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Changes in one area impact upon the others, and environmental factors such as pricing, regulatory change or actions by competitors impact the whole supply chain in ways that are not easily understood or managed. Accelerating technology, the commoditization of healthcare, increasing demands from ageing populations all influence the approach that suppliers of pharmaceutical products and services worldwide need to take if they are to design and manage an effective supply chain that will be capable of: Supply Chain in the Pharmaceutical Industry offers the basis for organizations to develop their own blueprint for managing the opportunities and threats to the pharmaceutical supply chain.

Supply chain in the pharmaceutical industry : strategic influences and supply chain responses

Using examples from companies and markets across the world Rob Whewell offers a very vivid picture of the developing trends for pharmaceutical companies; the customers and markets they serve and points to some of the elements that underpin sustainable pharmaceutical strategies. The current global banking and financial crisis illustrates the important role played by regulation. The healthcare industry is similar in scope, and complexity, yet the implications of error are worse - life threatening.

This review of key industry parameters will provide senior executives in the industry and policy makers in healthcare with a broad perspective of the issues and illustrates an understanding of the task at hand. The file will be sent to selected email address. It may takes up to minutes before you received it. The file will be sent to your Kindle account. An agile supply chain needs high level of flexibility for re-shaping to meet the business environment requirements.

Supply Chain in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Strategic Influences and Supply Chain Responses

Therefore, an agile supply chain can be a dynamic network of member firms considered with their structure exposed to constant changes in the environment Wu C. Companies, to gain competitive advantage in the variable business environment and the efficiency of operations, must be in line with suppliers and customers in addition to its institutions and cooperate for an acceptable level of agility Christopher, This article aimed to identify key effective strategies on supply chain agility in the pharmaceutical industry, and rank them using Multi Attribute Decision Making MADM techniques in order to focus on the management of these strategies 2.

Theoretical Backgrounds and Literature Review Agile supply chain is to achieve dynamic integration and agile manufacturing in the competitive and dynamic market environment with better flexibility and rapid response capability, communicate with suppliers, producers, manufacturers, distributors and end users in the process of supply and demand.

Agility supply chain requires a comprehensive management to provide a material, product processing, distribution, sales, customer service and etc. Therefore, it is believed that agility is the attribute needed for organizations future competitive pressures and competitive advantage Giachetti et al. Several studies have been done on agile supply chain agility including, Christopher , Tolon, , Svensson, , Baker, and Agarwal et al. One aspect of agility is chosen and developed in most of these studies.

For example, Bal et al. Svensson emphasized on trust within supply chain networks for agile supply chain. Finally, Matthias Holweg emphasized on sensitivity and responsiveness to the market trend and Patrick Swafford et al. Lue used seven organizational agility factors in the evaluation of institution agility: Mohamed Zein et al, based on the above factors provided a four-factor framework with a view to evaluating the agility of the organization Gldman model. The framework factors include: It seems that these enablers in fact are agility aspects and determine the general behavior of firms. Sharif and Zhank presented a conceptual model for agility in their article.

This model includes three major parts. The first part is on the agility that forces the firm to seek a new position for flow and continuity of its business and gain a competitive advantage. These factors make the firm to review and reconstitute strategy. The second part is about agility capabilities that include to reaction to environmental changes, competence, flexibility and speed. These methods are easy to implement and focusing on key issues. However, agile supply chain is based on integration of organization customer sensitivity, processes, networks and information systems.

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They surveyed 1, companies and found that considering and applying the aforementioned factors helps to create and maintain agile supply chain. According to Adel Azar et. Zand Hesami et al. On the other hand, supply chain agility cannot be felt in practice since superior supply chain strategy which is organizational strategy is considered as a mover of stimulus the supply chain and as long as an organization is not going to develop agile strategy, Also, according to study a number of 25 variables were identified to be effective on supply chain, shown in the table below Zand Hesami et al.

Key factors in the success of agile supply chain services in view of Zand Hesami et al Sensitivity to Market Virtual Integration Delivery speed The accuracy of New Product Central and the information Introduction cooperative planning Processes integration The use of information Reduce supply time Improve service Minimize and Customer technology tools Lead Time levels reduce costs satisfaction Improve the quality of Minimize uncertainty Develop a spirit of Minimize Reduce new Increased levels of trust increasing the resistance to product customization level of trust change development time Increase the number of new Alignment with global Improve the level of Improve the Better meet the Reduce setup time products distribution customer service reliability of needs of the delivery market Improve production capacity Based on the literature review, the authors developed a conceptual model of agile supply chain in Figure 1 that has reached its peak in many research studies Christopher, According to this model, agility drive is change and transformation.

Although not new, but few changes occur faster than before. Confusion and uncertainty in the business environment has been a major cause of failure of the supply chain. Different companies have different characteristics and undertake different conditions and specific changes that may be unique to them. However, there are common characteristics that can have the same results for all companies. Therefore supply chain agility required level can be determined by the organization based on the evaluation of the work environment. Agile supply chain addresses transformation, uncertainty and lack of predictability in the business environment and provides appropriate response to the changes, to do so, an agile supply chain needs a distinct and varied capabilities.

These capabilities can be divided into four main elements: Methodology The process of this study after study and review of earlier relevant research literature include the following steps: Outsourcing is the transfer of some of the internal workings of an organization to the external supplier based on the contract.

In fact, in outsourcing production agents staff, facilities, equipment, technology and other assets and decision-making authority responsibility and the right to make decisions on activities are often entrusted in addition to the transfer of activities Greaver, Outsourcing improve the performance of companies and organizations by downsizing and making the organization agile, reducing and controlling costs, access to non-local resources, sharing risk and difficult tasks management, or even impossible Khodaverdi et al. One of the differences between agile systems with other systems is the high information content.

In addition, the amount of information exchanged between partner companies is high and any organization key information explicitly needs to be protected. The Agile organizations require advanced information and flexible communication systems that ensure the secure data flow with the adaptability to changing conditions Fathi et al. The most difficult part in realizing the objective of agile management is not organizational and structural change, but a change in the culture and management practices Fathian et al.

Organizational structure is one of the major factors affecting the agility. Forming a suitable structure can lead to business benefits from agility through a focus on staff and innovation and creativity caused by their effective cooperation and thus enable organizations to attain features such as flexibility and high-speed in the face of environmental change and accountability and responsively to predictable and unpredictable changes Raschke, In order to adapt to changes in the composition and deployment of the orders, these systems and technology are essential Ghasemi et al.

Performance evaluation activities helped maintain aspects of an organization's strategic and market objectives and operational aspects of the organization and should provide the key data for vital aspects of knowledge management, planning, control and monitoring of progress. These activities should change in response to changes in the market environment and operations with close relationship to provide grounds for active and leading management Shepherd, There can be no limit in a developed firm and trust and commitment slogan must be to dominate Shahaee.

Establishing customer relationship systems and coordination between them and the rest of the supply chain can lead to seize the opportunities of the market and surpass its competitors. It is no doubt that the participation of the private sector in the supply chain and further reduces of dependency on government play a role in the pharmaceutical industry supply chain agility. MADM is a mathematical model and refers to a problem solving approach that is used to choose on option from a limited number of options Rao, MADM methods are known for ease of use; combined procedures if properly combined can maintain the strength and create multiple sources of knowledge and experience Shih, Fuzzy Logic was presented by professor Lotfi Zadeh in as a mathematical theory to model the ambiguity and uncertainty of human perception and ideas Lin et al.

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Fuzzy approach is an excellent tool to deal and cope with the uncertainties and variables of uncertainty and modeling language variables. Fuzzy computing fuzzy logic attempts to cast a foundation to argue about approximate reasoning model inaccurate propositions using fuzzy sets Menhaj, Generally, uncertainties can be classified in three main categories: The data model Uncertainties is of the third type where data is not specified values but a range of data values.

Different types of triangular and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are more common because of the ease of use in modeling and interpretation Petroni et al, In this paper, the triangular fuzzy numbers are used. The triangular fuzzy numbers Where, [l, u] is range of support and points m, 1 are heads. Triangular number are with a membership function that includes both linear L left and R right and connected to each other at the head m, 1 , which makes graphic representations and operations with triangular numbers very easy.

It is important that they are made simply on the basis of very little information. Two triangle numbers M1 and M2 drawn in the diagram have to be considered. Positive and negative ideal solution is an imaginary solution in which all the parameter values are the same order of maximum and minimum values in the database Rao, In summary, the positive ideal solution combines the best values available in the criteria and negative ideal solution is the worst value of the available criteria Wang,


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