It is only proper that we should return to the Continent for a last example in this section of our survey. As noted at the outset, a detailed review of recent developments in continental Iron Age studies must remain beyond the scope of our review. This has in any case once again been largely covered by Echt , particularly with regard to the culture history model which, despite the best efforts of many of the younger generation of archaeologists, is a ghost from the past which, particu- larly on the Continent, refuses to vanish for example, see the various regional studies in Kruta et al.
The path which art-historical research into the European Iron Age was taken by Jacobsthal and by most and since — and this has remained largely art-histor- ical research — remains to be outlined. After all it was, as he himself wrote, the classical imports into the barbarian world which first attracted him to Celtic art: One day in the cold and hungry winter of when I was studying Greek vases in Stuttgart, I was attracted by the painted Attic cup from the Klein Aspergle chieftain-grave, not because of its beauty or importance for the history of Greek vase-painting… what struck me was the fact that a Greek cup had been found in this Hyporborean country, and the gold plaques of a strange style mounted on it Jacobsthal , vi Fig.
Like Jacobsthal, many later writers have also received a major grounding in classical archaeology and ancient history R. The first to attempt to build on the foundations laid by Jacobsthal was the Basel-based classical archaeologist Karl Schefold. In a review article which represents one of the few in-depth critiques of Jacobsthal to have appeared see also Hawkes , Schefold took as his starting point a parallel development of style in Greece and among the Celts, and outlined a tripartite division of the Early Style.
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And here has been the major contribution of Frey. Even before his joining the Vorgeschich- tliches Seminar at Marburg — from which Jacobsthal had been removed in but which after the Second World War under Wolfgang Dehn became the major centre for Iron Age studies in Europe — Frey identified a small number of early works which Jacobsthal had assigned to his Waldalgesheim style.
Frey had come to Celtic art through his study of Etruscan Schnabel- kanne, for about a century from BC the most favoured prestige item north effect R. Neither then nor later, however, was he as sure as his pupil Frank Schwappach that there was a division in the western distribution of palmette designs and a more limited and easterly zone of arc-and-intersecting-circles, the latter particularly to be found in stamped and other forms of pottery deco- ration Schwappach , especially fig.
Megaw , —21 Figs. Frey of course was not the only person in the s to be considering these matters. Jope was engaged in taking over from Jacobsthal the study of insular early Celtic art though this was not to be published until after his own death in Also, Jope had for some time been concerned to study evidence for the transmission of new ideas, an essential factor in the consideration of what might be termed the post-modern- ist art of later prehistoric Europe Jope Despite the fact that in its analytical thoroughness it is as close to Jacobsthal as many others who have attempted to follow him, Castriota has also been little referred to, and in its current form it suffers from poor illustra- tions and a difficult writing style.
But the emphasis is clearly on north-eastern France. One might say, characteristically Frey takes a middle road. The foremost advocate of Italy being the key to this stylistic conundrum has been Venceslas Kruta, another scholar with a detailed knowledge of Italy see, amongst many other studies, Kruta ; a—b; supported by Chris- tian Peyre For Kruta, the replacement of the Early style by the Waldal- gesheim style is a result of the historically attested migration of the Celts into northern Italy Figs.
Following settlement in the Po valley and further south, Kruta believes that the conditions were right for the direct influence of the art of Magna Graecia. The small number of examples of Waldalgesheim style in the Celtic area of settlement is blamed on still relatively backward nature of research in the region — a weak argument if ever there was one!
More recently still, his asso- ciation with the spectacular finds from the rich burials below the Glauberg north-east of Frankfurt Fig.
In particular, Frey has been using early Celtic art to reconstruct ancient Celtic belief systems Frey ; What we lack from Frey — at least in print — is the major overview of early Celtic art which he is supremely equipped to give. Outstanding amongst these was Ludwig Pauli, whose early death has robbed Celtic art studies of one of its liveliest minds. For the history of the study of circle construction in Celtic art, see Pauli ; for its extension to the British Isles, see Frey with V. The basic introduction to engraving tech- niques remains Lowery et al.
The majority of this recent research, however, consists of corpora of mate- rial painstakingly assembled and analysed in terms of distribution, typology and chronology, but with little attention given to art theory as such. Also such corpora largely remain in unpublished dissertations buried in that black hole to which, even in these days of rapid electronic exchange of information, they seem all too frequently to be relegated. Lenerz-de Wilde argues that these constructions were based on classical models. Clearly, the construction of such designs required a sophisticated knowledge of the principles of geometry analogous with the engravers of insular Iron Age mirror-backs or the illuminators of the great Hiberno-Scottish Gospel books of a millennium later.
Notwithstanding, this is one list-maker whose complete lists one would dearly love to see in print see Schwappach a—b; ; ; contra: One major source for recent work on various aspects of Celtic art has been a number of exhibition catalogues and conference proceedings. He also has organised a number of colloquia — not all published, alas — which have contained a number of valuable studies and has also published exten- sively on the art of his Czech birthplace notably Kruta , although it can- not be said that he has broken any new ground in terms of approach or theo- retical background.
Notwithstanding, Kruta has published an invaluable source book in which he links to historical events — linkages which are probably too close for many other scholars Kruta We must not omit the work of a number of younger French scholars who seem readier than their German contemporaries to grasp the nettle of Celtic art even though they may not be as well-read as they might. As elsewhere, much potentially useful research remains as unpub- lished dissertations: Occasional spectacular finds, either the result of chance discoveries or, more and more frequently, a by-product of major road or rail construction works, have further added to the visual vocabulary of early Celtic art.
The carved coral, however, has its closest parallels in the Marne Gomez de Soto ; Lourdaux-Jurietti Megaw , —44; Olivier ; Lejars Figs. Sankot ; ; It is likely that — at least for his native Slovakia — Lev Zachar, another artist-cum-archaeologist, might well have produced a major study but for his early death; as it is, we are left with a fine volume of superb photographs and a short supporting text Zachar Detailed stylistic comparisons must await the conclusion of the work by Frey and Herrmann. Suffice it to note that the spouted flagon from grave 2 shows in its complex engraved geometric orna- mentation a close affinity with, perhaps even manufacture in the same work- shop as those from Waldalgesheim and Reinheim.
It is for this reason that we have given precedence to the photograph with drawings only as ancillary ways of seeing. On this vexed question of photography versus draughtsmanship, see Duval ; and for a history of archaeological illustration by one who was himself a highly accomplished draughtsman: The stylistic points of contact between the statue and other finds from the Glauberg graves and the Greek-influenced cultures of the south of French have been discussed.
Megaw ; see also Duceppe- Lamarre ; Arcelin and Rapin As well studies of new material there have been a number of monographs of old discoveries only recently receiving the study they have long demanded. The unique pair of imported Etruscan stamnoi and local beaked flagons remains in the British Museum as they have done ever since shortly after their discovery in — to the undying chagrin of the French. Megaw , 54—59; R. Megaw ; forthcoming; con- tra: These at last provide the foundation for firm workshop identifications.
Echt is once more a German scholar who came to Iron Age studies via the conventional training of the art historian. It is not one study but three — it is a history of research in the topic as we have already indicated. It is a detailed examination — once more complete with the results of technical analyses — and discussion of each of the individual classes of material represented in the grave. While he seems to accept the impossibility of reconstructing the con- ceptual framework or identifying the range of signifiers employed by Iron Age craftsmen, he is happy to interpret the layout of the Reinheim grave in terms of a Classical symposion but with Dionysian undertones and the imagery of the gold rings as reflecting Artemis or Minerva see also Frey Such an interpretatio celtica is taken still further by Martin Guggis- berg in another important monograph, a full report and analysis of the ritual hoard of gold rings — as it must be — discovered in at Erstfeld just north of the St Gotthard Pass.
In Lower Austria the large-scale excavations in advance of motorway con- struction carried out in the Traisental valley by the late Johann-Wolfgang Nino Neugebauer for a summary see Neugebauer , here especially —17 has revealed the existence of a previously largely unacknowledged eastern extension to the Early style art province with links both to the west and to neighbouring Transdanubia; this is work in which we were privileged to assist V.
Megaw and Neugebauer ; ; see also Frey a. Fabric analysis as well as comparison of the stamps applied to the products of the Sopron kilns and other sites have demonstrated the existence of trade links with the Traisental and beyond Jerem ; ; , espe- cially — Finally, although our name has not exactly been absent from these pages we have not commented on our own contributions to the study of early Celtic art.
A historical interpretation, according to the methods of pre- and proto-history, of the graves, hoards, sanctuaries and settle- ments from which the works of art come, is not what [they have] in mind Echt , — Fair enough; apart from two overviews V. Megaw , the first, as we have already noted, grew out of an initial belief in the central place played in early Celtic belief systems of various for- mulations of the human head V.
Megaw ; c; ; see also Echt ; , 27— While we have also been concerned not just to tease out the roots of Celtic art but also to define it, we cannot say that we have been that convincing. There are those who believe that the beginning and the end of possibili- ties lie in the study of the material itself — analysis without interpretation — while others, convinced of the existence of a past Celtic culture see lines of continuity extending right down to the present. And here indeed dragons lie. To quote Echt one more time, a statement which reflects many of the issues which we have but touched upon: Each work of art is at one and the same time…something manufacture, created form and communicated message.
Therefore a concept of style which does justice to a work of art must combine material observations, semantic and aesthetic aspects in equal parts. A basic necessity is a re-evaluation of the entire corpus of material based on a structuralist concept of style. Although the approach to the study of early Celtic art has been broadened in recent studies, there has been little discussion of general principles of analysis, of research strategy, or of methodology deemed appropriate for this study Spratling Early Celtic art studies may seem to have changed little from the approaches of the great 19th- and early 20th-century pioneers of Kunstgeschichte.
By inclination rather than of necessity much more emphasis has been placed on objects of wealth and high social standing rather than in comparison with the day-to-day gamut of decorated domestic artefacts — though studies of pottery, that most ubiquitous of all archaeological materials, have been on the increase. It cannot be said that we, by training respectively a modern cultural historian and an archaeologist-cum-art historian, can claim that our own studies have ventured far into the theoretically unknown V.
There is also a certain territoriality with scholars in some countries rarely seeming to refer to work in other countries — but this will surely change with the seeming inexorable growth of the no-longer-so New Europe. On the other hand, the increasing application of metallurgical techniques just men- tioned, can only aid that most difficult of tasks, the identification and location of individual workshops if not actual hands.
And beyond such studies, anthro- pologists of art are less pessimistic than some archaeologists when interpreting their material: Questions remain, of course.
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Despite much work on identifying individual zones of production, we are still unsure where or exactly how early Celtic art first developed except that now it is clear there were several early centres of development. The same applies to the beginnings of insular art despite the major contribution made by those like Jope and Stead in both pushing back in time this phenomenon as well as suggesting the primacy of east and south- eastern England. Nor can one be certain about the mechanics of manu- facture, distribution and exchange despite much having been written on the subject. Megaw , a model which goes back to Vere Gordon Childe and one which is certainly disputed today Wailes , espe- cially 90 and — Megaw ; Theodossiev this volume.
On a wider front, there remains today the continuing fascination with not just a Celtic style but a Celtic cul- ture, albeit that the desire to identify with a Celtic past, as alive in Perth, West- ern Australia as in Perth, Scotland — or even in Prague — may indeed be an illusion R. As current world events continue to impinge on the past and while there continues to be debate amongst archaeologists no less than sociologists and anthropologists on the true nature of ethnicity and identity, one thing is certain.
Personally, we shall continue to seek out the illusive and allusive meanings behind the material remains of Iron Age Europe, while no debate is needed on one point — neither the objects we study nor their makers are illusions. Their material products existed in the past, many exist now and will do so far into the future, providing scholars and the wider public with a source of continuing wonderment And that may be a not unsuitable celebra- tory note with which to end this tribute to Jan Bouzek.
A Supplement, still in preparation for Oxford University Press. As with this essay in general, the following remains a selection. Two somewhat similar lavishly produced — and indeed as far as illustrations go — overlapping overviews are: History and Civilization London ; and D. Histoty and Treas- ures of an Ancient Civilization Vercelli There is little to add as far as new approaches to, let alone definitions of, continental early Celtic art is concerned; D. Harding, The Archaeology of Celtic Art London , despite its title and its attempt to give context to the artefacts, is in our view no real replacement for our own overview which is equally lacking in this regard R.
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