Moves home to Weimar into the "Gartenhaus am Stern", a gift from the Duke. He is granted the Weimar citizenship and is appointed "Geheimer Legationsrat" with a seat and a vote in the state's highest office. Thus Goethe's living is secured, he receives regular payments. He has his friend Herder come to the Weimar court as well. Ein Schauspiel mit Gesang" ,a musical play is written.
Death of his sister Cornelia. Trip into the Harz mountains. Second trip to Switzerland in company of the duke. Iphigenie, the daughter of King Agamemnon is in exile on Tauris as a temple priestess, she is saved by her brother Orest and brought back home. Goethe is conferred a title of nobility "von Goethe"! Death of his father. Moves to a house at the "Frauenplan" in Weimar, which remains his home until his demise. Is promoted to senior officer in the Internal Revenue Service.
Second trip into the Harz.
Goethe discovers a inter-jaw bone of the human skull. First stay at the Karlsbad spa Bohemia. First journey to Italy: From Karlsbad to Rome. In Rome he is in contact with a circle of German artists. Pursues geological and botanical studies in Naples and Sicily. Ascends Mount Vesuv, returns to Rome. Breaks up with Charlotte von Stein. Lives together with Christiane Vulpius. First contact to Friedrich Schiller, whom he helps to get at tenure as a professor for history at Jena University.
Second italian journey to Venice where his "Venetianischen Epigramme" are written. The Italian poet Torquato Tasso serves as an example to illustrate the conflicts between creative men and society. Reality drives Tasso to despair but he finds consolation in his works. Ein Fragment", fragment of a drama Urfaust was already conceived in Takes part in a campaign against the French Revolutionary troops together with the duke. Accompanies the duke following his wish to the siege of Mainz, where a jacobinian republic had been installed with the aid of French revolutionaries. Critique of the French Revolution.
Begin of the friendship with Friedrich Schiller after a discussion on the observation and description of nation and how to hold apart idea and experience. Second journey to Karlsbad. Forming the individual as a member of society. Published in four volumes. Several meetings with Friedrich von Schlegel who defines the aesthetic of the Klassik.
Third trip to Switzerland. Heads the ducal libraries of Jena and Weimar. English Choose a language for shopping. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web.
The Classical Tradition: Greek and Roman Influences on Western Literature
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East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. In the Catalogue of astronomy was first listed as a separate subject; it was given in the third term of the junior year. Members of the class of , a half-century after graduation, boasted that they were "the boys who calculated eclipses of the moon from the desk of Williams, the Paternal. Campbell, said that Williams excelled as a teacher of astronomy and in spite of meager appliances excited much enthusiasm in that pursuit. As early as the Board of Regents made an official plea for astronomical instruments. When the University's teaching program was completely revamped in at the opening of the Tappan administration, astronomical studies were given particular emphasis see Part I: A scientific curriculum leading to the bachelor of science degree was introduced parallel with the classical course, and advanced undergraduate and graduate studies were attempted.
The new scheme would, it was announced, "require the erection of an Observatory, a large increase of our library and our philosophical apparatus, and additional Professors. Immediately after Tappan's inauguration a special fund for the Astronomical Observatory was begun. It grew with surprising rapidity, and the Observatory became the outward and visible indication that the new instructional program was under way. In the course of the year the architect was authorized to draw up the plans, and the President arranged for the construction of astronomical instruments in New York and Berlin.
A separate account of the acquisition of physical properties for astronomical instruction and research at the University, including lands, buildings, and equipment, is given in Part III: Astronomical Observatories at Ann Arbor. President Tappan offered the position of professor of astronomy and director of the Observatory first to Professor W.
Norton of Yale College and then to Dr. Gould of Boston, but both declined. Winchell was engaged to come in January, , as Professor of Physics and Civil Engineering, however, and the search for an astronomer continued. The President was in correspondence at the time with Dr. Encke, was supervising the construction of astronomical instruments for the University.
Tappan conceived the idea of bringing him to Michigan. Gould, however, advised against the appointment because he doubted the wisdom of engaging foreign professors to teach in American universities. He claimed that "the republic of letters overleaps national boundaries," and that if the growth of a finer native scholarship could be fostered by the importation of an eminent foreigner "even a peculiar national interest" would be served.
Moreover, because the Observatory ranked high in the perfection of its instruments, its management would require a master hand. Berlin '43 was thirty-three at the time he was offered the position of Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory at Ann Arbor in He was a native of Berlin, and the son of a privy councilor of state. In the University of Berlin he was the favorite pupil of Encke and one of the notable group — including Galle, Bremiker, and D'Arrest — that had gathered about that great astronomer.
He was present when Neptune was first recognized, and his notification of its discovery was one of the first to reach England. He had contributed papers on the orbits of minor planets and comets to the Astronomische Nachrichten , and was the first astronomer to calculate the tables of the asteroids. The young man's acceptance, according to rumor perhaps apocryphal, was stimulated by a desire to escape personal pursuit. Encke had three daughters, who were fine girls and excellent hausfrauen , but they unfortunately lacked personal beauty.
That fall, as the Catalogue of announced, the Observatory building was completed, the transit mounted, and the astronomer had begun his observations. A higher, or "university," course in astronomy was added to the curriculum, and the Observatory instruments were available to students prepared to use them.
Apparently undisturbed, he quietly proceeded with his work. When the Walker meridian circle arrived from Berlin in September, , he tested it for systematic errors, and, according to one reviewer, his published table of corrections for this instrument, computed for every fifth degree in position, is perhaps not to be surpassed for thoroughness by anything similar in the whole range of astronomical literature. The sidereal clock and other instruments were installed, but serious difficulties were encountered in the construction and installation of the large telescope from New York — first a long delay, then the temporary use of a loaned instrument, the rejection of the telescope when delivered, revision of the contract, and finally, in March, , a new campaign for funds.
Although an American astronomer needed systematic training in which higher courses in theory should be correlated with practice in the use of instruments under expert guidance, such training was not provided by the only other observatories in the United States that had comparable equipment — Washington, Cincinnati, and Harvard. At the University of Michigan the basic undergraduate course in astronomy was given early in the junior year. An introductory course, with general regard to the History of Astronomy. Spherical Astronomy and theory of the instruments.
Calculation of orbits of the celestial bodies. Numerical calculus; theory of intergrolutions; evolution of differentials and integrals from a series of numerical values; method of the least squares. Physical Astronomy; calculation of special and general perturbations of the heavenly bodies. His professional ability, already established in Europe, was soon recognized in America and helped bring the University of Michigan a reputation for scientific achievement.
As early as March, , Cleveland Abbe wrote to "every astronomer in the country," inquiring about courses of study in astronomy and practice with astronomical instruments, and was told to study in Ann Arbor if he could not go to one of the famous European universities. According to Robert S.
McKeen Cattell has also noted the parallel: We all know the list of distinguished naturalists trained under Agassiz … From Michigan have come, as is not so well known, one-fourth of our distinguished astronomers. But although gifted students were attracted and the lectures were of high quality, the enrollment was not large. When he was asked, "Why do you devote so much time to so small a class? White years afterward remarked, "The best audience any professor ever had in this University was the audience of Dr. James Craig Watson '57, Ph.
Columbia '77 was born in Ontario in When he enrolled in the University as a freshman in his home address was Scio, in the township west of Ann Arbor. He obtained the bachelor's degree at the age of nineteen. Prechtl's work contained instructions for grinding, polishing, and mounting such an instrument, but it appears from Watson's student notebook that he had also appealed directly to Henry Fitz of New York, maker of the large telescope for the University, and had received a letter from Fitz containing instructions for the process.
Watson's notebook gives evidence of thorough training in mechanics, optics, and astronomy at the University. The Observatory drained money from the fund faster than it could be obtained from subscribers, and as early as the Observatory debt was a source of serious annoyance.
The young astronomer's interests were even more closely allied with those of the President by his marriage in to Rebecca Lloyd Tappan, the President's daughter; his trip to Europe, for which he obtained a leave of absence from March to October of that year, is referred to in Alexander Winchell's journal as his "wedding tour. Attached heart and soul, like myself, to the prosperity, the grandeur, to the intellectual progress of your noble country, Mr.
In he began the Astronomical Notices , published at Ann Arbor, as a medium for the regular publication of observations and scientific investigations carried on at the Observatory, and also to furnish practical astronomers ephemerides of newly discovered comets and asteroids. In this as well as in the observational work he was ably assisted by his favorite pupil, Watson, who was assistant observer during the two years after his graduation in Appropriations were also made toward the expenses of the Astronomical Notices.
This was followed by a paper on the "Oppositions of Vesta. Articles and observations were contributed from various observatories in this country, including Hamilton College, Dudley, Harvard, Naval, and L. In his words, "I hit upon the idea of using the attractive force of a small magnet connected with the pendulum. Bond of Boston; it could be applied to the pendulum of any clock without making alterations of the clock necessary or disturbing its uniform rate.
A mention of the new mechanism was followed by an article by Bond on his isodynamic escapement. He felt, however, that the success of the Observatory was assured, especially as it was to collaborate with two of the best American observatories in a great task, a large catalogue of stars, but he resigned in and went to Dudley Observatory, Albany, as Associate Director. His resignation was accepted apparently in good faith by the Regents, resolutions of commendation were passed, and the impression was given that he had left for the sake of a higher salary see also Part I: He retained the directorship of the Observatory at Ann Arbor without salary, and offered to advise Watson, who was left in charge.
At the same time, the Regents changed Watson's title to Professor of Astronomy and Instructor in Mathematics, against the advice of President Tappan, who considered the professorship premature.
Watson replied to the charges that no observations had been made in , that he had failed to respond to telegraphic signals in longitude determination, and that students and others were not permitted to visit the Observatory. He claimed that he had had to entertain visitors and that in spite of these handicaps observations had been carried on and computations had been made. The Regents were kindly disposed toward Watson; at his request they appropriated funds for improving the building, and their resolution to restrict visitors to the Observatory to one night a month, although it was tabled, is also indicative of their sympathetic attitude.
Publication at Ann Arbor was resumed in October, , and was continued through the issuance of the twenty-ninth and last number on March 18, Arrangements were made to carry out meridian-circle observations in connection with Hamilton College for the determination of the longitude of the Detroit Observatory. The adopted value for Harvard, with which Hamilton had been connected, was revised later, and the longitude of the Walker meridian circle at Ann Arbor is now fixed at 5 h 34 m 55 s.
Star observations, however, constituted his chief work during the remainder of his period of service in Ann Arbor. In his Popular Treatise on Comets appeared. He disproved that "dry fogs" were caused by comets and branded Whiston's attempt to account for the Biblical flood by their influence "the effect of a mind devoted to speculations. He became interested through Gould in the reduction of the Washington Zones, and devoted much time to this work.
His article, "On the Correction of the Elements of the Orbit of a Comet," published in the American Journal of Science and Arts in , later became the subject of attack. The administration of Watson as Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory began auspiciously in the fall of The Tappan party, however, was yet to be heard from. Cleveland Abbe contributed a paper somewhat similar but less detailed, entitled, "On the Improvement of the Elements of a Comet's Orbit: Watson's contributions, however, continued to appear in the Journal.
There was another bone of contention in that the site of the Observatory was inaccessible and that its foundation was unsteady. Citizens of Ann Arbor advocated the removal of the Observatory to the campus. Evans, of the Department of Modern Languages: And they really thought to blast my reputation by moving the Observatory! Every body knows … that I am responsible for everything respecting the Observatory excepting its location upon a hill. Haven, in his report for , called attention to the resources and the number of assistants of other observatories whose contributions to science during the preceding few years he intimated were not as great as those of the Detroit Observatory, and concluded: It has been for years conceded that a mistake was made in locating the Observatory.
The President of the University and the Director of the Observatory won the argument. The citizens of Ann Arbor were also convinced upon the cancellation of their subscriptions. In Descriptive Astronomy was included in the junior year of the classical, the scientific, the Latin and scientific, and the civil engineering programs of study. The special two-year program in higher astronomy was retained. Only the general topics which would "give direction to the lectures" were listed. Formation of the Fundamental Equations of Motion.
Correction of the Elements. Combination of Observations by Method of Least Squares. Special and General Perturbations. Determination of Time, Latitude, and Longitude. A course especially for students of engineering, Spherical and Practical Astronomy, was introduced in In the same year physics and mathematics were made prerequisites, and the order in which courses in astronomy might be elected was designated. Watson's general lectures in Astronomy 2 had to be preceded not only by Physics 1 but also by some elementary work in astronomy, "as Lockyer's, Loomis's, or White's.
Soon after his appointment as Director he began the preparation of ecliptic star charts to use in this work. Although the charts were not entirely completed they served their chief purpose by providing fields for search and comparison stars for the measurement of motion in the discovery of twenty-two asteroids. Watson found more than one-fifth of the total number discovered between and Eurynome to Clytemnestra. Juewa was discovered at Peking, China, during the transit-of-Venus expedition. For the discovery of six in , an unprecedented feat, and three previously, he was awarded the Lalande prize by the French Academy in Watson's "bagging asteroids" became a well-known local phrase.
An Eastern paper, the Providence Journal , Providence, Rhode Island, in contained an article with the following comment: One of the professors in Ann Arbor, Michigan, just received a gold medal from some European society for discovering nine of them … They are not of much account and gold medals might be more worthily bestowed.
He left a fund with the National Acaddemy of Science to provide for computing and publishing tables of his asteroids. The distinguished theoretical astronomer Simon Newcomb was on the first board of trustees of the Watson fund. The unruly asteroids provided a merry chase. Several proved so wayward that they eluded pursuit for many years.
In Watson accepted the supervision of work committed to him by Professor Benjamin Peirce of Harvard, Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, on the improvement of lunar tables for use in calculations for the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. Existing moon tables at that time needed correction, especially for practical navigation. Meridian observations and star occultations provided more exact data to check improved theory. In his report to the president in Watson stated that the work on lunar theory had progressed well.
During five years' work on the motion of the moon, the theories of Hansen and Peirce were compared with observations. The result was quite satisfactory, but was not published and is lost. Watson had charge of the transit-of-Venus expedition to Peking, China, in , which was his most important scientific commission. Two years before the event he was appointed astronomer-in-chief of the expedition by the United States Government and was granted a leave of absence for Several parties were sent out under the commission created by Congress. The scientific data obtained by the party to Peking is included in the volume on the Observations of the Transit of Venus, December , All four contacts were observed, although the times were somewhat uncertain because of thin clouds, unsteadiness of the image, the "black drop," and the atmosphere of Venus.
Watson called time and acted as recorder for her husband. In Watson interrupted his return trip from the expedition to China to cooperate with Egyptian engineers in establishing a fundamental geodetic survey. For this service he accepted no monetary honorarium, but was decorated as Knight Commander of the Imperial Order of the Medjidieh of Turkey and Egypt. He was present when Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his newly invented telephone.
Part of the expense was paid by Congress, and Watson's observations were reported to Washington. Instruments loaned by the government were returned, and an additional appropriation was secured to fit up the building and supplement the equipment for the students' observatory, which was being used more and more. Watson went on an eclipse expedition to Iowa in , on another to Sicily in , and on one to Wyoming in Coffin, superintendent of the American Nautical Almanac , who established his station at Burlington, Iowa. Watson, stationed at Mount Pleasant, Iowa, made the preliminary computations and directed the program, personally observing the prominences, their form and distribution, and also the form and extent of the corona.
On the way to the Sicily eclipse he was entertained at the Greenwich Observatory by the astronomer royal, Professor Airy, and after the event received the degree of doctor of philosophy at Leipzig and was made a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Italy. Upon his return to Michigan his speeches on his travels in Europe were enthusiastically received. The year centered Watson's attention on the problem of "Vulcan," a hypothetical planet within Mercury's orbit, postulated by Leverrier to account for the discrepancy between the observed and computed advance in the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury.
The "discovery" of Vulcan had been announced by Lescarbault, but later confirmation was lacking. Watson had obtained from Leverrier data with regard to Vulcan, including the computed times of its transit of the sun, and had made observations in search of the planet. On that occasion he thought he observed one, or perhaps two, intramercurial planets.
His observations were reported to Washington and also to the Astronomische Nachrichten.
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At the University this supposed discovery was accepted as "the most brilliant of the many achievements" of Watson. He had not only found Vulcan but also another planet. But the astronomical world was skeptical. Watson evidently was confident of the existence of Vulcan, for his later efforts were largely centered on this problem. No one has yet given an adequate explanation of Watson's supposed discovery of two intramercurial planets. Extensive photographic observations made during modern eclipses, mainly by Lick Observatory, have never disclosed any small planet within the orbit of Mercury, though objects far fainter than those noted by Watson should invariably have been discovered.
The only possible explanation seems to be that the objects he thought were intramercurial planets were in reality stars. Watson was freely criticized by students and public for not giving them the opportunity to visit the Observatory and to look through the large telescope. A few students expected to specialize in astronomy, but many wished to look through the famous instrument. At the beginning of his administration Watson evidently desired to meet this demand. In the fall of it was announced that the Observatory would be open to visitors every Friday night.
This practice, however, was short-lived. The class of claimed that there was a "want of enthusiasm apparent" when they were studying astronomy, and assigned it in part to the imperfect illustration which the subject received. In the following complaint was chronicled: A passing glance at pale Luna and girdled Jupiter was allowed each man as his row slided [sidled? Watson's absence while serving as a judge at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in was the occasion of a thrust by the Ann Arbor Courier at the "Accommodating?
Director of our Observatory": As juniors the class of showed more interest in the subject. They were "sworn admirers of Professor Watson and his mode of teaching" and looked on astronomy "as the most pleasant work of the year. Student elections in his courses were undoubtedly influenced by the wide acceptance of his Theoretical Astronomy , upon which his reputation as a writer was chiefly based. This authoritative work was completed in and published in ; in twelve seniors were enrolled in the advanced work, using it as a textbook. Two editions had been published in the United States and one in England since its first appearance, and it was used as a text at Oxford, Leipzig, Upsala, Breslau, and Utrecht.
It is a complete compilation and digest of the theory and method of orbital determination. Watson covered the whole field very thoroughly and drew pertinent material from every available source, but his great power of assimilation made it all his own. His ability to adapt theory to method and arrange complicated problems in convenient form for solution remains unexcelled. Watson advocated and practiced the lecture method and in this way contributed to the adoption of the elective system in the University.
His teaching methods were "somewhat peculiar," and the student response varied accordingly. Beadle '61, '67 l , LL.
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He was selective in method, and gave chief attention to those who showed aptness and efficiency. The more one loved the subject the closer Watson was to him. Due to his great celerity in the use of mathematics and enthusiasm for astronomy only comparatively few kept up with his lead.
President Angell placed a high estimate on Watson's achievements. Regarding his pedagogic methods the President said: In teaching he had none of the methods of the drill master. But his lecture or his talk was so stimulating that one could not but learn and love to learn by listening. Sometimes while discussing an intricate problem he would suddenly have an entirely new demonstration flash upon his mind as by inspiration and then and there he would write it out upon the blackboard.
Hinsdale comments that astronomy was one of the two fields in which the University's advanced work previous to really deserved the name of graduate study.
Volume 59, Issue 4
It was the "old astronomy," a study chiefly of the positions and motions of the heavenly bodies, that was taught, although spectrum analysis had been placed on a scientific basis in and later completely revolutionized the study of astronomy by the introduction of astrophysics.
As early as , however, special attention was called to the need of a spectroscope, but many years were to pass before this urgent need was supplied. Despite the Observatory's international reputation Watson was frequently hampered in his efforts to obtain instruments, assistants, and computers. In President Angell reported to the Regents: A committee of the Board of Regents reported in He apparently made a tentative arrangement in October, , and resigned February 7, Watson died in November, , less than two years after his departure; his illness was brought on by exposure while he was superintending construction of the astronomer's residence in Madison.
The funeral and memorial services for him were held in Ann Arbor. Harrington had been connected with the University in one capacity or another from , the date of his graduation, until He was Assistant Curator of the Museum and also taught a number of subjects, including mathematics, geology, zoology, and botany. In his instructorships included French, but he was released from this duty. In the summer of he went to Alaska as astronomical assistant on an expedition of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, and on his return in December, , presented the University with about two hundred and fifty botanical specimens, nearly one hundred geological specimens, and a few ethnological specimens.
He taught in the Department of Geology until and in the Department of Zoology and Botany until , when he was absent on leave to attend the University of Leipzig. The next year he resigned and went to China as Professor of Astronomy in the Cadet School of the Foreign Office at Peking, but returned to America in because of ill health. In he taught at the University of Louisiana. The measurement of requirements for the bachelor's degree by actual count of class and laboratory hours the "credit system" went into effect in , the year before Harrington came. Early in his administration the time devoted to Astronomy 2, General Astronomy, was extended from one to three meetings a week, and a new course in meteorology, Astronomy 5, was added.
Tridaily records of the barograph, thermograph, and anemograph were reported to the State Board of Health at Lansing. Schaeberle, Assistant in the Observatory, continued the observations chiefly with the Walker meridian circle which he had begun under Watson. Positions of stars he had earlier observed were published at the Washburn Observatory at the beginning of Watson's administration there.
Appended to Harrington's report was a letter from Schaeberle, who summarized the results he had obtained at the University between October 1, , and January 1, , as follows Harrington, p. Observations with the Walker Meridian Circle Stars for clock and instrumental corrections stars for latitude work Struve's double stars Planets 23 Total 1, With the equatorial telescope, observations were made on twenty-eight nights, chiefly on comets and comparison stars, some of which, not in catalogues, had to be observed with the meridian circle.
Two comets were discovered at Ann Arbor during this fifteen-month period. One had been previously seen, but one which Schaeberle found in April, , was new. He added another in The astronomical results which he and Harrington obtained appeared in various scientific publications. Harrington had a short leave of absence in the fall of in order to do astronomical work on the Pacific coast.
Further changes were made in the announcement of courses, and Schaeberle was given teaching duties as well as observational work. In the Observatory participated in the work on the great comet of that year. This comet attracted wide attention, not only because of the remarkable luminosity which made it visible by day, but also because opinion as to its identity was divided. Some held that it was identical with the great comet of and Comet I and that the periods had been shortened by passage through the solar corona at a distance of only , miles from the surface, and predicted still further decrease and final fall into the sun.
After perihelion the nucleus divided into four parts and even fainter components were seen. The view was then accepted that these three comets were different but followed nearly the same track when close to the sun. Other comets have since been added to this famous group. The greater part of Harrington's published contributions was in the new field of meteorology rather than in astronomy. His work in establishing the American Meteorological Journal in and in serving as its editor until stimulated great interest and inspired investigations by others.
His thesis is well stated: Another of the publications by Harrington is an undated treatise of twenty-five pages, The Law of Averages , in which he describes the curve of frequency and gives an application of some of its properties. Otto Dziobek of Berlin-Charlottenburg, was begun in Ann Arbor by Harrington in collaboration with William Joseph Hussey, but was not published until , when both had left the department. Schaeberle continued his observational work until , when he resigned and went to Lick Observatory, Mount Hamilton, California.
William Wallace Campbell '86 e , Sc. Wisconsin '02 , later president of the University of California, was then appointed Instructor in Astronomy, and held the position until he also went to Lick Observatory in Campbell, who had received his practical training as an astronomer under Schaeberle, carried on the observational work, chiefly on comets and their orbital determination, and in published his Elements of Practical Astronomy.
In June, , Harrington was granted another leave of absence for the first semester of the coming year and William Joseph Hussey '89 e , Sc. Harrington then went to Washington to reorganize the meteorological work of the government, and on July 1, , became first Chief of the Weather Bureau. The government work on the weather had formerly been under the Signal Service, where army discipline had been maintained.
He was not a disciplinarian, and in the role of first civilian chief, with methods acquired in educational work, did not succeed as an executive. After four years he was removed from his position. Then he served for two years as president of the University of Washington. He was recalled six months later and stationed at New York, but retired in June, , because of failing mental and physical health. Soon after retirement he wandered from home and no word came from him excepting a weird message or two and an occasional news item regarding a strange learned character working at menial labor in out-of-the-way places.
He even wandered as far as China, the scene of earlier professorial service. In June, , an applicant for shelter appeared at a police station in Newark, New Jersey, unable to identify himself or give an account of his wanderings. In the sanitarium where he was placed he acquired a reputation for great learning, which spread outside and was the means of his discovery by his wife and son in His condition showed some improvement, but he did not recover sufficiently to remain at home.
He died October 9, During the year some of the announced courses were not given; meteorology was dropped and has never been offered since that time in the Department of Astronomy.
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Yale '89 , was appointed Professor of Astronomy and Director of the Observatory. Hall, unlike the second and third directors of the Observatory, was not Michigan-trained. The announced courses of instruction were continued with very slight change; they included General Astronomy, Spherical and Practical Astronomy, Theoretical Astronomy, and an extended practical course, Astronomy 9, to which only students who received special permission were admitted.