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Sections of This Module Include the Following

As noted in the materials for review, new managers and supervisors often assume that everyone else knows what they know. This is a mistake. Seriously consider holding regular meetings with key staff. Don't just rely on good intentions to communicate or "working harder to communicate". Actually make some changes in policies and procedures to ensure effective communications. How can you evaluate the meeting process? How can you evaluate results of the overall meeting process? What challenges do you see in implementing the meeting-management recommendations in the materials for review?

What do you dislike about meetings? What do you like? What are you hearing from others about the quality of the meetings in your organization? What can you do to make your meetings more effective? How many hours a week are you working now? Is that a problem? What do those nearest to you think about the number of hours that you're working? How many hours a week do you think you should work on average? What is the largest number of hours that you should work in a week?

The number of hours that you work in a week can be a clear indicator of current or oncoming problems in your stress level and effectiveness as a manager. What measures can you take to ensure that you don't get so consumed by your job that you lose perspective and ultimately lose your overall effectiveness as a manager?

Strongly consider involving someone else in helping to determine the total number of hours that you will work in a week. How do you know if you're stressed? What are the signs? How might you recruit a mentor or coach? Think about this question very seriously.

How To Manage a Software Development Project - Dan Martell

Having a mentor or coach can be the single, most effective measure you can take to ensure that you manage yourself and your job in a highly effective manner. What's the difference between matters that are urgent and those that are important? What should be your approach to handling each of these two types of issues? What advice is given in the materials for review regarding these two types of issues? Give brief definitions for the following terms compare the terms with each other, noting how they are similar and different: See Basics -- Definitions and Misinterpretations in Management.

What does the term "management" mean include in your answer, the four major functions of management? Briefly describe each of the following four management functions. Coordinating or controlling activities. Of course, these functions are not carried out apart from each other -- they're highly integrated.

New managers and leaders often struggle to find the one, best way to manage and lead. Over time, they realize the "best way" depends very much on the situation, for example, the life cycle of the organization, the specific nature and needs of the organization -- and their own nature and needs, as well. A very basic understanding of theories and styles of management and leadership can help greatly when finding the "best way". Very briefly, what is the contingency theory of management?

5 Management Traits of an Operations Manager

What are some of the major styles of management? What is the importance of knowing the life cycle of an organization when leading and managing an organization? Many management experts believe that we're coming into a "new paradigm". What is this new paradigm? See New Paradigm in Management. What is the argument that some people put forth to explain their view that managing and leading are different?

What do you think? By now, you might consider your own definition of "What is leading in an organizational setting? See Definitions of Leadership. Conduct the following activities with each of the following practices: What problems did you encounter? Does the procedure need to be updated? Design a personalized stress management plan. In the plan, include description of: Include the number of hours that you want to average in work per week. You might suggest that they do the same plan and you can reciprocate by helping them, as well.

Consider getting a mentor or a coach.

Leadership Programs

Do you feel comfortable turning to these sources when you need help? If not, contact at least one source that you feel comfortable approaching when you're, for example, in need of suggestions for resources, feeling burned out, etc. You can learn a great deal about management by using a wide variety of informal methods. The following link is to many suggestions and materials you can use for informal training.

Ideas for Activities to Learn About Management. Usually, the most effective way to learn a topic or skill is through use of a formal training plan. The following link is to a detailed procedure and materials you can use to develop your own highly customized management development plan.

The procedure includes use of the assessments listed in the following section "Assessments". You can learn a great deal about leadership by using a wide variety of informal methods. Ideas for Activities to Learn About Leadership. Consider any or all of the following assessments as means to evaluate the extent of your management and leadership skills.


  1. Von wegen Traummann!: Roman (German Edition);
  2. Mi papel como Deaconess (Una serie de estudios) (Spanish Edition)?
  3. Tempting Sin?
  4. The Rock Stars Daughter (The Treadwell Academy Novels Book 1).

Needs Assessments for Management Training and Development. One of the first indicators that an organization or a person is struggling is that open action items are not tracked and reviewed.

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Open action items are required actions that have not yet been completed. Instead, people only see and react to the latest "fires" in their workplaces or their lives. Whether open action items are critical to address now or not, they should not entirely be forgotten. Therefore, update and regularly review a list of open action items identified while proceeding through this program that includes listing each open action item, who is responsible to complete it, when it should be completed and any associated comments. When updating the list, consider action items as identified during discussions, learning activities and assessments in this module.

Share and regularly review this action item list with the appropriate peers, board, management and employees in your organization. You can use the following Action Item Planning List. At that Web address, a box might open, asking you which software application to open the document. If you have questions, consider posing them in the national, free, online discussion group hr. Learners in the organization development program can return to the home page of the organization development program. To round out your knowledge of this Library topic, you may want to review some related topics, available from the link below.

Each of the related topics includes free, online resources. Also, scan the Recommended Books listed below. They have been selected for their relevance and highly practical nature. Library's Blogs List of Blogs. Add to Library Community Rules Submit your links. Learn Consulting Online Courses. It's important to evaluate your organization's management just as you evaluate its work on a regular basis typically once a year. Once again, the format and basis of your evaluation and adjustment strategy should be consistent with the philosophy and mission of your organization.

Some formal ways to accomplish an evaluation could include:. However you choose to do it, creating a regular process for evaluating and adjusting your management plan should be an integral part of the plan itself. Once you've nailed down that process, your management plan should be complete, and it's time to get to work and put it into practice.

The management of your organization is too important to be left to chance. Having a management plan will allow you to shape the organization the way you want to, and will make it much more likely that your work -- the reason for the organization's existence -- will be effective. To develop a management plan that works for your organization, you should think carefully about what's consistent with your mission and philosophy and what your organization says about itself. Then, with that in mind:.

When you have a management plan that seems right for your organization, you've completed a necessary step on the road to effective action. The Center for Nonprofit Management: A wealth of information, of varying depth. Links to many nonprofit topics, including management and boards. Nonprofit Support Center Provides leadership, consulting and training to help nonprofits do their work better.

Basic Skills in Management and Leadership

Skip to main content. Chapter 15 Sections Section 1. Developing a Management Plan Section 2. Providing Supervision for Staff and Volunteers Section 3. Providing Support for Staff and Volunteers Section 4. Promoting Internal Communication Section 5. Day-to-Day Maintenance of an Organization. The Tool Box needs your help to remain available. Toggle navigation Chapter Sections. Learn how to make a difference within your community by following our guide to being a successful community leader. What is a management plan? Why does your organization need a management plan?

How do you develop a management plan? How do you evaluate and adjust a management plan? The management plan for your particular organization depends on a number of factors: What is the organization trying to accomplish? A neighborhood initiative that exists to achieve a single goal -- keep a historic building from being torn down, preserve a piece of open space, build a playground -- has very different management needs than, say, a health clinic that plans to serve the community for years.

Issues that are both important and ongoing for the clinic staff pay and benefits, for instance may simply not exist for the other organization. What actually needs to get done day-to-day to keep the organization running? The actual tasks that keep the organization alive, maintain its standing with funders and the community, and allow it to accomplish its goals, need to be carried out efficiently and on time.

Who's responsible for that, how many people will it take, and what are the mechanisms that will allow it to happen for your particular organization? What degree of freedom do people at all levels of the organization need in order to do their jobs well? If nothing can get done without going through several layers of management, the organization isn't going to be very effective.

What are the resources available for carrying out a management plan? How many administrators could the organization support, given its finances? If the answer is one or one part-time , your management plan will look very different than it would if the answer were three. How does the management plan fit in with the mission and philosophy of the organization? It's important, both for the internal workings of the organization and for the way it's viewed in the community, that there be consistency between what the organization says about itself and the way it runs.

If an organization claims to be democratic, but keeps its staff totally powerless, it is not only violating its own principles -- and thereby making it less likely it will accomplish its goals -- but also compromising its reputation. A good management plan helps you accomplish your goals in a number of ways: It clarifies the roles and responsibilities of everyone in the organization so that everyone knows what she and everyone else is supposed to do.

Staff members know who they need to go to for information, consultation, supervision, etc. They also know what the boundaries of their own positions are -- when they can do something without checking with someone else, and when they can't. It divides the work of the organization in reasonable and equitable ways, so that everyone's job is not only defined, but feasible. It increases accountability, both internally when something doesn't get done, it's obvious whose responsibility it was and externally the better the management of the organization, the better it will serve the community.

It ensures that necessary tasks are assigned to the appropriate staff members, and creates a time schedule to get them accomplished. Bills get paid on time, staff members are where they're supposed to be to provide the organization's services, funding proposals get written and submitted, problems are dealt with, and the organization functions smoothly as a result.

It helps the organization define itself. By developing a plan that's consistent with its mission and philosophy, an organization can be clear on what it believes in and communicate this with clarity to its staff, its target population, and the community as a whole. In this part of the section, we'll go step by step through the formation of a management plan. Decide on a management model or determine what you already have The management philosophy of your organization defines how you view management and how you want your organization to function.

Some common management models are: Authority is top-down, typically from the director or board chair. As in the military -- a textbook example of a hierarchy -- there is a "chain of command. In general, people can act only in a very limited sphere without instructions or express permission from above. Final authority still resides at the top, but managers and administrators at all levels confer with those affected before making decisions.

Many non-profits and some corporations operate in this way, with decisions made at the level of those who actually do the work and see the results. This model generally allows people the authority to oversee their own work, and encourages incentive.

Free Micro-eMBA Module #4: Building Basic Skills in Management and Leadership

The whole group -- which usually includes all staff and may include participants as well -- takes part in major decisions, and everyone takes part in decisions which affect her directly. At the same time, everyone has enough authority to fulfill her own responsibility and do her job effectively. The collaborative model allows everyone to feel a sense of ownership in the organization. A food co-op or other cooperative business often functions in this way, with everyone having a vote in major decisions. Everyone takes part in all decisions, and the organization is jointly "owned" by the whole collective as a unit.

Usually, as a result, consensus universal agreement rather than a majority vote, is needed for a decision to be made. Define the roles and relationships among the board, director, and staff Roles and relationships are crucial to the smooth operation of the organization.

There are a number of questions you need to ask as you define these in a way that suits your organization and gives you the management results you want: Where are the limits of everyone's authority? How and when are they expected to work together? On which, if any, issues is decision-making a shared process? What are the lines of communication among them? Can the board give instructions directly to staff, for instance? Can staff contact the board directly about issues in the organization? Or does all communication go through the director or some other specific person?

How will disputes among them be resolved? Do board, director and staff agree about how the organization is run? Conflict in this area can quickly cripple an organization. Prepare carefully to hire the right people for management positions If you hire an authoritarian as the director of a collaborative organization, you will have serious difficulties no "may" or "might" here. Explain the organization's management model as precisely as possible, so no job applicant will have any question about what she's walking into, and won't find any surprises beyond the inevitable ones that go with every job if she takes the position.

Try to structure the interview so it mirrors as closely as possible the management model you have in mind. In this way, you can get a sense of the applicant's comfort with the situation, and of his skill in handling it. This information should be helpful when you make your choice. Ask questions and use probes that really get at the applicant's philosophy of management. What does her past experience tell you?

What would she be willing, and not willing, to do as a manager or administrator? Use the applicant's references well. Ask his former employers and colleagues about his management style, his relationships with others in the organization, the ways in which he might solve a particular problem, etc. Listen to your instincts. If someone makes you uncomfortable or feels "wrong," that's significant: If you have a sense of the people you're looking for, you'll know at least some of them when you see them. Examine what needs to be managed Whatever the management looks like, there is usually some agreement about what in an organization needs to be managed.

Personnel management encompasses a number of areas: How, and how well, staff members do their jobs. Relationships among people in the organization. Staff training and ongoing professional development. Hiring, firing, appeal, and grievance procedures. Legal or other regulations involving personnel, such as ADA Americans with Disabilities Act , funders' requirements, non-discrimination in hiring, etc.

Day-to-day management of the money you actually have: Banking, investment, and capital development: Goods and services Just buying what you need for your organization to run isn't the end of the story. Equipment maintenance and repair: Training and updates for those who need to use particular equipment, whether computers and software or something more complicated.

Ordering materials and supplies when needed, with an eye toward the total amount of money available for them. Keeping track of the price and quality of goods and services, and changing suppliers when necessary. Establishing and maintaining relationships with the companies and individuals from whom the organization buys goods and services.

Defining who gets what when: Activities What your organization actually does is usually the reason it exists. Among the management necessities here are: Making sure that the organization's activities are carried out in the way they're meant to be. Tracking the results of what you do, and attempting to find ways to improve your effectiveness, even if it's already high.

Evaluating the organization's activities, with input from staff, the target population, and, if appropriate, the community at large. Planning for change and improvement, based on evaluations and assessment of results. Continually reassessing the needs of the target population, the field, or whatever is appropriate, to make sure that what you're doing is, in fact, aimed at accomplishing what's necessary.

Keeping up to date on best practices and processes, so that you can take advantage of new and proven ideas, methods, and techniques. Updating staff training as the organization's activities or methods expand or change. Relations with the outside world If your organization aims to serve the community in some way or is dependent on the community for resources or good will then your management plan better include some ways for the organization to become recognized as part of the community.

A management plan that addresses this issue might include: Establishing, where possible, collaborative relationships with other groups and agencies e. Keeping a high profile in the community. Making it a matter of policy to assist other community groups and agencies whenever possible. Making sure that the director and staff establish and maintain personal relationships with directors and staff of other organizations. Establishing and maintaining personal relationships with the appropriate people at funding agencies. Cooperating with funders by getting paperwork in on time, conforming to rules if you have agreed to do so, and generally trying to make their work easier.

Establishing and maintaining relationships with representatives of the media reporters, editors, station managers, etc. Write policies and procedures for each management area Policies are the official rules, structures, and philosophical principles that guide an organization. An informal assessment of the plan might include answers to the following questions, among others: Do time-sensitive tasks -- funding proposals, reports, etc.

Are there any staff grievances? Is there a significant number of -- and that might mean any -- complaints from the community or from funders about the organization or what it does? Are participants dropping out of programs or services in large numbers? Is the organizational atmosphere one of calm, or one of chaos? Do staff and participants seem excited or contented, or stressed and unhappy?

Some formal ways to accomplish an evaluation could include: Some form of structured feedback from all constituents of the organization -- staff, board, participants, volunteers -- as well as from managers and administrators themselves. An organizational self-assessment, through which the organization develops a list of desired results, and checks itself against the list on a regular schedule e.

The use of someone outside the organization -- a consultant, the director of another organization -- to evaluate the management function and suggest refinements or changes. This could be part of a larger evaluation of the organization as a whole. Regularly comparing policies and procedures to what really happens in the organization in the circumstances they cover.