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Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition.

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Beauty videos are popular. Michelle Phan, for example has over 1. YouTube is an amazing resource for market research — you can soon discover whether your brilliant, innovative idea is likely to be profitable. The views and comments on your videos will tell you whether your idea is viable in its present form. The YouTube audience can even help you to make it viable, so that your efforts to get funding are successful. You need to do everything you can to ensure that your videos get found. In its Creator Playbook, YouTube tells you how to create your meta data:.

Optimizing your videos for search makes the difference between success and failure, so be sure to do it. Even if you have no clear idea on how you could make money on YouTube, get started creating videos about your interests. You may just stumble across a gold mine… just as the people who turned their pets into stars have done.

As Forbes points out, [7]. If you are lucky, you could shoot a video of your child, pet, or a double rainbow that strikes a chord and goes viral. So keep your video camera handy. If you see something cute, video it, and upload the video. You never know who or what will be the next video sensation. So there you have it — eleven creative ways you can make money on YouTube.

See YouTube as a facilitator to make money, not a monetizing platform.

It would be much more easy for viewer to catch your content if you publish it in a specific timeframe in a regular basis. It might also make them more tending to following your channel, which is to subscribe to you. It is crucial to have base audience which would always come for your content so that you can ensure your number of views for each video.

This also is ensuring a steady amount of income. Crowdfunding is becoming more and more common with the introduction of Kickstarter and Indiegogo. It could be a great source of money if you have a great idea for a media project on YouTube. Not only does it generate your initial fund, it also contributes to establish audience and revenue for your project in the future.

For example, famous YouTube channel Corridor Digital uses Patreon as a way to fund their videos or movie projects, with return of special perks for these supporters. Lots of company nowadays provide sponsorship to YouTube channels for direct advertisement. A common source would be Audible from Amazon which frequently sponsor knowledge-giving show such as Vsauce and Veritasium. The good thing about it is that you can directly receive the sponsored amount rather than splitting it with YouTube.

How to Make Money on YouTube: 14 Creative and Effective Ways

To reach for a sponsorship you might need to work on a detail proposal about the things you are able to provide. Make sure you know well about your audience and the brand you are approaching. It is important to check your progress regularly in order to tell if you are still on the right track in terms of finance. Sets goals for yourself to measure. If you are not meeting the goals. It might be a signal for you to work on some changes. Quality content is always the key to attract viewers.

And to have high quality content you can never be lack of creativity. The internet is changing so fast that a trend can come and go within a week. New ways for you to gain extra revenue could pop up without you noticing. So be creative with your use of resources. Always explore new ways and ideas for production and you may have unexpected returns. Achieving financial success is not something that just happens. Maybe if you win the lottery or something, but for the average person like you or me, it comes from a series of small steps you take over a long period of time.

With each step, you form a new smart money habit. And with each smart money habit, you build towards financial independence. So what sort of habits can you form to get on that path? And cutting your transportation bill by purchasing a cheaper car or taking public transportation can provide large gains as well. It starts as a kid in the checkout line at the grocery store, and it continues on through adulthood.

A good example is wanting a new car. You start digging around online, and you realize you could trade in your current car for something newer and more exciting… all for a few hundred bucks a month. Then you get obsessed. Your newfound obsession is clouding your judgement. Rather than giving into the impulse, wait it out. Set a timeframe for yourself. Maybe you come back to the decision three months down the road. See if the obsession lasts. It might, but often, a funny thing happens. Often, you forget about it. And after all, it was all due to your hard work.

However, make it a one-time deal and be done. Too often, people get more money and feel like they that gives them the means to buy a bigger house, a bigger car… you know the drill. The fact is that living smaller than what you can afford is one of the fastest ways to build savings. Only later in evolutionary time did DNA take over as the genetic material and proteins become the major catalyst and structural component of cells. If this idea is correct, then the transition out of the RNA world was never complete; as we have seen in this chapter, RNA still catalyzes several fundamental reactions in modern-day cells, which can be viewed as molecular fossils of an earlier world.

Time line for the universe, suggesting the early existence of an RNA world of living systems. In this section we outline some of the arguments in support of the RNA world hypothesis. We will see that several of the more surprising features of modern-day cells, such as the ribosome and the pre- mRNA splicing machinery, are most easily explained by viewing them as descendants of a complex network of RNA-mediated interactions that dominated cell metabolism in the RNA world.

We also discuss how DNA may have taken over as the genetic material, how the genetic code may have arisen, and how proteins may have eclipsed RNA to perform the bulk of biochemical catalysis in modern-day cells.

Life Requires Autocatalysis

In principle, an elaborate system of molecular synthesis and breakdown metabolism could have existed on these surfaces long before the first cells arose. But life requires molecules that possess a crucial property: Catalysts with this special self-promoting property can use raw materials to reproduce themselves and thereby divert these same materials from the production of other substances. But what molecules could have had such autocatalytic properties in early cells?

In present-day cells the most versatile catalysts are polypeptides, composed of many different amino acids with chemically diverse side chains and, consequently, able to adopt diverse three-dimensional forms that bristle with reactive chemical groups. But, although polypeptides are versatile as catalysts, there is no known way in which one such molecule can reproduce itself by directly specifying the formation of another of precisely the same sequence.

Polynucleotides have one property that contrasts with those of polypeptides: This capacity depends on complementary base pairing of nucleotide subunits, which enables one polynucleotide to act as a template for the formation of another. As we have seen in this and the preceding chapter, such complementary templating mechanisms lie at the heart of DNA replication and transcription in modern-day cells. But the efficient synthesis of polynucleotides by such complementary templating mechanisms requires catalysts to promote the polymerization reaction: Today, template -based nucleotide polymerization is rapidly catalyzed by protein enzymes—such as the DNA and RNA polymerases.

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How could it be catalyzed before proteins with the appropriate enzymatic specificity existed? The beginnings of an answer to this question were obtained in , when it was discovered that RNA molecules themselves can act as catalysts. We have seen in this chapter, for example, that a molecule of RNA is the catalyst for the peptidyl transferase reaction that takes place on the ribosome.

The unique potential of RNA molecules to act both as information carrier and as catalyst forms the basis of the RNA world hypothesis. RNA therefore has all the properties required of a molecule that could catalyze its own synthesis Figure Although self-replicating systems of RNA molecules have not been found in nature, scientists are hopeful that they can be constructed in the laboratory.

While this demonstration would not prove that self-replicating RNA molecules were essential in the origin of life on Earth, it would certainly suggest that such a scenario is possible.

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An RNA molecule that can catalyze its own synthesis. This hypothetical process would require catalysis of the production of both a second RNA strand of complementary nucleotide sequence and the use of this second RNA molecule as a template to form many more Although RNA seems well suited to form the basis for a self-replicating set of biochemical catalysts, it is unlikely that RNA was the first kind of molecule to do so. From a purely chemical standpoint, it is difficult to imagine how long RNA molecules could be formed initially by purely nonenzymatic means.

For one thing, the precursors of RNA, the ribonucleotides, are difficult to form nonenzymatically. Given these problems, it has been suggested that the first molecules to possess both catalytic activity and information storage capabilities may have been polymers that resemble RNA but are chemically simpler Figure We do not have any remnants of these compounds in present-day cells, nor do such compounds leave fossil records.

Structures of RNA and two related information-carrying polymers. In each case, B indicates the positions of purine and pyrimidine bases. The transition between the pre- RNA world and the RNA world would have occurred through the synthesis of RNA using one of these simpler compounds as both template and catalyst. The plausibility of this scheme is supported by laboratory experiments showing that one of these simpler forms PNA—see Figure can act as a template for the synthesis of complementary RNA molecules, because the overall geometry of the bases is similar in the two molecules.

Presumably, pre-RNA polymers also catalyzed the formation of ribonucleotide precursors from simpler molecules. Once the first RNA molecules had been produced, they could have diversified gradually to take over the functions originally carried out by the pre-RNA polymers, leading eventually to the postulated RNA world. We have seen that complementary base -pairing and other types of hydrogen bonds can occur between nucleotides in the same chain, causing an RNA molecule to fold up in a unique way determined by its nucleotide sequence see, for example, Figures , , and Comparisons of many RNA structures have revealed conserved motifs, short structural elements that are used over and over again as parts of larger structures.

Some of these RNA secondary structural motifs are illustrated in Figure In addition, a few common examples of more complex and often longer-range interactions, known as RNA tertiary interactions, are shown in Figure Common elements of RNA secondary structure. Examples of RNA tertiary interactions. Some of these interactions can join distant parts of the same RNA molecule or bring two separate RNA molecules together.

Protein catalysts require a surface with unique contours and chemical properties on which a given set of substrates can react discussed in Chapter 3. In exactly the same way, an RNA molecule with an appropriately folded shape can serve as an enzyme Figure Like some proteins, many of these ribozymes work by positioning metal ions at their active sites.

This feature gives them a wider range of catalytic activities than can be accounted for solely by the limited chemical groups of the polynucleotide chain. This ribozyme is found embedded in larger RNA genomes—called viroids—which infect plants. The cleavage, which occurs in nature at a distant location on more Relatively few catalytic RNAs exist in modern-day cells, however, and much of our inference about the RNA world has come from experiments in which large pools of RNA molecules of random nucleotide sequences are generated in the laboratory.

Those rare RNA molecules with a property specified by the experimenter are then selected out and studied Figure Experiments of this type have created RNAs that can catalyze a wide variety of biochemical reactions Table , and suggest that the main difference between protein enzymes and ribozymes lies in their maximum reaction speed, rather than in the diversity of the reactions that they can catalyze. Although a specific example that of an autophosphorylating more Like proteins, RNAs can undergo allosteric conformational changes, either in response to small molecules or to other RNAs.

One artificially created ribozyme can exist in two entirely different conformations, each with a different catalytic activity Figure Moreover, the structure and function of the rRNAs in the ribosome alone have made it clear that RNA is an enormously versatile molecule. It is therefore easy to imagine that an RNA world could reach a high level of biochemical sophistication.

An RNA molecule that folds into two different ribozymes. This nucleotide RNA, created in the laboratory, can fold into a ribozyme that carries out a self-ligation reaction left or a self-cleavage reaction right. The three-dimensional folded structure of a polynucleotide affects its stability, its actions on other molecules, and its ability to replicate. Therefore, certain polynucleotides will be especially successful in any self-replicating mixture. Because errors inevitably occur in any copying process, new variant sequences of these polynucleotides will be generated over time.

Certain catalytic activities would have had a cardinal importance in the early evolution of life. Consider in particular an RNA molecule that helps to catalyze the process of templated polymerization, taking any given RNA molecule as a template.

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This ribozyme activity has been directly demonstrated in vitro , albeit in a rudimentary form that can only synthesize moderate lengths of RNA. Such a molecule, by acting on copies of itself, can replicate. At the same time, it can promote the replication of other types of RNA molecules in its neighborhood Figure If some of these neighboring RNAs have catalytic actions that help the survival of RNA in other ways catalyzing ribonucleotide production, for example , a set of different types of RNA molecules, each specialized for a different activity, may evolve into a cooperative system that replicates with unusually great efficiency.