Every yard of asphalt road that connects those buildings is also made with sand. So is every window in every one of those buildings. In India, the amount of construction sand used annually has more than tripled since , and is still rising fast. There is so much demand for certain types of construction sand that Dubai, which sits on the edge of an enormous desert, imports sand from Australia.
China in particular is on a city-building spree that beggars anything the world has ever seen. Over half a billion Chinese now live in urban areas, triple the total of 60 years ago. Even Nanchang, the unglamorous provincial city that is the nearest major urban area to Lake Poyang, is fringed with fast-growing forests of high-rise apartment blocks. In the past few years, China has used more cement than the US used in the entire 20th century. Last year alone, the nation used enough construction sand to cover the entire state of New York an inch deep.
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All that sand has to come from somewhere. In the region around Shanghai, it came until recently from the bed of the Yangtze River.
Sand mining: the global environmental crisis you’ve probably never heard of
That turned out to be a bad idea. By the late s miners had pulled out so much that bridges were undermined, shipping was snarled, and 1,ft swaths of riverbank collapsed. Unnerved by the damage to a waterway that provides water to million people, Chinese authorities banned sand mining on the Yangtze in That sent the miners swarming to Poyang Lake. The boats used to dig up the sand are essentially gigantic floating platforms, fitted with two huge conveyor belts studded with buckets that haul up sand from the bottom of the lake. The sand is then transferred to transport ships. In one narrow part of the lake, dozens of dredgers extend from the shore in a line, leaving only a narrow passageway for a tugboat hauling a barge piled up with yellow sand.
Sand mining is causing environmental damage worldwide. In some places locals dig out riverbanks with shovels and haul it away with pickup trucks or donkeys; in others multinational companies dredge it up with machinery. Everywhere, the process impacts its surroundings in ways that range from cosmetic to catastrophic. In mid-January, just north of Monterey, California , several dozen cheering activists made an odd political statement: They were returning the grains to where they had come from.
The sand had originally been mined from that beach — a beach which, according to researchers, is gradually disappearing as a result. The beach is the only one in the US that is still being mined for construction sand. Cemex, a global construction firm based in Mexico, operates a dredger that sucks up an estimated , cubic metres of sand every year. The Cemex plant is still operating thanks to a legal loophole — it appears to sit above the mean high-tide line, putting it out of federal jurisdiction. But protesters want state authorities to step in. Environmentalists in many places are similarly calling on their governments to rein in sand mining.
In Northern Ireland, activists are trying to stop dredging in Lough Neagh, an important bird sanctuary. In southern England, developers want to dredge sand to expand the port of Dover from a stretch of offshore sandbars and shoals, prompting an outcry from conservationists who fear that would endanger the seals, birds and other marine life for whom the sandbars provide habitat and food. Different types of sand mining inflict different types of damage. Dredging from river beds destroys the habitat of bottom-dwelling creatures and organisms.
The churned-up sediment clouds the water, suffocating fish and blocking the sunlight that sustains underwater vegetation. Kenyan officials shut down all river sand mines in one part of the country a few years ago because of the environmental damage it was causing. Sand extraction from rivers has also caused millions of dollars in damage to infrastructure. When stirred, sediment clogs up water supply equipment, and all the earth removed from river banks leaves the foundations of bridges exposed and unsupported. In Ghana, sand miners have dug up so much ground that they have exposed the foundations of hillside buildings, putting them at risk of collapse.
Sand mining caused a bridge to collapse in Taiwan in , and another the following year in Portugal , as a bus was passing over it; 70 people were killed. Another bridge collapse in India in that killed 26 may have been caused by sand mining, though the local government denies it.
In Wisconsin and Minnesota, farmers fear that a recent boom in sand mining is polluting their water and air. As land quarries and riverbeds become exhausted, sand miners are turning to the seas. Sand mining contributes to the construction of buildings and development.
However, the negative effects of sand mining include the permanent loss of sand in areas, as well as major habitat destruction. Sand mining is a practice that is becoming an environmental issue in India. Environmentalists have raised public awareness of illegal sand mining in the states of Maharashtra , Madhya Pradesh  and Goa of India. Ravi , an Indian Administrative Service officer of the Karnataka state, who was well known for his tough crackdown on the rampant illegal sand mining in the Kolar district , was found dead at his residence in Bengaluru , on March 16, It is widely alleged that the death is not due to suicide but the handiwork of the mafia involved in land grabbing and sand mining.
Recently, activists and local villagers have protested against sand mining on Sierra Leone's Western Area Peninsular. The activity is contributing to Sierra Leone's coastal erosion, which is proceeding at up to 6 meters a year.
Sand mining - Wikipedia
The current size of the sand mining market in the United States is slightly over a billion dollars per year. The majority of the market size for mining is held by Texas and Illinois. Silica sand mining business has more than doubled since because of the need for this particular type of sand, which is used in a process known as hydraulic fracturing. As of , Wisconsin, along with other northern states, is facing an industrial mining boom, being dubbed the "sand rush" because of the new demand from large oil companies for silica sand.
The recent boom in silica sand mining has caused concern from residents in Wisconsin that include quality of life issues and the threat of silicosis. However, these are issues that the state has no authority to regulate. According to the WDNR these issues include noise, lights, hours of operation, damage and excessive wear to roads from trucking traffic, public safety concerns from the volume of truck traffic, possible damage and annoyance resulting from blasting, and concerns regarding aesthetics and land use changes.
As of , industrial frac sand mining has become a cause for activism, especially in the Driftless Area of southeast Minnesota, northeast Iowa and southwest Wisconsin. Much sand is extracted by dredges from the bottom of rivers such as the Red River in Yunnan , or quarried in dry river beds. Due to the large demand for sand for construction, illicit sand mining is not uncommon.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mining in Australia and Cronulla sand dunes, Kurnell Peninsula. Sand mining in India.
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Mining in New Zealand. The Sydney Morning Herald. Florida sand shortage leaves beaches in lurch". Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 22 April Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved 17 March Retrieved 16 March The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 9 August