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Family dinners even trump reading to your kids in terms of preparing them for school. And these associations hold even after researchers control for family connectedness…. More on the power of family dinners here. The most important work you and I will ever do will be within the walls of our own homes.

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Contact us at editors time. By Eric Barker March 24, Honolulu, Hawaii Best Place for Lifelong Health The heavenly climate helps, but the key to well-being here also includes enviable health care and a rich cultural tradition of looking out for one another.

Parenting children through puberty

San Francisco Bay Area, Calif. Best Place for Eating Right. The "farm to table" movement began here. The region's bounty of produce and year-round growing season make eating healthy—and local—a natural. Best Place for Raising Healthy Kids This New England city offers great schools, excellent pediatric care, loads of culture and limitless options for healthy outdoor fun all year long. Best Place for Workplace Wellness With treadmill desks, meetings on bikes, time off for creativity, and gobs of organic food, tech titans are reinventing how to stay healthy on the job.

Best Place for Aging Well Yes, it can be cold. But with a plethora of stimulating activities and a robust web of support, the Twin Cities prove that growing old doesn't mean slowing down. Denver and Boulder, Colo. Best Place for Keeping Fit The urge to get outside and get moving is contagious in these Rocky Mountain cities, where physical challenge is built into the landscape.

Plano, Texas Best Place for Staying Safe Once a rural outpost, this booming, diverse city has kept its small-town vibe, thanks in part to a police force and community that knows how to work together. Best Place for a Healthy Environment Small, walkable neighborhoods, miles of bike paths, and urban policies that foster active living and sustainability make for one clean, green city. Best Place for Health Care This history-rich city is home to some of the nation's most advanced medical institutions and policies that help ensure that quality care is available to all.

Provo and Orem, Utah Best Place for Spiritual Well-Being A stunning Rocky Mountain backdrop and a tight-knit population that lives its faith contribute not only to this region's serenity but also to lower rates of disease. TIME Ideas hosts the world's leading voices, providing commentary on events in news, society, and culture. We welcome outside contributions. Opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of TIME editors. Call the Poisons Information Centre on 13 11 26 immediately if you suspect your child has been poisoned or given the wrong medicine or the wrong dose of medicine As they grow and develop, and with the help of adults, children become increasingly aware of how they can manage their own safety, and become safer road users Toddlers are most at risk of drowning because they are mobile and curious but don't understand the danger of water Child Protection provides child-centred, family-focused services to protect children from harm caused by abuse within the family There is a range of non-government agencies available to help families under stress in caring for their children Too many children are physically, sexually and emotionally abused and when this happens, it is up to adults to speak up Miscarriage, stillbirth or neonatal death is a shattering event for those expecting a baby, and for their families.

Grief, relationship stresses and anxiety about subsequent pregnancies are common in It can be difficult to talk to a child about death, but it is important to be honest with them People who have support from family and friends are less likely to suffer poor health after bereavement and loss Provides an overview of family support programs and health services available to refugees and asylum seekers living in Victoria You can reduce your baby's risk of sudden unexpected death by providing a safe sleeping environment and avoiding tobacco smoke Tell your child the facts about a distressing or frightening experience using language they can understand Preschoolers may not have the words but will show their distress at traumatic events through changes in behaviour and functioning A teenager may be deeply upset by a traumatic event, but not share their feelings with their parents It is normal to have strong emotional or physical reactions after a distressing or frightening event, and help is available A community health centre is publicly funded and offers a range of health services to local residents For children diagnosed with a disability, getting the support they need as early as possible will give them the best chance of minimising the long-term effects of the disability Provides an overview of the financial and family support services available to foster carers, families providing permanent care and adoptive parents Your local maternal and child health service will be a great source of support after your baby is born Early Parenting Centres help families whose children have sleep, feeding or other difficulties You may need outside help to resolve problems and ensure your relationship stays healthy and strong Help your child manage stress during exams by getting them to use good study habits, eat well, exercise, relax, sleep and keep things in perspective Young people have to work through a broad range of issues as they move from childhood to adulthood Teenage years can be difficult for families.

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End of life and palliative care services. Hospitals, surgery and procedures. Planning and coordinating healthcare. Pregnancy and birth services. Parenting children through puberty Share show more. Parents - Parenting basics Parents - Support for parents. Puberty is a time of great change for your child — and for you as a parent too.

Take practical steps to support your child through their bodily changes. Look after your own needs too. Talking to professionals or friends and family may help. What to expect during puberty You can read more detailed articles on puberty and the teenage years generally [https: Teens continue to grow about 1 to 2 cm a year after this main growth spurt.

Some body parts such as head and hands may grow faster than limbs and trunk. The body eventually evens out. What to expect in girls Breasts develop and may be tender. The figure changes and hips widen. Pubic hair and underarm hair start to grow. Menstruation starts, but periods may be irregular at first. Some discomfort, like headaches and stomach cramps, is normal but see your doctor if you have concerns. A clear or whitish vaginal discharge may occur before the period.

See your doctor if your daughter experiences itching, pain or strong odour. What to expect in boys The penis and testes testicles start growing.

How to Raise Happy Kids: 10 Steps Backed by Science | Time

Pubic, underarm and facial hair start to grow. Testosterone production starts, which stimulates the testes to produce sperm. Erections and ejaculation start. Voice variations are normal and will settle in time. What to expect socially and emotionally Mood changes and energy level variations are normal parts of puberty, as are swings between feeling independent and wanting parental support. You may like to keep these extra tips in mind too: Praise your teenager for their efforts, achievements and positive behaviour. Try to stay calm during angry outbursts from your child. Wait for your child to cool down before talking about the problem.

Stay interested and involved, and be available if your child wants to talk. Chat to your partner or other parents of teenagers. Sharing concerns and experiences can ease the load. Try to support your child in their self-expression, even if some of it seems odd to you, such as an extreme haircut or offbeat clothing choices. Try to tolerate long periods of time spent on personal care, such as hours in the bathroom, but chat to your child about reasonable family time limits.

Talk to your child about any permanent changes they want to make to their body, such a tattoos and piercings, and discuss temporary alternatives, such as henna removable tattoos. If your child has acne, talk to them about how they feel about it.

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If it is bothering them, ask if they would like to see a doctor. Your doctor may refer your teenager to a skin specialist or dermatologist. How you can support your daughter during puberty Helping your daughter with firsts, such as being ready for her first period are really important. How you can support your son during puberty Helping your son through puberty is mostly about reassurance. Here are some tips for taking care of yourself: Prepare a weekly family plan, so you know what people are doing and where they need to be.

Include some fun family rituals, like Saturday night cards, or maybe a weekly walk or bike ride. Nurture your relationship with your partner. A regular date night in your family schedule can work wonders. Use your support networks, like grandparents, other family members and friends. And you could share carpooling or supervision duties with friends. Ask the kids to help out with household chores. Your child learns some new skills, gains some new responsibility, and it lightens the load for parents.

Stay positive and keep things in perspective. Remember… Puberty is a time of great change for your child — and for you as a parent too. Puberty is a series of natural changes, and not all children struggle with them. You can do a lot to help your child through puberty. Find ways to help your child become more independent, positively and safely.

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Attachment parenting: the best way to raise a child – or maternal masochism?

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Parenting on your own A person can become a single or sole parent for many different reasons. Parenting services Parenting is one of the most important tasks we undertake but it doesn't always come naturally Raising Children Network Raising Children Network is an online parenting resource providing research-based information Travelling with children If your child is old enough, involve them in planning a trip so they can get excited about it Family structures 10 tips for happier step-parenting Give your undivided attention when your child asks for it Adoption Adoption can give a secure family life to children who can?

Empty nest syndrome The grief of empty nest syndrome often goes unrecognised, because an adult child moving out of home is seen as a normal, healthy event Foster care Foster care is temporary care of children up to 18 years by trained, assessed and accredited foster carers Kinship care Kinship care is the care provided by relatives or a member of a child's social network when a child cannot live with their parents Permanent care After experiencing abuse, neglect or rejection, many children are slow to put their trust in anyone Single parenting In single-parent households, issues such as holidays or major family purchases are more likely to be decided with the children Stepfamilies Becoming part of a stepfamily involves adjusting to a number of changes Surrogacy Surrogacy is a form of assisted reproductive treatment ART in which a woman carries a child within her uterus on behalf of another person or couple When children move out of home If you don't approve of your child's reasons for moving out, try to keep the lines of communication open Communication, identity and behaviour 10 tips for managing sibling rivalry Teach your children to sort out minor differences themselves Body image and young people - staying positive video The pressure on young girls and boys to be physically perfect is creating an epidemic of children and teenagers with low self-esteem and negative body image.

Body image — tips for parents Give your child opportunities to appreciate their body for what it can do, rather than what it looks like Bullying Parents can help with bullying by supporting their child and involving the authorities to find solutions Children and shyness If your child's shyness is especially debilitating, you may like to consider professional help from a counsellor or psychologist Children and sibling rivalry Sibling rivalry is a common problem, particularly among children who are the same sex and close together in age Discipline and children Disciplining your child means teaching them responsible behaviour and self-control Family conflict It is normal to disagree with each other from time to time and occasional conflict is part of family life Internet addiction Internet addiction refers to the compulsive need to spend a lot of time on the Internet, to the point where relationships, work and health suffer Partying safely — tips for parents With a few simple plans in place, a good time can be had by all at a teenage party — even the parents Peer pressure Peer groups can be a very positive influence on your teenager's life Sex education - tips for parents Mothers are more likely to talk about intimate, emotional and psychological aspects of sex than fathers Talking to primary school children about sex Some parents find it hard to talk with their primary age children about sex, but help is available Teenagers and communication Accept that your adolescent may have a different view of the world and respect their opinions Young children and communication Children thrive with words of encouragement and praise See the discussion of other information-gathering activities below.

Also with respect to practical significance, the committee considered the manipulability of the variables under consideration in real-world contexts, given that the practical significance of study results depend on whether the variables examined are represented or experienced commonly or uncommonly among particular families Fabes et al.

Finally, the committee took into account issues of implementation , such as whether interventions can be brought to and sustained at scale Durlak and DuPre, ; Halle et al. Experts in the field of implementation science emphasize not only the evidence behind programs but also the fundamental roles of scale-up, dissemination planning, and program monitoring and evaluation.

Scale-up in turn requires attending to the ability to implement adaptive program practices in response to heterogeneous, real-world contexts, while also ensuring fidelity for the potent levers of change or prevention Franks and Schroeder, Thus, the committee relied on both evidence on scale-up, dissemination, and sustainability from empirically based programs and practices that have been implemented and. Although each of these databases is unique with respect to its history, sponsors, and objectives NREPP covers mental health and substance abuse interventions, CEBC is focused on evidence relevant to child welfare, and Blueprints describes programs designed to promote the health and well-being of children , all are recognized nationally and internationally and undergo a rigorous review process.

Each has two top categories—optimal and promising—for programs and practices see Appendix B ; see also Burkhardt et al. Given the relatively modest investment in research on programs for parents and young children, however, the array of programs that are highly rated remains modest. For this reason, the committee considered as programs with the most robust evidence not only those included in the top two categories of Blueprints and CEBC but also those with an average rating of 3 or higher in NREPP.

In addition, the committee chose to consider findings from research using methodological approaches that are emerging as a source of innovation and improvement. These approaches are gaining momentum in parent-. Examples are breakthrough series collaborative approaches, such as the Home Visiting Collaborative Innovation and Improvement Network to Reduce Infant Mortality, and designs such as factorial experiments that have been used to address topics relevant to this study. The committee held two open public information-gathering sessions to hear from researchers, practitioners, parents, and other stakeholders on topics germane to this study and to supplement the expertise of the committee members see Appendix A for the agendas of these open sessions.

Material from these open sessions is referenced in this report where relevant. Cost is an important consideration for the implementation of parenting programs at scale. Therefore, the committee commissioned a paper reviewing the available economic evidence for investing in parenting programs at scale to inform its deliberations on this portion of its charge. Findings and excerpts from this paper are integrated throughout Chapters 3 through 6. The committee also commissioned a second paper summarizing evidence-based strategies used by health care systems and providers to help parents acquire and sustain knowledge, attitudes, and practices that promote healthy child development.

Lastly, a commissioned paper on evidence-based strategies to support parents of children with mental illness formed the basis for a report section on this population. In addition, the committee conducted two sets of group and individual semistructured interviews with parents participating in family support programs at community-based organizations in Omaha, Nebraska, and Washington, D. Parents provided feedback on the strengths they bring to parenting, challenges they face, how services for parents can be improved, and ways they prefer to receive parenting information, among other topics.

The committee recognized that to a certain degree, ideas about what is considered effective parenting vary across cultures and ecological conditions, including economies, social structures, religious beliefs, and moral values Cushman, To address this variation, and in accordance with its charge, the committee examined research on how core parenting knowledge, attitudes, and practices differ by specific characteristics of children, parents, and contexts. However, because the research on parenting has traditionally underrepresented several populations e.

Also, recognizing that nearly every facet of society has a role to play in supporting parents and ensuring that children realize their full potential, the committee reviewed not only strategies designed expressly for parents e. As noted earlier in this chapter, this report was informed by a life-course perspective on parenting, given evidence from neuroscience and a range of related research that the early years are a critical period in shaping how individuals fare throughout their lives.

A number of principles guided this study. Relational practices are those focused primarily on intervening with families using compassion, active and reflective listening, empathy, and other techniques. In addition, family-centered practices focused on the context of successful parenting are a key third form of support for parenting. A premise of the committee is that many interventions with the most troubled families and children will require all these types of services—often delivered concurrently over a lengthy period of time.

Second, many programs are designed to serve families at particular risk for problems related to cognitive and social-emotional development, health, and well-being. Early Head Start and Head Start, for example, are means tested and designed for low-income families most of whom are known to face not just one risk factor low income but also others that often cluster together e.

Health.vic

Special populations addressed in this report typically are at very high risk because of this exposure to multiple risk factors. Research has shown that children in such families have the poorest outcomes, in some instances reaching a level of toxic stress that seriously impairs their developmental functioning Shonkoff and Garner, Of course, in addition to characterizing developmental risk, it is essential to understand the corresponding adaptive processes and protective factors, as it is the balance of risk and protective factors that determines outcomes.

In many ways, supporting parents is one way to attempt to change that balance. From an intervention point of view, several principles are central. First, intervention strategies need to be designed to have measurable effects over time and to be sustainable. Second, it is necessary to focus on the needs of individual families and to tailor interventions to achieve desired outcomes. The importance of personalized approaches is widely acknowledged in medicine, education, and other areas. An observation perhaps best illustrated in the section on parents of children with developmental disabilities in Chapter 5 , although the committee believes this approach applies to many of the programs described in this report.

A corresponding core principle of intervention is viewing parents as equal partners, experts in what both they and their children need. It is important as well that multiple kinds of services for families be integrated and coordinated. Prevention interventions encompass mental health promotion: Treatment interventions include case identification, standard treatment for known disorders, accordance of long-term treatment with the goal of reduction in relapse or occurrence, and aftercare and rehabilitation National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, The committee recognizes that engaging and retaining children and families in parenting interventions are critical challenges.

A key to promoting such engagement may be cultural relevance. Finally, the question of widespread implementation and dissemination of parenting interventions is critically important. Given the cost of testing evidence-based parenting programs, the development of additional programs needs to be built on the work that has been done before. Collectively, interventions also are more likely to achieve a significant level of impact if they incorporate some of the elements of prior interventions.

In any case, a focus on the principles of implementation and dissemination clearly is needed. As is discussed in this report, the committee calls for more study and experience with respect to taking programs to scale. This report is divided into eight chapters. Chapter 2 examines desired outcomes for children and reviews the existing research on parenting knowledge, attitudes, and practices that support positive parent-child interactions and child outcomes.

Based on the available research, this chapter identifies a set of core knowledge, attitudes, and practices.


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  • Chapter 3 provides a brief overview of some of the major federally funded programs and policies that support parents in the United States. Chapters 4 and 5 describe evidence-based and evidence-informed strategies for supporting parents and enabling the identified knowledge, attitudes, and practices, including universal and widely used interventions Chapter 4 and interventions targeted to parents of children with special needs and parents who themselves face adversities.

    Chapter 7 describes a national framework for supporting parents of young children. Attachment, exploration, and separation: Illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. Child Development, 41 1 , Journal of Marriage and Family, 61 2 , Stepping Up for Kids: The State of Preschool Changing Rhythms of American Family Life: Characteristics of screen media use associated with higher BMI in young adolescents.

    Pediatrics, 5 , Attachment theory and its therapeutic implications. Adolescent Psychiatry, 6 , The external validity of experiments. American Educational Research Journal, 5 4 , The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. An overview of evidence-based program registers EBPRs for behavioral health. Evaluation and Program Planning, 48 , Handbook of Father Involvement: Multidisciplinary Perspective 2nd ed. L, and Chae, S. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 26 3 , Center on Media and Human Development.

    Parenting in the Age of Digital Technology: Center on the Developing Child. Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. The role of emotion in parent-child relationships: Journal of Child and Family Studies, 21 3 , Projections of the Size and Composition of the U. Perspectives on parenting in a digital age. Mexican Roots, American Schools: Helping Mexican Immigrant Children Succeed. Constructing the Self, Constructing America: A Cultural History of Psychotherapy. Income and Poverty in the United States: Parents and Social Media: Parents and Social Media.

    Reducing poverty through preschool interventions. The Future of Children, 17 2 , Replication and robustness in developmental research. Developmental Psychology, 50 11 , Family-centered practices in early intervention. A review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41 , Journal of Psychological Research on Cyberspace, 7 , 2. Coresident Grandparents and Their Grandchildren: This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure.

    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47 5 , Criteria for evaluating the significance of developmental research in the twenty-first century: Child Development, 71 1 , Computer and Internet Use in the United States: Causal inference and developmental psychology. Developmental Psychology, 46 6 , What do we know and where do we go from here?

    Valuing All Our Families: Center for American Progress. Contexts, families, and child development in motion. Developmental Psychology, 46 3 , Adolescent Medicine Clinics, 16 2 , Parenting in a Media-Saturated World. The social competence of Latino kindergartners and growth in mathematical understanding.

    LGB Families and Relationships: Analyses of the National Health Interview Survey. Patterns of child care subsidy receipt and the stability of child care. Children and Youth Services Review, 34 9 , Poverty, paternal involvement, and adolescent well-being. Journal of Family Issues, 17 5 , Journal of Economic Literature, 42 4 , Children in immigrant families: Society for Research in Child Development , 22 3 , Measuring social disparities via the CWI: