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This event, literary historian Z. Ornea argued, followed a time of indecision: The exact date of his reception is a mystery. Ornea, who argued that the episode may have been entirely invented by the Junimist leader, and noted that it contradicted both Negruzzi's accounts and minutes kept by A. He also became treasured for his talkative and jocular nature, self-effacing references to himself as a "peasant", and eventually his debut works, which became subjects of his own public readings. Autumn is also often described as his actual debut in fiction prose, with " The Mother with Three Daughters-in-Law ", a short story first publish in October by the club's magazine Convorbiri Literare.

After losing his job as school inspector following the decisions of a hostile National Liberal executive, [63] Mihai Eminescu spent much of his time in Bojdeuca , where he was looked after by the couple. Despite his activity being much reduced, he still kept himself informed about the polemics agitating Romania's cultural and political scene.

He was also occasionally hosting Eminescu, witnessing his friend's struggle with mental disorder. The two failed to reconnect, and their relationship ended. Seeking to revitalize Romanian literature by recovering authenticity, and reacting against those cultural imports it deemed excessive, the group notably encouraged individual creativity among peasants. Summoning the creativity of the peasant class and placing it in direct contact with the aristocrats is the work of Junimea. Nevertheless, it is through Junimea that surfaced the first gesture of transmitting a literary direction to some writers of rural extraction: Please read these as well, and where it should be that they don't agree with you, take hold of a pen and come up with something better, for this is all I could see myself doing and did.

An exception among Junimea promoters was Eminescu, himself noted for expressing a dissenting social perspective which only partly mirrored Maiorescu's take on conservatism. Two worlds which represent, in fact, two characteristic steps and two sociopolitical models in the evolution of Romanian structures which The recourse to oral literature schemes made it into his writings, where it became a defining trait.

Among these characteristic touches were interrogations addressed to the readers as imaginary listeners, and pausing for effect with the visual aid of ellipsis. In other cases, the short riddles relate to larger themes, such as divine justification for one's apparent fortune:.

Too much 'atmosphere', too much dialogic 'humor', too much polychromy at the expense of linear epic movements. The peasant wants the bare epic and desires the unreal. Ion Budai-Deleanu , an early 19th-century representative of the Transylvanian School , whose style mixes erudite playfulness with popular tastes. It would have been more natural for such a prose writer to have emerged a few centuries later, into an era of Romanian humanism. These accounts detail his playing the ignorant in front of fellow Junimists in order not to antagonize sides during literary debates notably, by declaring himself "for against" during a two-option vote , his irony in reference to his own admirers such as when he asked two of them to treasure the photograph of himself in the middle and the two of them on either side, while comparing it to the crucifixion scene and implicitly assigning them the role of thieves , and his recourse to puns and proverbs which he usually claimed to be citing from oral tradition and the roots of Romanian humor.

American critic Ruth S. Lamb, the writer's style merges "the rich vocabulary of the Moldavian peasant" with "an original gaiety and gusto comparable to that of Rabelais.


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The latter notices and generously rewards the girl's helpful nature and mastery of cooking; in contrast, when her envious sister attempts the same and fails, she ends up being eaten by serpent-like creatures balauri. In one such episode, pretending not to understand the proper position of bodies inside a coffin, he tricks impatient Death into taking his place, and traps her inside.

The tale builds on intricate symbolism stemming from obscure sources. Once retold with a different kind of gesticulation, the subject would lose all of its lively atmosphere. One of the sisters who was passing through his room, seeing that he was quietly asleep, gave him a kiss. When the prince awoke and Guiomar spoke to him he did not know her. And when the girl perceived it she remembered her mother's imprecation and went to live in a separate house which stood in front of the palace; and every day she dressed and adorned herself very well, and sat at one of the windows looking out.

One day, as three of the chamberlains were at the palace window, they said one to the other "Who can that girl be, opposite to us? I have a mind to go and ask her if she will allow me to speak to her. The girl replied that she was quite willing and appointed him to come at four o'clock in the afternoon.

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When the chamberlain entered in and saw the girl he sat down to converse with her, until it was nearly dark; and then the girl said, "It is now almost night and my servant does not come to light a candle for me. He tried to strike fire with the steel and flint, but do what he would he could not succeed in lighting the tinder, whilst his fingers were hurt and bleeding. He left the house very much mortified and vexed at what had happened to him, and returned to the palace. The girl had done all this to fascinate the prince by means of witchcraft, and to induce him, as will be seen, to come and speak to her.

The chamberlain related what had happened to him, and one of the other three chamberlains said, "I lay a wager that I shall go there to-morrow and that she will not treat me in the same way. The chamberlain entered and commenced to converse with the girl; and when they had been chatting for some time the girl said, "I am very thirsty, but my servant does not come to give me water. He took up a glass and from a jar on the table commenced to pour out water, but the water instead of being poured into the glass went over him, so that he was thoroughly drenched.

He left the house vexed and mortified, and returned to the palace. He recounted what had happened to him, and then the third chamberlain said, "I lay a wager that if I go and see the girl she will not treat me in this way. The prince found all three chamberlains very bitterly complaining of pain and vexation, and he asked them what was the matter, and they told him what had happened to them.

The curiosity of the prince being roused, he said, "I also shall go to see the girl and try if the same thing will happen to me. The prince went up the stairs, pushed open a door he came to, and he there found a public road along which an old man with a sack on his back was trudging along. He asked him the way to the queen's room, and the old man replied,. I sell nuts, and buy garlics, I buy garlics and sell nuts. Tinkle, tinkle, tinkle, The bell goes for mass, Quick! At this the prince commenced to recollect that he had heard that before.

He went on further and he came to another door, and inside he found that there was a river and the eel. That moment he recollected everything that had been dismissed from his mind, and falling upon his knees he begged the girl's pardon for his forgetfulness of her. The girl transformed herself back into her natural state, married the prince, and they lived happily ever after.

There was once a king who had a daughter whom he dearly loved. The princess had the habit of combing herself, and on being ready dressed would go to the garden for a flower to place in her hair. But when she was there she invariably heard a voice which said, "When will you have your troubles, when you are young or when you are old? I hear always a voice which says to me, when I go and gather a flower, 'Which will you do, go through your troubles in your youth or in your old age?

She heard the same voice which always spoke to her, and when it asked her the usual question the princess replied that she would rather go through her troubles in her youth than in her old age. Then the voice rejoined, "Take leave here of every thing that is yours. After this the voice led her through the air, and placed her on the top of a windmill.


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The owner of the windmill said that he missed the flour, and he began to throw stones at the princess. Next day the voice came for her at the same hour as the day before, and again took her through the air, and went and placed her on the banks of a river where some washerwomen were washing their clothes. The washerwomen began to say one to the other, "Just see, there goes the thief who steals the clothes which we have missed. The next day the same voice came for her at the same hour, and again led her through the air, and placed her at the gate of a garden.

The gardener had hardly seen her when he began to say that it was she who was in the habit of stealing his fruit, and went in and began to pelt her with stones. Next day at the same hour the voice came back for her and took her through the air, and placed her at the door of a beautiful garden close to a palace. The voice then asked the princess if she remembered the time when she used to go to the garden. She replied that she did not recollect. A while after the cook looked out of a window of the palace, and seeing there a maiden that appeared to him to be very beautiful, in spite of her being now so unrecognizable, went in and told the prince that there was a most lovely maiden in the garden.

The prince bade him call her in, but the princess said she would not go in, because she was waiting that the voice should come for her as it always did. The prince again said, "Go and call her, for she will recognise me! When the prince saw her he said to her, "Do you not recollect how one day you said to me, 'May you vanish like the wind. It was not I in person, but it was my voice that spoke to you in the garden. The prince then said, "It is now three years since you left your father's house.

The day after to-morrow we must go there, for he and your family are badly off. Here you have this pin; do not lose it or give it to any one, for you would break my enchantment. The prince went and placed her in the very same spot from whence he had sought and carried her away, and said to her, "Now bear in mind that you are only to stay here two days. She gave a rap at the door, and asked if they required a maid to dress the queen. The king, who was sitting down, imagined that he heard the voice of his daughter, and on rising, as he was very weak, he fell and broke his head.

The princess, in great distress, said, deliberately and slowly, "Oh, pin!

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The voice then said, "It is better that you should come away with me;" and he took her through the air. When the princess arrived at the palace she received news that her father had died. One day the prince said to her, "Remember, that to-morrow is to be the day of our marriage. After this he ordered all the kings to be invited, whilst the father of the princess was also asked, and came. The father had hardly set his eyes upon the princess when he said, "Is this the way you have repaid me, you ungrateful girl? On your account I broke my head, and you left me and went away.

After the marriage the prince ordered another palace to be built in another spot. The princess had the walnut which her father gave her always well guarded; but when everything was taken away from the palace they were in, to remove to the other one newly erected, the princess, who had the walnut in her hands, allowed it to fall to the ground. At that moment the palace was set on fire, and everything was burned. Being very much alarmed, she went and told everything to the prince. After a time the princess gave birth to a prince—a very pretty boy.

A great banquet was given, and the prince was on the point of inviting the father to it, but, fearing that he should kill the child, did not do so. One day, when the child was older, they took it out for a walk. As they proceeded through a certain road, they met a servant of the princess's father. The prince then asked him who it was had sent him, and the servant confessed that it was the princess's father.

She asked him not to kill the child, but go and be her servant; and he therefore joined them to go to the palace. The princess now returned home, and every river they crossed presented a different appearance to her,—the first was a river of milk, the next one further on was of water covered with a mist, and further on still she came to another filled with blood. The princess, very much alarmed, asked the prince, "What can all this mean? There was once a king who had an only son, and opposite to the palace lived a man who had a son named Pedro, of the same age as the prince.

One day the prince said to the king that he was very desirous to take a journey, but that he would like to go with Pedro. The king then said, "Then my son do you wish to go with Pedro instead of proceeding with your retinue? The king then ordered two of the best and finest horses in the army to be got ready, one for the prince and the other for Pedro.

They travelled much, they saw many beautiful lands, and when they arrived at a certain place they dismounted. The prince told Pedro to mind his horse whilst he should go to drink some water. Meanwhile the prince disappeared. Pedro, very much distressed, ran everywhere seeking him; but not finding him he returned to the city, and as he was passing by a pond where there were many washerwomen who were witches, he heard much laughing among them, and they were saying, "How foolish he is, he thought he was going to accompany the prince, and that he would be recompensed by the king for his services!

Now go and disenchant him from where he is! One of them, taking compassion upon him, bade him go to an old palace which was close by. Pedro did so, went in, but did not see anything but orange and lemon trees, and did not meet with any one. Full of rage he commenced to pluck the oranges and lemons, and to throw them on the ground. Each lemon and orange that he threw on the ground was a prince and a princess, who had been until then under a spell, whilst his own prince became disenchanted.

Full of joy Pedro entreated him to return with him to his own country; but the prince saw one of the princesses who had been disenchanted and fell in love with her. He told Pedro that he wished to take her with him; they therefore proceeded on their journey, taking the princess with them. They were much fatigued after a time, and as they could not find a house where they could remain and rest Pedro told them that they could take shelter and pass the night in a shed which stood in a court-yard which he had discovered.

The prince and princess accepted the offer very willingly, for they were very tired and travel-worn, and instead of lying down Pedro remained as sentry to keep watch, well armed to defend them. In the middle of the night he heard the witches on the top of the shed in fits of laughter, and he heard one of them say "What a foolish man he is! On her riding it, it will break down, and whoever shall hear this and repeat it shall be turned into marble.

Shortly after the day dawned, and Pedro was in great distress of mind. They continued their journey, and when they reached a certain spot there appeared a very handsome mule, and the princess immediately coveted to ride upon it as she felt very tired.

The instant Pedro heard her say so he ran before her and killed the animal. The prince was very much surprised at this act of Pedro, but as he was fond of him said nothing about it. They went further on and saw a pear tree. The princess longed to taste a pear, but Pedro ran before them and buried the pears. The prince here manifested his annoyance at the act. They proceeded on further and Pedro saw a bridge at a distance; he ran in front and paid some workmen to destroy the bridge that the princess should not be able to cross it.

The prince was very angry and reprehended Pedro, but he replied that later on he would give his highness a satisfactory reason for acting as he did. On their arrival at the palace there was much rejoicing in the capital on receiving the prince and the princess. Their marriage was solemnised and Pedro said that he must perforce sleep in the same room on the first night as the bride and bridegroom. The prince urged that it was impossible, but Pedro remained firm and said that it must be; and he remained armed standing by the window.

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Far into the night he saw the witch, like a phantom, come in sword in hand in order to behead the princess and the prince. Pedro raised his sword and wrestled with the phantom, but without any such intention he struck the princess's face and drew blood. The princess awoke with a start and commenced to cry out that Pedro was a traitor who wanted to behead her. The prince was very wrathful and said that Pedro must die. He however said to the prince that he did not mind that, but that before he was put to death he would ask the king to give a banquet to all his court, as he had something to declare.

The king acceded to his petition, gave a great banquet to the court, and Pedro on the occasion sat at the royal table. At the end of the banquet Pedro took occasion to narrate all he had heard the witches say on the night when they remained and took shelter under a shed. As he narrated the part which referred to the mule his legs began to harden into stone. As he began to recount what the second witch had said he was already turned into stone as far as his knees.

The Prince seeing which asked Pedro not to continue any further to relate what he had heard the witches say, as he had already commuted the sentence of death passed upon him, satisfied of his innocence. But Pedro determined to declare all he had heard the witches say, and as he finished narrating what the last one had said he was turned completely into a marble statue. The prince, much distressed, ordered the statue of marble to be placed under the bed in his room. At the end of the year the princess had a boy; and when the prince was once in his room, sometime after the event, alone with the child, the witch appeared and said to him, "You are a great friend and patron of Pedro, but you are not capable of killing your son and bathing the marble statue with his blood; did you do so, the marble statue would turn again into Pedro himself.

Pedro began to move! He then proceeded to bathe the statue with its blood, and immediately the stone was turned again into Pedro. When the princess returned to the room the prince told her that the little boy her son had fallen from the bed to the floor and had died. The princess in great affliction and grief ordered a beautiful mausoleum to be erected in the garden to place the child's corpse in it. The following day when they were all celebrating with a great feast the event that Pedro had come to life again, the little boy also returned to life.

He was found playing in the garden with some little stones. Great was their joy, and they all lived very happily and contentedly. A man used to go about the streets crying out, "Who'll buy troubles? The maid bought the flowers and planted them in the garden, and the queen went every day to watch their growth and tend them. One day, as she was taking a walk in the garden, she saw a rabbit running past, and she told her maid of honour to try and catch it.

The maid seized it, and then fastened it up with her garter. They then continued their walk, and, whilst they were giving a turn round the garden, the rabbit escaped with the garter round its neck. The princess was very sorry to lose it, and the following day, at the same hour, took another turn round the garden, and she again saw the same rabbit running. She told her maid to catch hold of it, which she did, and this time she fastened it up with a handkerchief. They took another turn round the garden, and whilst they did so the rabbit escaped with the handkerchief.

When the princess, with her maid of honour, returned to the spot where they had left the rabbit, she was grieved to find that the little animal was gone. Next day, at the same hour, the princess took her usual walk in the pleasure ground, and again saw the rabbit. She then threw down the gold necklet with the king's portrait which she wore, and told her maid to fasten the rabbit with it, as they could now take their walk without anxiety, because the little animal thus secured would not be able to run away.

But the moment they turned round to take their walk, the rabbit went away with the necklet and portrait. When the queen returned, and missed the rabbit in its place, she went into the palace and fell ill from sorrow. The court physicians came, and said that what her highness suffered was from being in love, and gave orders that she was to be taken out for walks and amused. Many persons were called in to relate the most beautiful stories known to the princess, but she paid no heed to them. There were two old women living together who were sisters; and one day one of them said to the other, "Oh!

But the old woman remained obstinate, and said, "Never mind, any way I shall go to the palace with mine! After that she saw an ass with gold panniers come out from under the milestone which she sat upon; and saw hands that led the ass, but could see no one. The old woman waited for the donkey to return, and when it did so she held on by the panniers, and descended some steps until she reached a palace of great splendour.

There was a table laid with every good thing, and the woman sat down to it, and partook of everything. When she had finished her repast she began to look about her, and she saw many hands doing the work, but she could see no one, nor anything else whatever; she could only see hands. When night set in she laid down; and, very early in the morning, she saw a rabbit enter from the garden.

The rabbit went and bathed in a tub, and became transformed into a handsome prince; he went to the looking-glass and began combing himself, and repeated:. He then again bathed himself in the tub, and once more became changed into the rabbit, and it departed. The old woman then had her breakfast, and, when she saw that the ass with the golden panniers was going out, she held on by them and went out with the ass also.

When she found herself in the high road she walked on to the palace of the princess, and on arriving there she said that she wished to see the princess, to relate a story to her which she was sure would amuse her. The princess was reposing on a couch, and when she saw the old woman she turned towards the wall. The old woman paid no heed to that, but began her story.

The princess had scarcely commenced to hear the story about the rabbit than she instantly sat up, asked for some broth to take, and told the old woman to continue. When the story was finished, the princess said to the old woman that she would go with her to see the palace and the rabbit she had seen. Her health then began to improve, and one day, when she had perfectly recovered from her attack, she went with the maid of honour and the old woman to where the milestone was, and waited there to see if the ass with the golden panniers would come forth from whence the old woman had sat before.

Shortly after this the ass made its appearance; they all three held on to the donkey, and down they went descending, whilst the princess was greatly astonished to find and behold so much splendour, and to see the hands busy doing all the work without any one being seen. More and more surprised at what she saw, she went further into the palace, until she had seen every part of it, and all it contained. They came to a house, and when the maid was entering she suddenly uttered a scream and ran out; the princess asked her what made her scream, and the maid replied that it was the sight of a dead man.

The princess told her to go in and not to mind it, but the maid would not because she felt much frightened; and the princess, finding that she would not, went in herself; she threw water over the corpse and commenced to pray, and suddenly the dead man returned to life and transformed himself into a very handsome prince, and was the same one that the old woman had seen transform himself into a rabbit.

In an instant all the hands took the form of persons, and were those that composed the magnificent court which were spell-bound. The prince expressed his grateful acknowledgments to the princess for having broken the spell he was under. The princess asked him for what purpose were all these preparations and work in the palace.

The prince replied that it was for the marriage of the princess of Naples; in great surprise, she said, "I am the princess of Naples! The princess, in great delight and filled with joy, said that she would marry him. The marriage was solemnized with great pomp, and they all remained in the same palace, living very happily together. The old woman was held in much esteem by all, but she went about looking very sad; and, when they asked her what ailed her, she said that she wished to return to her own home.

They loaded her with many riches, and sent her back accompanied by a page. The old woman left the palace, and on arriving at her home she said:. There was a widow who had three sons. They lived in great poverty; and the eldest son said one day, "Oh! He travelled on, and on arriving at a certain country he inquired if any one there required a servant. He was told that a magician, who lived in that part, was always wanting servants, and that he had better apply at the house. The young man went to the house, and inquired if a servant was required to wait upon them. The young man, who was unaccustomed to long journeys, began to get very tired, and did nothing else but ask, "Oh!

Sir, have we not yet arrived? Sir, that is just what I shall not do! The magician took out the entrails of the horse, filled a bag with them, and then told the lad to get inside the empty belly of the horse, and he put in several bags as well. He then took out a book and commenced to read, and the horse began to ascend the mount until the lad reached the top.

The lad came out of the horse, while the magician from the foot of the mount cried out to the boy, "What do you see? When the magician had got the horse safe at the bottom of the hill, he started off with it, leaving the lad quite alone on the top of the mountain. The moment the boy found himself forsaken he commeneed to cry, and to seek for some herbs to eat, as he felt very hungry. When he had rambled about for some time, he found a little herb which grew very luxuriantly, and had very large roots, which made it very difficult for him to root up.

But when he had succeeded in rooting up some, he found in the hole which was left a massive iron ring of great size and thickness. The lad, curious to know what it was, began to pull it out; and when the ring was pulled out he saw some steps, which were strewed with gold coins and many rich things.

The lad, astonished at what he saw, went down the stairs, and at the bottom of the stairs found himself in a magnificent palace. He saw a table loaded with the most delicious viands, and, as he felt very hungry, he sat down at once to eat. He then left the dinner table and proceeded to another apartment; and as he was about entering the chamber, he saw a giant lying down; and the moment he drew near to him, the giant cried out, "Who has authorised you to enter here?

You had not the good fortune to kill him; and so long as he lives I shall not get out of this. But you have still one way of saving me: If you succeed in catching the white one, you will bring about mine and your happiness. When day began to dawn, the doves appeared; they bathed themselves in the tank, and when the lad tried to catch them, two of their feathers remained in his hand and the birds flew away.

The lad, feeling very sad, went to the giant, and said to him, "Oh! Day had scarcely dawned when the doves appeared, bathed themselves, and when the white dove was about to fly away she fell into the snare. The lad, very pleased at this, went to put his hands upon her; but at that very instant the dove transformed itself into a lovely maiden.

The maiden felt very much ashamed at finding herself in the young man's hand. He then took her to the giant, who was very pleased to see her, and said, "Now, were the magician to die, my enchantment would cease! Yet the palace remained enchanted,. The young man's brothers, seeing that he did not return, said one day to their mother, "Oh!

He travelled and journeyed on until he arrived at the same country where his brother had gone, and he inquired if any one could give him any information of a boy who had many months ago travelled to that country; but no one could give him any news.

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They told him that such a lad had gone as servant to a magician's house. He therefore went up to the house, knocked at the door, and the magician answered the call, who put to him the same questions that he had done to his brother, and took him at last into his service. At midnight, after having prepared everything, they started off, and on arriving at the mountain he ordered the boy to shoot at the horse's belly. The boy as he was very sharp-witted saw at once that there was some mystification in all this, and shot at the horse.

The master placed the entrails of the horse into a bag and then ordered the boy to get into the horse's belly, and he began to read from the book. The horse began to ascend the mount until it reached the top, and once on the top of the mountain the magician asked the boy, "What do you see? The lad filled the bags with bones, and when the horse was descending he threw a large stone at the master and broke his legs. At this moment the giant suddenly experienced great joy and summoned the boy who was still in his palace and said to him, "Do you know that my spell is broken?

On awaking in the morning the lad looked out of his chamber window and he saw his mother's house standing near. The mother, who had also risen from her couch at the same hour as her son had done, on opening the front door saw that opposite to her house a splendid palace had risen up. She was much astonished at what she saw, and at that moment her son and his brother, the one who had killed the magician, both stood before her. The other two doves had also broken their spell and were transformed into beautiful maidens, and they married the two brothers. The giant was also disenchanted because he was a prince, and he married the beautiful maiden who in the shape of a white dove had been flying round about his palace.

There was once a man who had three daughters. In the country where he lived it was the custom to hang up a gold ball at the door when they wanted husbands for the girls who were single, as a sign to the young men. When the eldest daughter wished to get married the father hung a gold ball over the street door. Many persons passed the door, and as they saw the gold ball hanging up they did not dare enter, and would say "Oh, no, it's too rich for me, evidently it is not meant for me.

The girl was delighted, everything was arranged, and they were married. After a time the father again hung up a gold ball outside the door to find a husband for the second daughter. Another prince passed and saw the ball and married the girl. The third daughter, seeing that both her sisters had married princes, one day told her father that she also wanted to get married.

The father replied that he had no money left to order another gold ball to be made; but she said that she did not doubt him, but that at least he might have one made of silver. The father did so. A prince then passed, and seeing the silver ball, said to himself, "Oh, no, this is too poor for me; it is evidently not meant for me. When the two girls who had married princes knew of this they were very displeased and would have nothing to do with the sister. At the end of nine months the girl gave birth to a daughter. At the moment that the father went out to get some medicine for her some fairies passed by the house and asked for shelter.

The girl replied that it could not be as she was very ill; but, as they so begged and entreated to be allowed to remain, the mother at last allowed them to remain. The fairies thanked the girl very much for her kindness, and when they were on the point of leaving they approached the child, and stroking her with the divining rod one said, "I now throw a charm over you that you may be the most beautiful woman in the world. When the two sisters knew of this, and the poor sister had now become very rich, they were reconciled and became friends again with her.

The enchanted maiden grew day by day more and more beautiful. There was a prince who lived quite near to them and was engaged to be married to the daughter of one of the two sisters who had espoused princes; but when he saw the enchanted little maiden he liked her better, and no longer paid any attentions to the other, who felt very jealous, but pretended she did not care.

One day after this the prince became very ill and the physicians ordered him to travel. The enchanted maiden went up to the highest tower there was to take leave of him and be able to see him for a long distance as he went along. Whilst the engaged girl went behind her, and when the enchanted maiden was looking out towards the prince, the other girl went behind her with a pointed rod and pierced her eyes with it and plucked them out. After which she ran away. The enchanted maid was very much distressed to find herself blind, and began to weep. A man passed who took compassion upon her and led her to his own house.

After some time the prince returned from his travels. The engaged girl presented herself to him saying that she was the enchanted maiden; but the prince said that she was not; but she persisted that she was. Meanwhile the enchanted maiden was told that the prince had arrived, but as she was blind she did not dare to go and see him; but when she knew that the prince was at last going to marry the other girl she sent to ask the girl if she would like to have a nosegay of flowers to present the prince with.

She sent back to say that she would very much. The enchanted girl then replied that she should send her, her eyes, and she on her part would send her the flowers. And so it happened. The other girl who was very desirous of presenting the prince with a nosegay sent the enchanted maiden her eyes. What did she do then? She knocked at the door of the palace, but they would not admit her. At last, after many entreaties, she was allowed to enter, and she went straight into the prince's room and begged him most beseechingly not to marry.

The prince replied that he could not put off the marriage as the invited guests had arrived. The maiden reiterated her demand, and stretched out her hand to the prince, the hand which had on the ring that he had given her, the prince seeing which raised up her veil and at once recognized her. As the maiden had with her the divining-rod that the fairies had left her, she touched her clothes with it, and immediately she found herself richly dressed. The prince then went to meet his invited guests and said to them, "I lost something, and instead I bought another.

I have now recovered that which I lost. Which ought I to make use of—that which I lost, or what I bought? And it was she whom he married. There was once a man who had three daughters; he loved them all, but there was one he loved more than the others. As he was going to the fair one day he inquired what they would like him to bring them.

One said she would like to have a hat arid some boots, the other one asked for a dress and a shawl, but the one he loved most did not ask for anything. The man, in surprise, said, "Oh! But, in order that the father should not continue to importune her, she said, "I wish my father to bring me a slice of roach off a green meadow. He therefore came home in great distress of mind, because she was the daughter he loved most and wished most to please. As he was walking along he happened to see a light shining on the road, and, as it was already night, he walked on and on until he reached the light.

The light came from a hut in which lived a shepherd; the man went in and inquired of him, "Can you tell me what palace is that yonder, and do you think they would give me shelter there? As he approached the table, he heard a voice which said, "Eat and lie down on the bed which you see there, and in the morning rise and take with you what you will find on that table, which is what your daughter asked you for; but at the end of three days you must bring her here. He threw himself on the bed, and on the following morning he arose, went straight to the table, and found upon it the slice of roach off a green meadow.

He took it up and went home; the moment he arrived his daughters surrounded him: The third daughter, the one he loved most, did not ask him for anything, but simply if he was well. The father answered her, "My daughter, I come back both happy and sad! Here you have what you asked me for. When the daughter heard all she replied, "Do not distress yourself, father, for I shall go, and whatever God wills, will happen. As they entered they heard a voice saying, "Eat and remain with your daughter three days that she may not feel frightened. The voice spoke to her every day but no form was seen.

At the end of a few days the girl heard a bird singing in the garden. The voice said to her, "Do you hear that bird sing? The girl in great delight said, "Yes, I should like to go very much,—will you let me go? The voice gave her then a ring so that she should not forget her promise, saying, "Now mind that at the end of three days a white horse will go for you; it will give three knocks,—the first is for you to dress, and get ready,—the second for you to take leave of your family,—and the third for you to mount it.

If at the third knock you are not on the horse, it will go away and leave you there. A great feast had been prepared, and the sister was married. At the end of three days the white horse came to give the three knocks. At the first the girl commenced to get ready, at the second knock she took leave of her family, and at the third she mounted on the horse. The voice had given the girl a box with money to take to her father and her sisters; on that account they did not wish her to return to the enchanted palace, because she was now very rich.

But the girl remembered what she had promised, and the moment she found herself on the horse she darted off. After a certain time the bird returned and began to sing very contentedly in the garden. The voice said to her, "Do you hear the bird sing? The voice then said, "Remember that if at the end of three days you do not come back you shall remain there, and you will be the most hapless girl there is in the world!

A great feast was given and the sister was married. At the end of three days the white horse came—it gave the first knock, and the girl dressed herself to go; it gave the second knock, and the girl took leave of her friends; it gave the third knock, and the girl mounted the horse and returned to the palace. After some time the bird again sang in the garden, but in melancholy tones,—very dull tones indeed. The voice then said to her. The sisters gave the girl a sleeping draught as she had requested them, and left her to sleep. The girl had begged them most particularly to awaken her before the white horse should come.

Pentamerone , "The Three Citrons. Revue Celtique , , p. Steere, Swahili Tales , p. Stokes, Indian Fairy Tales , pp. Theal, Kaffir Folk-lore , pp. Thorpe, Yule-tide Stories , pp. Dead or transformed mother comes to suckle child. Blatter , i, Arnason, "The Troll in the Stone-craft," p.

Cosquin, i, , Danske Viser , i, Monseur, Folklore Wallon , 48 ff. In the time of the French occupation a girl followed her lover, a French soldier, from Mellin to Steitin, and soon afterwards returned to Mellin, and died giving birth to a son. One evening, when the mother of the deceased was sitting by the child's cradle, she noticed that it had become unwontedly heavy, and heard a sound as though the child were sucking.

Then she knew that the dead mother had come back to quiet her child. From Mesow, in the district of Regenwald. Communicated through Professor E. Gregory of Tours sixth century gives a story of Fredegonde, the wife of Chilperic, who tries to kill their daughter Rigonthe by shutting a coffer on her head, having pretended to give her treasures out of it. Servants come to her cries, and she is saved. In the Edda , Weyland kills the two sons of Nidad in the same way.

In the Icelandic story of "Surtla in Blueland Isles", the stepmother induces the two children to lean over the edge of the chest to see what glitters inside, and then tumbles them into it, and shuts down the lid Arnason, p. The master cannot cross the stream till he remembers to fulfil the kitchen-maid's wish, in "La Schiavottella" Pent. The choice of gifts occurs in the following stories: See also Asbjornsen, Fjel d, p.

For "star on brow", cf. The Dioscuri had a star or flame shining on their heads and helmets. Figures of Greek divinities show a circle of rays and a nimbus round the head. Apis is represented as a bull, with a star above his head, on the brass coins of Julian the Apostate. On coins of Tyre and Sidon Astarte is figured with a radiated head.

A bust on a Saxon Sceatta unappropriated appears to have a star on the forehead. On Indo-Grecian coins Mithras has commonly a circular nimbus with pointed rays; in other representations the rays are wanting. Mao deus Lunus has a half-moon behind his shoulders; AEsculapius, too, had rays about his head, [Greek name] Asklepios , Paus. Compare the aureoles of Christ, the Virgin, and Christian saints, and the crowns and diadems of kings. A ring of stars was put round the head of Thor Stephanii not.

According to a story told in the Galien restore , a beam came out of Charles the Great's mouth and illumined his head. Certain Slavic idols, especially Perun, Podaga, and Nemis, have rays about their heads; and a head in Hagenow, fig. In illustration of a recently-practised custom of adorning the face of a bride with stars, I quote the following from a paper by "Adalet", on "Turkish Marriages, viewed from a Harem", which appeared in Nineteenth Century , July, The writer once saw a bride thus dressed, but now the custom has become obsolete, or is confined to the lower classes.

The story on p. Journal , i, ; Bechstein, pp. Tales and Fictions , i, , ; Coelho, No. Journal , , ff. The heroine is generally requited with gold. In the story of "Sigurdr, the King's Son", the princess gives precious articles to the bride for the privilege of sleeping with the prince, who, on the third night, throws away the sleeping-draught, and hears the princess recount her sorrows and sufferings on his account, and her despairing search for him. Arnason, Icelandic Legends , p.

Compare "L'Oiseau Bleu" of Mme. The following story has the bribes and sleeping-draught incidents, as well as the washing task; and has other points of resemblance with Cinderella tales: Heroine rides on back of bull, eats out of its "right lug", drinks out of its "left lug", and sets by her leavings. Bull fights the devil till all is blue. Heroine, overjoyed at bull's victory, inadvertently moves one foot, forgetting injunction not to stir, and the bull in consequence cannot find her again. Heroine comes to foot of glass hill; serves a smith for seven years, so as to get airn shoon.

In these she climbs hill, washes the bluidy sarks for washer-wife, who tells the young knight her eldest daughter has washed them, and he must in consequence marry her. Heroine bribes false bride with jewels found in magic fruits, and passes three nights in bridegroom's room. On the third night he pours away the sleeping-draught that the washerwife had given, and hears heroine's song.

Washerwife and daughter are burnt. In "The Red Bull of Norroway", pp. After travelling on the bull's back through many dreadful forests, and arriving at a noble castle, heroine draws a pin from bull's hide, transforming him to handsome prince, who disappears suddenly. Heroine sets out in quest of him, suffers many hardships, gets three magic nuts from an old wife, and eventually using them as bribes, as in the foregoing story, she marries the Duke of Norroway, whom she has a second time delivered.

It may be cited here as a variant of No. Prince will lose his monkey face fifteen days after his marriage. He is to choose a wife for himself, but will have none of all those who by their manner seem to despise him, and chooses a little peasant girl. She drops some hot grease on him, while admiring his beauty, for at night he has a lovely face and he is doomed to leave her; such is the spell. Heroine changes dresses with a shepherdess, and gets employed at the castle as turnspit.

She peels the three chestnuts given her by an old woman she met en route , and they are transformed into golden spinning-wheel, golden distaff, and golden spindle. Which key ought he henceforth to use? All say "the original". Then he will follow their advice; and he shows the turnspit, whom he lost, then found again, and whom he will reinstate, being guided by their counsel.

Told by Mother Georges, who did not know why the castle is called "des Margriettes" or paquerettes rouges. Heroine delivers king's son from the hands of the devil a very long story. King's son wants to marry her, but queen-mother, by means of charms, destroys his memory, and would marry him to another.

Heroine, who is called Caroline, tries to prevent this marriage; she possesses dresses like the moon, the stars, etc. Counselled by an old woman, who is a fairy, heroine dons guise of beggar, and writes a letter to Charles, who recognises her, and returns to her. A sleeping-draught is administered to the heroine by her stepsisters in No.

The bribes and sleeping-draught occur also in No. A sleep-bramble is used in one Icelandic tale; a sleep-thorn in another Arnason, pp. Odin sticks the thorn in Brunhild's garment only, and throws her into a sleep. There is a "pin of slumber" in Hyde's Beside the Fire , p. In the remaining stories of this type the bride has various motives for not attending the marriage ceremony: Miss Busk refers to another stepmother story. Widower has boy and girl: She turns children out; boy is made slave of a witch, and comes at last out of many adventures. Girl gets taken into brigand's cave, and goes through adventures, one of which being that the witch gives her the appearance of death, and shuts her up in a box.

Hunting prince finds her and the means of restoring her, and marries her. The wonder-working cow may find its prototype in Sabala, the heavenly cow of the Ramayana see Sagas of the Far East , pp. Compare similar incidents in Arnason, p. Compare Miss Busk's story cited in the preceding note [ Note 15 ]. References to the very numerous instances of resuscitations in folk-tales are not added here, as the incident occurs but rarely in stories belonging to the Cinderella group. In the following stories a pin stuck in the head causes transformation into a bird: Buchon, La Grece Continentale et la Moree , p.

In an Abyssinian tale Reinische, Die Nuba Sprache , Vienna, , i, , a magician plunges enchanted needles into the heads of seven brothers, transforming them to bulls. When the pin is withdrawn from the bull's hide, in "The Red Bull of Norroway", he becomes a handsome prince. For incident of "Forbidden Chamber", ci.

Journal , ii Hartland in "Forbidden Chamber" ; ibid. Compare Psyche's curiosity in opening the pyx. With the wishing-box in Nos. Similar talismans are found in the following stories Am. Journal , ii, , Mod. For wishing -purse, -rod, -cloth, etc. Volund's arm-ring brings wealth see Rydberg, Teut. With the magic wand , which occurs in Nos. Elisha's staff was believed, apparently, to possess miraculous virtue, though it proved inoperative in the hands of his servant. There is a story of a wishing-staff which St. Columban gave away to a poor man, and which he smashed at the bidding of his wife Adamanni Scoti, Vita S.

The gods have a golden staff with which they touch and transform: Circe strikes with her staff Od. Skirni threatens with a magic wand "Lay of Skirni," C. Shiva has a miraculous bow, so has Indra, according to the Vedas. Apollo's bow carries plague: Freyr had a sword of similar nature that swung itself. Such gear the Greeks call [Greek name] Il. Grant Allen considers the notion of Thor's hammer to be derived from the shape of the supposed thunderbolt. All magic proceeds upon the prime belief that you must possess some thing belonging to the person you wish to control, constrain, or injure" Essay on "Thunderbolts", by Grant Allen: Falling in Love, and other Essays , pp.

With accusation of queen, compare similar incidents in Arnason, pp. Journal , vi, 38 Aino tale ; Frere, O. Compare the following story, which contains also other incidents common in Cinderella tales: A Tuscan story from Livorno. At his father's wish, a king's son sets out with his attendant to seek a bride. Attendant tries in vain to induce master to notice the pretty women in the town and neighbouring country. At night they come to a wood, and seek shelter from the storm in a peasant's hut. Peasant receives them hospitably, and his wife prepares the table for a meal.

King's son inquires for whom the fifth place is laid, and learns that it is for peasant's daughter, who is too shy to appear. Directly he sees her, king's son tells attendant that she shall be his bride. He asks permission to carve the fowl, and gives the father the head, the mother the carcase, and the legs and wings to daughter, whilst he and his attendant eat the flesh. A Next morning he asks for the hand of peasant's daughter, and goes home to his father, who gives him fine carriage in which to fetch his bride.

The queen is angry at the marriage with a peasant, and through her intrigues kindles a war with Spain, knowing that king and his son must join in it. On leaving home, king's son charges his wife, in the event of her bearing a child during his absence, to mark it with some sign by which to know it. Flavia bears two children, and marks them as bidden. Soon afterwards queen comes and takes children away, leaving two dogs in their place. When king's son returns, mother tells him his wife has borne those two puppies, whereupon he slays them.

But the sword drops from his hand when he would slay his wife also. Queen gives her over to two servants to be killed. But they take pity on her and spare her, as also they have spared her two children whom the queen had delivered into their hands to slay. They take her to the wood, where she wanders about, till she is met by a peasant, who takes her to his house. He has previously found her two children and taken care of them. King's son is inconsolable.

Father persuades him to go hunting. He enters peasant's house, finds wife and children, and learns the trick that has been played him. Fetching a carriage from the palace, he takes wife and children home. Queen confesses the crime, which her death must atone. In Dolopathos , 7th Tale, puppies are substituted for queen's children, who are saved by the servants deputed to slay them, and are brought up by a philosopher.

Cronus dines on the foal which he was assured his wife had just borne, when in reality the child was Poseidon see Hesiod, Theog. Compare the myths in which a human ancestress is said to have given birth to an animal of the totem species see Frazer, Totemism , p. Thus the snake clan among the Moquis of Arizona are descended from a woman who gave birth to snakes see Bourke, Snake Dance of the Moquis , etc. The Bakalai in Western Equatorial Africa believe that their women once gave birth to the totem animals; one woman brought forth a calf, others a crocodile, hippopotamus, monkey, boar, and wild pig see Du Chaillu, Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa , p.

In Samoa the prawn or cray-fish was the totem of one clan because an infant of the clan had been changed at birth into a number of prawns or cray-fish see Turner, Samoa, p. There is a similar story on Vancouver Island, where a tribe of Indians derives its origin from dogs see American F. Journal , iv, The legend is found in many other places. Among the Eskimo of Greenland and of Hudson Bay is a legend of a woman who married a dog and had ten pups, five of whom she sent inland, where they became the ancestors of a tribe half-dog, half-man; and the other five she sent across the ocean, where they became the ancestors of the Europeans.

In Baffin-land, the mother of the dogs is the most important deity of the Eskimo see Am. An Eskimo song tells of the origin of the Adlet and of the White men from dogs ibid. A beaver creates two men, one the ancestor of the Eskimo, the other that of the sea-animals, who were the ancestors of the Europeans. For animal children see also Callaway, Z. Compare "The Myrtle" in Pentamerone ; also No.

In Benfey's Pantschatantra , ii, , a Brahman's wife, childless, at last bears a serpent. Pasiphae was the mother of the Minotaur. Leda's twins were contained in two eggs. First a lamb, then a silver-trout were born, finally Aed Slane. Lang's note on "Belief in Kinship with Animals", in his Introd. This incident of the carving and significant distribution of a fowl is found in Sacchetti's rd novel, which, according to Mr. Clouston, has its origin in a Talmudic story see Flowers from a Persian Garden , p. Return to place in text.

For folk-tale parallels cf. Tales and Fictions , i, , note. For drink of oblivion, see note Lang's Perrault , p. The trail occurs also in the following: Tales , "Hop o' my Thumb"; Karajich, No. With the device of thrusting the giantess into the stove, compare Callaway, pp. The "red-hot poker", applied as in the tale, is orthodox treatment for a Cyclops.

The Tartar giant Depeghoz eye on top of head has to be supplied daily by the Oghuzes with two men and five hundred sheep. Bissat, the hero, burns out his eye with a red-hot knife. Sindbad, on his third voyage, punches out the eye of a man-eating giant. The Laplanders tell of a giant Stalo, who was one-eyed, and went about in a garment of iron see Grimm, T. For one-eyed persons cf. In folk-tales it is generally a sign of wickedness.

Woden pawned one of his eyes to giant Mimi in the Brook of the Weird Sisters for the precious mead, whence it comes that he is one-eyed see Snorri's Edda , and C. The Greek myth has a Jupiter with three eyes. Three-eyed persons are common in folk-tales. See note 40 , on the man-eating ogre who smells human flesh. The hiding-box and the prince-purchaser incidents recur in Nos. Also in Hahn's No. This is parallel with the incident in the Cinderella tales. For instances of the external soul in folk-tales, cf.

Tales and Fictions , i, ff. Journal , ii, ff. He smashes six hearts, and makes the seventh tubber deliver up his old mother's soul, and then kills him also ; Gubernatis, Z. Antiquary , i, , , and , p. Compare the story of Meleager and the fire-brand Apollodorus, i, 8; Diodorus, iv, 34; Pausanias, x, 31, 4; Aeschylus, Choeph. According to Tzetzes Schol. According to Hyginus Fab. Poseidon made Pterelaus immortal by giving him a golden hair on his head. His daughter fell in love with Amphitryon, the enemy of Pterelaus, and killed her father by pulling out the golden hair Apollodorus, ii, 4, 5, 7.

Sylvia, wife of Septimius Marcellus, bore a son to the god Mars, who bound up the fate of the child in a spear Plutarch, Parallela , See Frazer, The Golden Bough , ii, The nearest approach to tales similar to these in the Buddhist Birth-stories is in one or two isolated cases, when the Karma of a human being is spoken of as immediately transferred to an animal.

Clodd's Myths and Dreams , and Mr. Frazer's Golden Bough , for an exhaustive treatment on the subject of the external soul. Compare the Annamite Stories Nos. There are similar incidents in No. The Zuni Indians of New Mexico, as well as the Moquis, believe in the transmigration of human souls into the bodies of turtles.

See "My Adventures in Zuni," by Mr. Cushing, in The Century , May , p. Many people believe that a portrait contains the soul of the person portrayed. Thus the Canelos Indians of S. Joseph Thomson tried to photograph some of the Wa-teita in East Africa, they imagined he was trying to get possession of their souls Thomson, Through Masai Land , p.

An Indian refused to let himself be drawn, believing it would cause his death Maximilian Prinz zu Wied, Reise in das Innere Nord-Amerika , i, ; see also ii, Some old women in the Greek island of Carpathus were very angry at being drawn, fearing they would in consequence die Blackwood's Magazine , Feb. Some people in Russia object to having their silhouettes taken lest they die Ralston, Songs of the Russian People , p.

Andree, Ethnographische Parallelen und Vergleiche , Leipzig, , p. See Frazer, i, Allied to this belief is the practice of pricking the waxen figure of one's enemy. Compare the story in Schimpf und Ernst , cap. Sticking needles into a wax figure occurs in Kemble's Chartoe , Pref. Magic figures can also be baked of dough or lime, and wrought out of metal see Grimm, T. In Pulci's Morgante , 21, 73, a witch's vitality is bound up with a wax figure. When Malagigi melts it at a slow fire, she dwindles away.

This kind of conjuring is found in Ovid Amor. Theocritus, 2, 28, has the wax-melting. In evidence of the belief at least on the part of a hypnotised subject in the transference of sensibility from the human body to an inanimate object, I may refer to the recent Oct. He has been able to transfer a woman's sensibility into a tumbler of water, which retains it for a considerable time.

If the water is drunk before the sensibility is exhausted the patient who has not witnessed the occurrence falls into a deadly swoon. Also, if the water is touched the hypnotised person starts as if in pain. A pin-scratch on the negative--previously charged with sensibility--causes the appearance of a similar mark on the subject, etc. One would like to know the effect upon the subject of throwing the negative into the fire. Grimm gives the following variants i, One from Zwehrn is without the introduction wherein the dying mother promises to help her child, but begins at once with the unhappy life of the stepchild.

The end, too, is different. After Cinderella has lived happily with the king for one year, he travels away, leaving her the keys of all the rooms. The false sister persuades her to open the forbidden room, wherein they find a well of blood. Into this the wicked sister throws her after the birth of her son, and takes her place in bed.

But the sentries hear the queen's cries, and save her, and the wicked sister is punished. In a variant from Mecklenburg, Aschenputtel has become queen, and has taken her stepmother, who is a witch, and her wicked stepsister to live with her. When she gives birth to a son they lay a dog beside her, and give the child to a gardener, who is to kill it. They do the same a second time, and the king says nothing.

Punguța cu doi bani

The third time they give the queen and the child to the gardener to be slain; but he takes them into a cave in the forest. The child is reared on hind's milk, and grows up wild, with long hair, and seeks herbs in the forest for his mother. One day he goes to the palace and tells the king about his beautiful mother. King goes to the forest, recognises his wife, and takes her home. On the way they meet two golden-haired boys, whom the gardener has spared and brought up in his own house.

Gardener reveals that they are king's children. Witch and her daughter are punished. In a story from Paderborn, a beautiful countess has a rose in one hand, a snowball in the other, and wishes for a child as red as the rose and as white as the snow. She has her wish. The nurse one day pushes her out of window, and pretends the countess has thrown herself out. She ensnares the count, and he marries her. She bears two daughters, and the red and white stepchild must serve as scullion.

She has no clothes, and may not go to church. She weeps on mother's grave, and mother gives her a key to open hollow tree, wherein she murds clothes, soap for washing herself, and a prayer-book. A count sees her, and smears the church threshold with pitch. All ends in the usual way. Aschenputtel is a miller's daughter, and is not allowed to go to church. There is nothing new in it, except that, instead of a dove, a dog betrays the false bride and reveals the true.

In Pomerania, Aschpuk signifies a dirty kitchen-maid Dahnert. Aschenpuddel , an insignificant, dirty girl. In Danish and Swedish it is Askesis , from blowing the ashes. In Jamieson, see Assiepet, Ashypet, Ashiepattle , a neglected child employed in the lowest kitchen-work.

In Polish, Kopciuszek , from kopec , soot, smoke. Tauler, in the Medulla animae , says, "I, thy stable-boy, and poor Aschenbaltz. Verelius, in the notes to the Gothreks Saga , p. The proverbs also, Sitia hema i asku, liggia som kaltur i hreise und liggia vid arnen , apply for the most part to kings' sons, in the Wilkinasage , cap. We are likewise reminded of Ulrich von Thurheim's Starker Rennewart , who must also have first been a scullion; likewise of Alexius, who lived under the stairs in his father's royal house, like a drudge.

Vide Gorres, Meisterlieder , p. It was a very ancient custom that those who were unhappy should seat themselves amongst the ashes. Odysseus, who, as a stranger entreating help, had spoken with Alkinous, thus seated himself humbly in the ashes on the hearth, and was then brought forth and set in a high place 7.

Gudrun, in her misfortunes, has to become an Aschenbrodel; although a queen, she has to clean the hearth, and wipe up the dust with her hair, or else she is beaten. In a variant from Paderborn Grimm, i, the maiden puts the mantle of all kinds of fur--on which moss, or whatever else she can pick up in the forest, is sewn--over the three bright dresses, and escapes into the forest. For fear of wild beasts she climbs up a high tree. Some woodcutters, fetching wood for the king's court, cut down the tree in which Allerleirauh is still sleeping; but it falls slowly and she is not hurt.

She wakes in a fright, but they are kind to her, and take her in the wood-cart to the court, where she serves in kitchen. As she has made some very good soup, the king sends for her; he admires her, and makes her comb his hair. One day, whilst she is thus employed, he spies her shining star-dress through the sleeve of her mantle, which he tears off.

In another version, from Paderborn, Allerleirauh pretends to be dumb. The king strikes her with a whip, tearing the fur-mantle, and the gold dress shines through it. The punishment of the father follows in both stories. He himself has to pronounce the sentence that he no longer deserves to be king.

In fourth story, Allerleirauh is driven away by her stepmother because a foreign prince has given a betrothal-ring to her and not to the stepmother's daughter. Afterwards Allerleirauh arrives at the court of her lover, does menial work, and cleans his shoes, but is discovered through ptttting the betrothal-ring among the white bread, as in another saga it is put in the strong broth Musaus, 2. Grimm says this story is told on the Rhine of eight sisters, each having one eye more than the other. Two-eyes is the Cinderella, and the wise-woman who takes pity on her sufferings is probably her own departed mother.

There is the tree from which gold and silver is shaken, and the wooer whose request can only be granted by the true bride. For golden apples , see Campbell, lxxxii ff. Journal , vi, ff. The prince throws a golden apple into the heroine's lap in No. Milanion delayed Atalanta with three golden apples. While "The Blue Belt" contains apples in the story, they are not golden. I have consequently linked to "Tatterhood" instead. The pearl is made, in the myth, to spring out of Venus's tear.

Eve's tears, like Frigg's tears, are pearls in water, nuggets of gold on land see Corpus Poet. Boreale , i, cvi. So are the tears of the Chinese merman see F. Journal , vii, In a tale from the foot of the Himalayas, published in Russian by Minaef No. There are tears of gold in the story of Mardol see Arnason, p. Tales and in the story of the Jealous Sisters Nights. Not only do Freyja's tears turn into drops of gold Grimm, Teut. Grundtvig's Unpublished Collections are extracts of four vaniants of the foregoing stories.

In the first, which is called "Rosenrod", the queen's nose bleeds, the drops falling in the snow. Only the princess lives to come out with her little dog, and she becomes a servant in new king's castle. She takes bride's place at wedding--the horse Buckbar--the mouse-skins--the wedding ring--the mysterious words, etc.

The remaining three variants differ in no respect from those already given. The following legend is from J. Thiele's Danmark's Folkesagn , i, p. A king in the Danish island of Fyen has three fair daughters engaged to three princes, who are absent taking part in the war. Three giants present themselves and woo the princesses, offering gold, silver, and costly rings. The princesses are faithful to their lovers, and the giants go away in a rage, threatening to return soon. King has a large mound with a chamber inside it made for his daughters, and the place is covered over with trees and shrubs.

The giants return, slay the king, and at length discover the hiding-place of the princesses, through the barking of their little dog. When they find that the giants are digging them out, first the youngest and then the other two princesses stab themselves to death. To this day the hill is shown. The giants are still said to pass over it with noise and fury; horns are sounded, and the barking of the dog is heard from within the mound. Regnold conceals his daughter Gyritha in an underground chamber, whence she is dug out by Gunnerus.

Frequently the knowledge of birds' language comes of eating a white snake, as in Grimm's No. In the saga of the Seeburg Deut. There are various similar legends of submerged castles. For other examples of the wisdom-giving fish, or snake, cf. Campbell, ii, , , and see , No. Celtique ; Folk-lore Journa l, vi, ff. Myths , ; Kennedy, Legendary Fictions, p. Pliny says 29, 4 , "quin et inesse serpenti remedia multa creduntur.. Compare the Melampus myth Apollodorus, i, 9; see also iii, 6, for the story of Teiresias, in which serpents figure. Pliny, x, , throws doubt on the story of Melampus.