitata e cantata alle quattro del pomeriggio sul primo canale della tv di Stato. E si finisce in musica Commento autorevole di Mariana Rodriguez: Del resto lo ha appena fatto. Si parla di relazione tra amanti. Dalla teoria alla pratica con un accenno live dell'opera lirica.
Quindi la spiegazione di Francesco Micheli, esperto di melodramma. Timperi, tra un colpo di tosse e l'altro, e la Muccitelli spiegano addirittura la Tosca. Taglio evidente, applauso del pubblico inserito in post-produzione e si passa a un altro blocco registrato in un momento diverso. Viene chiesto ai passanti di "tradurre" la frase della Balivo. Buio pesto per gli intervistati Per parlare di quello napoletano viene utilizzata come testimonial Caterina Balivo in una clip registrata nello studio di Detto fatto.
Ha una compagna e due figlie: