Noncompliant with regulations, the pouch for diagnosis tags and instruments is carried below pocket No. A small extension hanger, also referred to as canteen hanger, was attached below pocket No. Therefore, a booklet of diagnosis tags and a lead pencil were also supplied to enlisted men of the Medical Department on the principle that a record made by a private was better than no record at all. The dead found on the battlefield should be tagged by any member of the Medical Department who first reached the body, in order that other medical personnel would not waste time examining them.
A diagnosis tag provided space to fill in the name, rank, and unit of the wounded or dead soldier as well as the date, time, and station where he was tagged. Among others, the location of wounds or injuries and the inflicting agent e. The instruments additionally contained in the pouch were dressing scissors and a dressing forceps, which were used for handling dressings.
A diagnosis tag which provided space for enlisted men of the Medical Department or medical officers to fill in the name, rank, and unit of a wounded or dead soldier as well as the date, time, and station where he was tagged. Visible on the diagnosis tag is a metal wire to affix the tag to the clothing over the sternum or as near as possible. Although the medical belt had given entire satisfaction in the preliminary trials, in practice, it proved a source of much dissatisfaction both as to the methods of packing and its contents.
Mihiel, and the Meuse-Argonne offensive. The bandages stuck together like glue […]. It was next to impossible to remove them from their tight pockets. As for the hatchet, not a man breathes who had been dodging shells and the attending dangers of the battlefields who had not fumbled and cursed the unwieldy instrument in a thoroughly soldier-like manner. Furthermore, the belt was a nuisance to the ambulance drivers who, in the cramped space at their disposal in the car, had practically no room in which to groan, much less to wear the things. A history of the th Sanitary Train.
Consisting of two bags, which, when laced together, form a backpack, they were used to carry rations for the cavalryman's horse. Although these bags were never widely used for their original intention, they were very popular among Medical Department enlisted men to carry extra medical items with easy accessibility. Several medical belts can be seen among the field equipment dispersed on the floor. Date of photo and photographer unknown; collection of Peter C. During the Second World War, a medical corpsman wore two medical pouches at waist height clipped onto a pistol belt and supported by a suspender.
Army soldiers providing the medical essentials for immediate point of injury care. The kit fits inside a custom pouch that can be mounted out of the way on the back of a soldier's outer tactical vest. Army training camp in Kansas. Belts of various kinds, most likely medical belts, and contents field tourniquets, dressings, and flasks made up the vast majority of items for sale, illustrating the redundancy of the medical belt after WWI.
The medical belt, which was developed by the U. Army in the years just before to its participation in WWI, consisted of a waist belt with 10 pockets for first aid material. Despite preliminary favorable reports, the medical belt proved a source of much dissatisfaction during actual war. After WWI, discontinuance of the medical belt was recommended.
This case illustrates that without adequate field testing of equipment and procedures under rigorous conditions, there is a risk—even today—of wasting time, money, and effort on the development of products that soldiers will readily abandon. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
Sign In or Create an Account. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. View large Download slide. Its Functions and Employment. Administration American Expeditionary Forces. Email alerts New issue alert. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Risk Factors for Rhabdomyolysis in the U. Related articles in Google Scholar. The major areas of emphasis are medical evacuation and organization; wounds and wound management; surgical technique and technology, with a particular focus on amputation; infection and antibiotics; and blood transfusion.
Perhaps the most basic problem facing physicians during wartime historically has been whether and how to transport the wounded to care or transport the caregivers to the wounded. A secondary problem historically has been how best to organize the delivery of care as modern nations began to dispatch vast armies and navies to fight across vast distances. For example, Pikoulis et al. These high mortality rates suggest surgeons were unable to get to wounded soldiers during the melee, treating only the higher class or those who survived after the battle had concluded.
These Greek surgeons, whether they realized it or not, faced the same issues as all future practitioners engaged in wound care: During the American Revolution — , the Continental Congress authorized one surgeon to serve in each regiment. The organization was minimal, and regimental surgeons tended to work for their unit instead of seeing themselves as part of the Hospital Department, which was rendered ineffective by bureaucratic infighting [ ]. The outstanding military surgeon of the Napoleonic Wars — , Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey — , generally is regarded as the originator of modern military trauma care and what would become known as triage [ ].
Rapid access to care and immediate amputation reduced morbidity and mortality. The Crimean War — underscored the importance of methods used by Larrey decades earlier, particularly the importance of organized evacuation and surgical care close to the front line. The war revealed a stark contrast between the battlefield care provided by the French, with their expert organization and system of light ambulances, and the poorly organized British Medical Services.
She was an early theorist of sanitation and the design of hospital buildings. Although her efforts created intense resentment in the army bureaucracy, she was one of the founders of the modern nursing profession [ 48 ]. She broke the monopoly of health care as the sole providence of the physician, which led to the development of the healthcare team in modern medical practice. Nikolai Pirogoff — , who served in the Imperial Russian Army, brought skilled nurses into military hospitals and worked to modernize Russian medical equipment [ ].
He is the namesake for a conservative technique of foot amputation [ 98 ]. At the onset of the American Civil War — , the US Army and Navy combined had about physicians, many with no experience with battlefield trauma [ 87 ], almost 30 of whom resigned to join the Confederacy [ 45 ].
The structure of the Medical Department was decentralized with no clear chain of command and control of supplies. The Regimental Band served as litter bearers. The first Battle of Manassas July 21, was a rout for the federal forces and the soldiers fled back to Washington. Ultimately, men were killed or wounded and the Medical Department could not handle the load. Regimental surgeons, because they worked for their unit only, were either swamped with casualties or idle. Most of the wounded had to walk the mile distance from the battlefield to Washington to reach the hospitals in the rear.
Those who could not walk remained on the battlefield for several days until they were picked up by ambulances, captured by Confederate forces, or died [ 62 ]. Jonathan Letterman — Fig. Wounded soldiers were removed from the battlefield by litter bearer, the predecessor to the medic or corpsman. Regimental Surgeons were responsible for dressing wounds and patients were evacuated in ambulances driven by Medical Corps noncommissioned officers to a division level field hospital for surgical treatment.
By the end of the war, the Medical Department expanded this system by creating a national network of hospital trains, hospital ships, and general hospitals that could treat the patient near his hometown if he so desired [ 62 ]. The main advance in American medicine during the Civil War was the creation of an effective military medical corps with medical evacuation, hospitals, and surgical specialists. Health care was beginning to become a system. Still missing was a formalized approach to care that recognized the severity of injuries. Jonathan Letterman, seated at left with members of the medical staff of the Army of the Potomac, organized an efficient medical corps after the disasters of the initial battles of the American Civil War.
Johann Friedrich August von Esmarch — served as a young surgeon in German campaigns against Denmark in and and was appointed surgeon general during the war against France in His contributions to military medicine were comprehensive, from initial management of wounds, to surgical techniques, to the organizational structure of patient management. In the late 19th century, von Esmarch continued the development of organized trauma care pioneered by Larrey, who as early as had introduced clear rules for sorting patients: The then-unprecedented mass casualties in World War I — , with horrific wounds from machine guns and shell fragments, and the effects of poison gas, created terrific strains on British and French medical units.
The advent of motorized transport helped make possible the establishment of British Casualty Clearing Stations CCS approximately 6 to 9 miles behind the front lines. These were advanced surgical units, staffed by surgeons, anesthetists, and nurses—the closest women had gotten to the front lines in a modern conflict [ 41 ]. The stations were designed to admit between and wounded at a time, but they often were overwhelmed with or more patients.
Increasingly, instead of the most badly injured patients being given priority in triage, the time required to provide such treatment compelled British surgeons to prioritize in favor of patients with critical but less complicated wounds [ 77 ]. A British manual listed the goals of triage as first conservation of manpower and secondly the interests of the wounded [ ]. Nearly overseas hospitals were responsible for initial care of the wounded. Stateside, 78 military hospitals cared for nearly , patients during the war [ ]. The chain of care began with combat medics, two of which generally were assigned to each company.
They provided initial care and determined whether a wound required evacuation of the patient to a battalion aid station. If additional treatment were required, the patient was evacuated to a divisional clearing station, where the first formal triage of patients occurred and which also served as small surgical hospitals for urgent cases [ 28 ]. Kirk, the first orthopaedic surgeon to be named US Surgeon General, was responsible for numerous improvements in military trauma care, including guidelines for amputation and an enhanced system of stateside rehabilitation.
New Mobile Army Surgical Hospital MASH units were developed rapidly under the leadership of the pioneering surgeon Michael DeBakey — to provide resuscitative surgical care within 10 miles of the front lines Fig. Helicopter ambulance companies supported the MASH, allowing treatment of patients within 3 to 12 hours of wounding [ 73 ]. Mortality from all wounds decreased to a low of 2. B Mortality from all wounds decreased in Korea owing to more rapid transport via helicopter to operating rooms such as the one staffed by physicians at the th MASH.
Improvements in medical evacuation technology and organization, particularly the use of helicopters, again played a major role for US forces in Vietnam — Medics splinted and bandaged the wounded patient, frequently radioing the hospital and warning of his arrival and diagnosis. Helicopter evacuation minimized the use of morphine, eliminating an additional complication. The hospital mortality rate was slightly higher than in Korea, 2. Mortality from abdominal wounds declined to 4. Most soldiers wounded in Vietnam were delivered from the battlefield to fixed hospitals with the capacity to provide definitive treatment, eliminating the need for multiple transfers and levels of care Fig.
The wounded were transferred from the helicopters to the triage area on canvas-covered stretchers. These were set on sawhorses, where they became examination tables and sometimes operating tables. Reproduced with permission of Wolters Kluwer Health. The nature of combat and improvements in evacuation during the Korean and Vietnam conflicts thus allowed for development of fixed hospitals. Although MASH units continued to provide care, the hospitals grew from 60 beds at the beginning of the Korean War to bed fixed hospitals with metal buildings and concrete floors as the fighting settled into trench warfare by By , the weight of all of the equipment for a MASH unit was more than , pounds, meaning the hospital was mobile in name only.
Unlike previous wars, armies of the Persian Gulf War — moved rapidly, and even though several MASH units were staged in trucks, hospitals were unable to keep up with the rapidly advancing front. Although there were few casualties, it was painfully obvious MASH units were too cumbersome to effectively support armored units as they raced into Kuwait and southern Iraq. A new organizational structure was needed [ ]. The role of the fixed-base hospital was taken by a Combat Support Hospital CSH , a modular unit capable of supporting between 44 and beds.
Trauma care for US soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan currently is provided through five levels of care: At the front line, each squad has a combat lifesaver trained in resuscitation, and each soldier is equipped with a tourniquet. If surgical resuscitation is required, the patient is immediately moved to a higher level of care Fig. Level III army hospitals are large beds , with surgical specialists, laboratories, radiology, and blood banks. Definitive surgical treatment can be provided first at a Level IV hospital but may be provided at Level V, where limb salvage and reconstructive surgery are performed.
All amputees begin rehabilitation at a Level V hospital; burn patients are sent exclusively to Brooke Army Medical Center. War Surgery in Afghanistan and Iraq: A Series of Cases, — Office of the Surgeon General; Photograph by Tech Sgt Mike R. Combat during this period was chaotic, as opposing formations merged into hand-to-hand combat with edged weapons resulting in heavy casualties.
The accounts depict surgeons as skilled and professional physicians who expertly treated wartime trauma. In the fourth book of The Iliad , surgeon Makaon treated King Menelaus of Sparta, who had sustained an arrow wound to the abdomen, by extracting the arrow, sucking blood out of the wound to remove poison [ 76 ], and applying a salve [ 70 ]. One of the longest-enduring rules of wound care, one that would have implications for centuries, came from the works of Hippocrates — BCE , whose extensive writings included such innovations as chest tubes for drainage, external fixation, and traction to restore proper alignment of fractured bones and important observations about head trauma.
Hippocrates believed wounds should be kept dry, only irrigating with clean water or wine, and suppuration in the wound was a part of the healing process as it expelled spoiled blood [ ]. By the midth century, the formation of pus was considered an inevitable consequence of surgery, but not part of the healing process. Because the physician held higher status than the surgeon during the Middle Ages, few treatises on surgery or wound care were published.
One notable exception was Guy De Chauliac — , who proposed five principles for treating wounds: De Chauliac described a weighted system for continuous traction to reduce femoral fractures. He also was an early advocate of topical anesthesia [ 79 ] and described techniques for hernia, cataract, and amputation [ 41 ]. The development of firearms made cautery a universally accepted treatment for gunshot wounds throughout the 16th century. Gunshot wounds resulted in gross tissue destruction that was an excellent medium for infection.
However, because surgeons of the era had no knowledge of bacteria, they concluded infection was the result of poisonous gunpowder, and sought to destroy the poison by pouring boiling oil into the wound [ ]. The precise origin of this practice is uncertain, but it was widely popularized through medical texts written by an Italian surgeon, Giovanni da Vigo — [ 41 ].
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He concluded conventional wisdom was incorrect and published his observations in his Treatise on Gunshot Wounds in During the American Revolutionary War, surgeons from the British and American sides emphasized conservative care. Wine was applied topically to minor burns, and hog lard to full-thickness burns [ 96 ]. At first it restrain the hemorrhage with less injury than any styptic medicines; and afterwards, by absorbing the matter, which is at first thin and acrimonious, it becomes, in effect, the best digestive.
During incarnation granulation it is the softest medicine than can be applied between the roller and tender granulations; and at the same time an easy compress on the sprouting fungus. For these reasons I shall not recommend to you any ointments for recent wounds, unless some mild, soft one, to arm a pledget of tow, to cover the lint. The use of a suture is unnecessary in longitudinal wounds.
Transverse wounds require the suture. The interrupted suture is used and the needle dipped in oil. A plaster is applied over the sutures, which may usually be removed in two or three days [ 40 ]. Bullets were removed only if within easy reach of the surgeon. As in the past, Colonial physicians saw the development of pus a few days after injury as a sign of proper wound digestion [ 96 ].
These bullets traveled at a higher velocity and struck the body with greater force, shattering bone into small fragments and causing extensive soft tissue damage. The resulting compound fractures, as noted by Dr. George Macleod — , a staff surgeon at a general hospital in Sebastopol, the Ukraine, forced British surgeons to learn hard lessons:. Of all the severe injuries recorded in battle, none are of more frequent occurrence or of more serious consequence than compound fractures. Hemorrhage was classified as primary, occurring within 24 hours of wounding; intermediate, occurring between the first and tenth days; and secondary, occurring after the tenth day.
Early in the war, cautery and tourniquets were the primary approach to controlling hemorrhage, but as physicians grew more experienced, ligature became the primary means for hemostasis. The Spanish-American War was notable for the introduction of smaller-caliber, high-velocity, metal-jacketed bullets, which were first used in the Battle of Santiago, Cuba, on July 1, The metal-jacket bullet was conceived as a more humane form of ammunition that would produce cleaner wounds and less deformation [ 51 ].
This was not the case, as a higher-velocity missile turned out to produce greater cavitation and extensive soft tissue damage beyond the path of the bullet [ ]. The British orthopaedic surgeon, Robert Jones — , applied lessons from his medical family and his civilian work to great effect during World War I. Robert Jones began practicing medicine in and a decade later became surgeon for the massive, 7-year Manchester Ship Canal Project, which involved 20, workers and provided numerous opportunities to practice new techniques in fracture care.
By the time World War I began, Jones had narrowed his practice from general surgery to orthopaedics and became director general for orthopaedics for the British military. Medics and stretcher bearers were blindfolded during training sessions so that they would be ready to apply the splint in total darkness. As the initial wound operation is by definition a limited procedure, nearly every case requires further treatment. Soft part wounds, purposely left unsutured at the initial operation, are closed by suture, usually at the time of the first dressing on or after the fourth day.
Fractures are accurately reduced and immobilized until bony union takes place. Designed to prevent or cut short wound infection either before it is established or at the time of its inception, this phase in the surgical care of the wounded is concerned with shortening the period of wound-healing and seeks as its objectives the early restoration of function and the return of a soldier to duty with a minimum number of days lost [ ].
The major change in the evaluation of wounds during World War II involved the timing of closure. In World War I, surgeons learned the value of delayed primary closure in aiding recovery and fighting infection. Cultures would be the main determinant of whether a wound was ready for closure. However, physicians found judging the clinical appearance of the wound—whether tissues looked healthy, with absence of drainage, foreign material, and edema—led to better results.
In Korea, combat medics worked effectively to resuscitate wounded before they were transported by helicopter and truck. Pressure dressings were applied as a first resort to control bleeding; guidelines stated tourniquets should be used only if pressure dressings were not sufficient. Fractures were splinted and wounded extremities immobilized. The medic may have begun antibiotic therapy if the casualty could not be transported for 4 to 5 hours. Blood was transfused before evacuation [ ].
During the Vietnam War, semiautomatic rifles with high-velocity rounds caused considerable soft tissue damage, complicating wound care. Patients frequently sustained multiple wounds from bursts of automatic fire or booby traps. Surgeons could receive patients as early as 1 to 2 hours after wounding [ 60 , 96 ], although in reality conditions during combat often delayed evacuation and resulted in an arrival time of 4 to 6 hours after wounding. Patients with fractures and vascular injuries typically were treated by vascular and orthopaedic specialists. Fractures were treated by reduction and initial traction or casting depending on the severity of the wounds.
Wounds with massive soft tissue damage were covered with occlusive dressings or a mesh graft. Innovations included increasingly sophisticated vascular repair and treatment of hypovolemic shock [ ].
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The nature of wounds sustained by service members in Iraq and Afghanistan has been transformed by suicide bombers, and Improvised Explosive Devices IEDs have contributed to limb amputations as a result of massive tissue damage from explosives. In Iraq and Afghanistan, resuscitation begins on the battlefield Level I and continues during transport. Care at Level II facilities is limited to damage control, such as the placement of vascular shunts and stabilization, whereas Level III facilities can provide definitive repair of arterial and venous injuries using autologous vein, with a goal of definite repair of vascular injury before evacuation from Iraq [ ].
Once at the Level IV or V facilities, wounds are evaluated and definitive fixation of injuries occurs. When limbs can be saved, internal and external fixation methods are incorporated. Fracture patterns and the extent of the soft tissue injuries dictate fixation type. A combination of internal and external fixators is used with injuries to upper extremities. Tibia fractures frequently require external fixation, whereas femur fractures generally are treated with intramedullary rods. In the case of lower extremity periarticular fractures, a combination of internal and external fixation often is useful.
Free flaps and rotational flaps are used to provide soft tissue coverage, along with the relatively new innovation of secondary-intention wound granulation through vacuum-assisted closure dressings and hemostatic bandages [ 3 ]. Amputation has been performed since ancient times, as observed by Peruvian votive figures and Egyptian mummies. Hippocrates advocated amputation of gangrenous limbs, although he advised removing them through, not above, the gangrenous area [ 84 ].
The Roman Celsus circa 3—64 CE later observed the border between healthy and sick tissue was the proper demarcation line [ 84 ]. Before the invention of gunpowder in the 14th century, wounds were caused by cutting, stabbing, and blunt force, and the injured often lived without major surgical intervention. As musculoskeletal injuries from shot and cannon grew more complex, surgeons gained greater experience with the art of amputation. More important was his observation that bleeding after amputation could be stopped by ligating blood vessels instead of applying red-hot irons.
He developed a procedure for tying off veins and arteries that made thigh amputations possible. His conservative methods revolutionized care and likely spared thousands from suffering [ 73 ]. The normal practice through the 16th and 17th centuries was the single circular cut. Petit introduced the two-stage circular cut, in which the skin was transected distal to the planned level of amputation and pulled up. The muscles and bone then were cut at the same level proximally. This technique was adopted and refined by English, Austrian, and Prussian surgeons [ 92 , ].
This engraving from shows a leg with the tourniquet attached and vignettes of the tourniquet apparatus. One of the ongoing controversies regarding amputation throughout history was timing the procedure. He ordered primary amputation within 24 hours for all ballistic wounds with injuries to major vessels, major damage to soft tissue, and comminuted bones. Although largely known for his organizational skills, Larrey was one of the most accomplished surgeons of his time and certainly must have been among the fastest, as he is credited with performing amputations in a hour period during the Battle of Borodino [ 61 ].
He also performed the first successful disarticulation of the hip [ 84 ]. The Crimean War was the first major conflict in which chloroform was widely used as an anesthetic [ 33 ]. Although ether had been used on a limited scale by the US Army in the Mexican-American War [ 1 , 72 ] — and by the Imperial Russian Army during a pacification campaign in the Caucasus region [ 95 ], the inherent flammability made its utility questionable in a battlefield hospital.
An additional innovation was the use of plaster of Paris as a support for broken bones [ ]. During the US Civil War, amputation was the most common surgical procedure for the 60, Union patients who sustained gunshot fractures [ ]. Although surgeons of the era were aware of flap techniques and some Union surgeons used them [ 84 ], circular amputations were preferred for better control of hemorrhage [ 56 ] and were performed at the level of injury to preserve length.
At the beginning of the war, Samuel Gross — , Professor of Surgery at Jefferson Medical College, noted amputation was more likely to be successful if performed as soon after injury as possible, at least 12 to 24 hours after injury [ ]. Wartime experience proved this observation as the fatality rate of patients with 16, amputations of upper and lower extremities by primary amputation within 48 hours of wounding was He cautioned against procrastination, urging surgeons to decide on the course of treatment using the best information available [ ].
Anesthesia was used extensively. A A drawing depicts a successful secondary amputation at the right hip in a Union soldier, circa B Another drawing shows hospital gangrene of an arm stump. Surgeons no longer were compelled to locate bullets by probing, improving antiseptic practice, and radiographs revealed the nature of fractures in detail previously unimaginable [ 43 ]. During the war, a Belgian surgeon, Antoine Depage — , realized the current approach of minimal wound exploration and primary closure was insufficient.
He believed dead tissue led to infection and must be removed, and infection decreased if the wound were left open to air for a time. After poor results from primary closure early in the conflict, Allied surgeons began using the open circular technique with better results and flaps constructed to ease closure. Delayed closure also allowed surgeons to experiment with other surgical techniques, such as leaving bone fragments in place in patients with compound long-bone fractures.
Vincent for the quarters ending 31 Dec and 31 March Observations on the Harveian doctrine of the circulation of the blood Observations on the changes of the air and the concomitant epidemical diseases, in the island of Barbadoes: Official text-book of the lower standard examination in Urdu, published by the General Staff in India Official war photographs of casualty evacuation and operating theatre in the Middle East Old Fort William and the black hole On a haematozoon in human blood: Gordon On ichthyosis, with special reference to the particular forms in which it occurs On local asphyxia and symmetrical gangrene of the extremities On medicine, in eight books, Latin and English On ophthalmia On paracentesis thoracis in the treatment of pleural effusions, acute and chronic On personal care of health On preservation of health in India On serpent-worship and on the venomous snakes of India On snake poison: Includes transcripts of correspondence, photocopies of bills, and article re Crimean War Outlines of the pathology and treatment of syphilis and allied venereal diseases Outlines of the science and practice of medicine Over-crowding and consequent disease e.
The optical manual, or Handbook of instructions for the guidance of surgeons in testing the range and quality of vision of recruits and others seeking employment in the military services of Great Britain, and in distinguishing and dealing with optical defects among the officers and men already engaged in them The oriental sore, as observed in India: P "Pathology of atomic bomb casualties" by Averill A.
Liebow, Shields Warren and Elbert de Coursey. April, May and June , by Lieutenant P. Essie Papers and photographs of Sergeant M. V Papers of Colonel P. Paradossi della pestilenza Parbate magazine, Vol. Index Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 1 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 10 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 13 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 14 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 15 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 16 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 17 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 18 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 19 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 2 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 20 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 21 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 23 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 24 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 25 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 26 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 27 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 3 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 30 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 33 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 38 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 4 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 41 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 42 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 43 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 45 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 48 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 49 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 5 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 52 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 53 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 54 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 57 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 58 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 6 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 60 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 62 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 63 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 66 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 67 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 68 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 69 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 7 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 70 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 71 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 72 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 73 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 74 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 75 Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Surgeon John Ross Pathology notebook of T.
Sykes, head pharmacist Phoenix: Walker, the officer receiving British soldiers at Dover, re names of ships arriving at Dover and number of personnel carried by each one from Dunkirk Photocopies of translations of Japanese papers Photocopies of two articles from the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol.
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Everson Pearse, Photocopy of "Die Sanit? Desmond Stoker of his escape, as second-in-command of 5th Burma General Hospital, from the Japanese invasion of Burma Photocopy of "The forgotten general: May, from British Army Review, No. Secretary of the Manchester Volunteer Medical Staff Corps, re volunteer and professional district nurses Photocopy of a letter, 24th Sept , from Assistant Surgeon Henry Sylvester to his sister Emma, re transport of casualties from the Crimea to Scutari Hospital, and the inadequate arrangements for casualties Photocopy of a page of The Lancet, 12 May , containing an obituary notice of Dr.
Forces, requesting the restoration of a salary to one of the surgeons at the Royal Infirmary, where soldiers were treated Photocopy of an article from Trains Illustrated post , re the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway ambulance train, Photocopy of an extract from the Aldershot Gazette of 25 April , re the retirement of Private Joe Papworth, RAMC, holder of the record number of good conduct badges in the army Photocopy of an illustrated article in Deutsche milit?
Cook to his wife re amputation of his foot after a skirmish during the march to relieve General Gordon in Khartoum Photocopy of letter from David Bruce in Ubombo, Zululand South Africa re theories re transmission of trypanosomiasis to game and domestic animals Photocopy of letter from Sir David Bruce to the Sleeping Sickness Commission in Uganda re difficulties with the trypanosomiasis research Photocopy of letter, 24 Dec , from Andrew Smith, Director General, Army Medical Services, to Dr. John Hall, Principal Medical Officer in the Crimea, re the reporting of drawbacks in medical organisation, the need for constant complaint to commanding officers, and the recent changes in the Army Medical Department Photocopy of manuscript report by the Principal Medical Officer to the forces in South Africa, re the medical establishment during operations in Zululand Photocopy of record of service, , of Colonel Sidney Martin Hattersley, RAMC Photocopy of regulations re teaching of medicine, surgery and pharmacy in the military hospitals of Strasbourg, Metz and Lille Photocopy of report on Army Physical Development Centres and handbooks for the A.
Joy, from the Dictionary of American History edition. Buchannan's Journal" Photocopy of typed transcript of the diary of Dr. Smith, the Battalion's Second in Command, from a crashed helicopter in Borneo on 18 December Photocopy of typescript booklet entitled: Sims, giving his own account of some incidents mentioned in Brigadier D. Bowie Photocopy of typescript survey by Lieutenant-Colonel M.
Photographs and souvenirs Photographs and souvenirs Photographs and souvenirs of H. Photographs and souvenirs of Captain C. Hedges, the expedition's medical officer Photographs of a hospital in France, No captions Photographs of army medical staff, posed for the design of the Montefiore Medal Photographs of army sports teams, , programmes of events, , and correspondence re army football, Photographs of articles in the Derby Evening Telegraph, December , serialising extracts from the diary kept by Private Clarence Whittaker, RAMC, at Gallipoli in Photographs of auxiliary hospital's patients, comrades and nurses Photographs of camps in Hampshire Photographs of cricket teams, the Military Hospital at Imtarfa and hospital orders, with souvenirs of the voyages out and home.
Malta Photographs of equipment, field hospitals, etc. No captions Photographs of units in which Colonel G. Holroyde served Photographs of, and equipment scales for, mobile hygiene laboratories Photographs re RAMC training and exercises, including views of the interior of the RAM College, and displays re trades, etc.
Photographs relating to Central America, , memorials to RAMC personnel, ss, mobile laborator, , and casualty rescue in the mountains. Photographs, embroidered Christmas cards, and certificate of identity on demobilisation Photographs, including of the First World War Red Cross Hospital at Netley, and of the handover of the RVH to the Americans during the Second World War Photographs, maps and correspondence Photographs, newspaper cuttings and letter re Donovan's service in South Africa including glass negative of group photograph "of a meeting between?
Evelyn Wood and Boer reps. Lord's paper, "A non-suture method of blood vessel anastomosis: Includes photograph of contemporary sketch of the site Plans, photographs and souvenirs of the Royal Herbert Hospital, Woolwich Plates from medical works Pocket-books on pharmacy, formerly property of Staff-Sergeant J. Woodward, Lieutenant Colonel N.
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With a copy of a reprint from the Israel Medical Journal, , re Dr. Isayah Morris Portraits, snapshots and unit photographs of H. Principles of general and comparative physiology Principles of medicine: Albans of a plaque in the Parish Church of St. Printed material re the army medical services during the Crimean War Printed message of congratulation from General Rawlinson to Private J.
Matheson, on the cessation of hostilities on Nov 11th Printed notices re progress of the war, including disputes between the Kaffirs and the Hottentots and the arrest of Hottentot spies Printed obituary notices of Sir Thomas and Lady Longmore Printed papers connected with Longmore: Printed plan of the Battle of Waterloo Printed prospectuses re prizes offered by Army Medical School Printed report on the work, , of The Queen's Hospital, Sidcup, Kent, for sailors and soldiers suffering from facial and jaw injuries Printed reports by Lieutenant Colonel A.
Ward, Purveyor to the Forces, June ; officers invalided home to England, Dec ; examination of dried meat, Jan ; merits of saddles used in the French army, Jan ; and sanitary conditions in the army besieging Sebastopol, March Proceedings of a Court of Inquiry into allegations made in a letter to The Times, published 5 July , by Assistant Surgeon R.
Bakewell, re care of casualties in the General Hospital in the camp before Sebastopol. War Office minutes, papers, correspondence, etc. Evatt of the Army Medical Staff Protocols of the paper re cross reaction, published in the Journal of General Microbiology, 16, Protocols of the paper re the significance of mixed clones arising from singly infected bacteria, published in the Journal of General Microbiology, 37, Provisional handbook of instructions for the Millbank Portable Hot Air Disinfecting and Drying Apparatus, with photographs of diagrams and drawings of the apparatus and of a plan of a model divisional bathing and disinfection Centre Provisional handbook of the Millbank Portable Hot-Air Disinfecting and Drying Apparatus, illustrated with photographs Public health: To which are added, some experiments, instituted with a view to discover the effects of a similar treatment in the natural small-pox The present method of inoculating for the small-pox.
To which are added, some experiments, instituted with a view to discover the effects of a similar treatment in the natural small-pox The principal diseases of India, briefly described: Hunt, East Surrey Regiment The prophylaxis of diphtheria by the determination of susceptibles and their active artificial immunisation in the United States, by Dr. Lloyd-Jones] [Papers connected with Colonel H.
Volume 29] [Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 31] [Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 32] [Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 39] [Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 40] [Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 44] [Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 46] [Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 47] [Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 50] [Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 55] [Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 56] [Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 61] [Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 65] [Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Volume 76] [Parkes Pamphlet Collection: Article on history, and photograph of the chapel Queen Victoria's shawl, the museum, the pier, the officer's mess and the chapel [Queen Mary's Military Hospital, Whalley, Lancashire].
Niven's notes on the entomology lectures of Lieutenant Colonel A. Gwalior and the Battle of Maharajpore, Record cards of cases of fractured femurs admitted to a General? Hospital, Record of Service of Walter Worster, and copy of the Folkestone Herald Record of service of Private later Sergeant Richard Edward Watson, Medical Staff Corps Record of service, diary extract, orders, references, souvenirs of Genoa, newspaper cuttings, and printed leaflets Records and statistics re numbers of sick, injured and wounded treated?
Prescott, who was second-in-command of the 11th British Light Field Ambulance, which was one of the first units to relieve the inmates of Belsen Concentration Camp, Germany, in April Regimental practice or A short history of deseases common to His Majesties own Royale Regiment of Horse Guards, commonly called the Blews, when abroad, account by Dr. Regulations as to defects of vision which disqualify candidates for admission into the civil or military government services Regulations for the Medical Department of Her Majesty's Army Revised Army Regulations.
VI Regulations for the duties of Inspectors-General and Deputy Inspectors-General of Hospitals; for the duties of staff and regimental medical officers: With tables of statistics re climate, and plans showing proximity of malarious areas to barracks Reminiscences and photographs Reminiscences of Netley Reminiscences of Private Arthur Morgan of First Battalion Royal Munster Fusiliers and Corporal?
Officer Report on the medical aspect of the operations of the 2nd Division in Burma, Nov April , during the advance over the River Chindwin to Mandalay Report on the operations carried out by 1st Airborne Division during the invasion of of Sicily Operation "Husky" July Report on the site, etc. Edited by Colonel F. Also copies of correspondence with War Office and Army Medical Department Reports by Professors - permanency of professorships; relation of professors to Governor, Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley Reports by Professors - proposed removal of School from Woolwich to Netley and reorganization of courses.
Also copies of letters from Sir James Clark to Dr Parkes, 23 and 27 Jan Reports by later researchers into outbreaks of enteric group fevers in Acre , the Suez Canal Zone and the Middle East and Reports by professors of Army Medical School - arrangements for examinations of assistant surgeons at Chatham, Jan Queen Victoria for reports on wounded from South Research and reminiscences: Uganda by Colonel H. De universa muliebrium morborum medicina, novo et antehac a nemine tentato ordine opus absolutis simum Hall of Hurstwood Road, Sunderland, Co.
Durham Roll of personnel of No. Whittet The Rifle Splint: The Royal Army Medical Corps. S "Sanitary effort in the army: A system of surgery S. Harrison Sandford Moore Sanitary concerns Sanitation statik and in the field Schedula monitoria de novae febris ingressu Schistosomiasis and dengue Scrap-book by Captain G. Ellis Milne, re the development of a stretcher for use in the trenches on the Western Front Scrap-book of Major Clifford Goulty's service as medical orderly and laboratory assistant in Hong Kong, Shanghai, Tientsin, and the U.
Scrap-book of the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Battle of the Somme. Includes Major General A. With notes re Sergeant Edward Baker. Typescript copies of obituaries and accounts of his service as Hospital Sergeant with the 34th Foot in the Crimea. Set of photographs of casualties, treatment, etc. A collection of obituaries and biographical sketches Sir Arthur Porritt, Bt. General interest items, including cuttings re archaeological finds in Egypt, , the opium trade, , deer forests, , Indian criminal procedure, , the administration of the War Office, , the Duke of Sutherland, , medicine, and obituaries Sir Joseph Fayrer's scrap-book: Cuttings from Italian newspapers, and correspondence re Fayrer's part in the celebrations Sir Thomas Longmore's scrap-book of "Illustrations of appliances and methods for the transport of wounded soldiers", with extracts from The Ambulance Transport Sir William Aitken, Professor of Pathology at the Army Medical School Sir William Jenner concerning constitution of Army Medical School Sir William Leishman's mounted drawings of spirochaeta recurrentis relapsing fever organism from citrated mouse blood prepared for publication in The Lancet Sir William Leishman's proposed syllabus and lectures in preparation for acceptance of chair of Pathology at the Army Medical School?