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ComiXology Thousands of Digital Comics. East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Because of this situation, it would have been natural for him to think of the priestly office as separate from that of the kingly. Two messiahs were then thought of, with each fulfilling a different function. The Damascus Document later corrected the view of the Manual, saying that one Messiah would preside both in the temple and in the palace.
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Most Jews believed one Messiah would come through the lineage of the tribe of Judah and would serve in the offices of high priest and king. Accompanying the Messiah would be a special prophet who would continue teachings begun by the Teacher of Righteousness. It could be both. Whatever the case, the people of the Dead Sea knew the Messiah would bring knowledge of the Holy Spirit as well as knowledge that only the Holy Spirit can impart.
The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha consists of a number of documents of varying length and character. They were first collected, translated into English, and edited by R. Charles in two volumes Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, For instance, some rabbis and early Christians believed I Enoch was not written by Enoch, the son of Jared, but by a later fabricator.
Other Christians, along with the Jews of the Dead Sea, thought it genuine.
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Its importance to some Christians is underlined by the fact that Jude 14—15 quotes 1 Enoch 1: It is worth noting that a number of interesting similarities exist between 1 Enoch and the Pearl of Great Price. The book of 1 Enoch claims to be a collection of visions and discourses of Enoch, father of Methuselah. Enoch describes the Messiah at various points, employing the titles of Messiah The Messiah is to judge the world in righteousness and will reveal all things:.
In a passage in which God speaks of the resurrection, it is clear that the Messiah will play a key role in that event:.
For in those days the Elect One shall arise; and he shall choose the righteous and holy from among them: And the Elect One shall in those days sit on My throne, and his mouth shall pour forth all the secrets of wisdom and counsel. Although many scholars have dated this work to the period of the Jewish revolt against Rome A.
Recalling that Ezra lived some four and one-half centuries before Jesus, the following promise from God is striking:. Secondly, it indicates that the Messiah-Son, who has not yet come to earth, was in a preexistent state. The third notion finds a parallel in the Pearl of Great Price: In 4 Ezra, instead of describing a preexistent group of noble ones who associated with God, the preexistent Lord is surrounded by certain great ones who have already proven themselves on earth and have consequently been translated to a heavenly abode. According to 4 Ezra and other apocryphal documents, those who stood close to the preexistent Lord in this manner included Enoch, Elijah, Moses , Jeremiah, and Ezra.
The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is a collection of the last instructions of each of the twelve sons of Jacob to their children. Although the composition date of the Testaments is disputed, it can be sensed through reading them that many of them must be genuine.
Regarding the Messiah, the Testaments present an interesting and complex picture. As in the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Messianic figure is described as coming through the lineage of two tribes, Levi and Judah, signifying the priestly and royal aspects of his mission. He is to come as the great King Test. He will conduct himself in meekness and righteousness, being free from sin.
He will establish a new priesthood under a new name Test. As described in other pseudepigraphical writings, the Savior is expected to come through the tribe of Judah Jubilees The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, then, provide us with a rich portrait of the Messiah. In his collection of New Testament Apocrypha, Edgar Hennecke has suggested a three-part division of apocryphal gospel writings as they relate to Jesus, the Messiah. New Testament Apocrypha, vol. First, some writings are very similar to the canonical gospels in style and content. Because of the fragmentary nature of many of these writings, it is difficult to determine either their authorship or possible relationships to the canonical gospels.
In one fragment of unknown authorship, an incident is recorded of Jesus meeting a Pharisee named Levi in the temple courtyard. The Pharisee berates Jesus for entering the temple area without conforming to Jewish laws of purification and dress as interpreted by the Pharisees. In a reply very similar to one in Matthew, Jesus admonished the Pharisees to avoid the hypocrisy of being more concerned with ritual cleanliness than with internal purity. See Papyrus Oxyrhynchos ; compare to Matt. The gospel of the Egyptians lends an interesting statement regarding apostasy and persecution in the church:.
You will be as sheep in the midst of wolves. But Peter answered him and said: What if the wolves tear the sheep in pieces? Jesus said to Peter: Let the sheep not fear the wolves after death; you also fear not them who kill you, but otherwise cannot do anything to you; but fear him who after your death has power over body and soul to cast them into hell-fire. A gospel of Peter was also found in , recounting events surrounding the death and resurrection of Jesus much like the canonical gospels do.
A second type of apocryphal gospel identified by Hennecke is the type usually associated with gnosticism. Gnostics from the Greek word meaning knowledge believed they were recipients of a special knowledge, usually through revelation or revelatory apocalyptic texts that contained secret rituals and teachings.
Most of their records were eventually destroyed by their enemies, and the only accounts of their beliefs available for centuries were those compiled and passed on by their orthodox opponents. Second Jeu, one such text found in the mid-nineteenth century and published in the early part of this century, begins with the resurrected Jesus gathering the Twelve Apostles and their wives about him to explain the mysteries that would give them access to the heavenly treasury of light.
The lengthy discourse is quite complex, containing references to special seals and names, altars, sacral food, linen garments, wreathed crowns, and other liturgical subjects. It is understandable that Christian theologians, who could find no similarities to these types of material in the New Testament, would be very suspicious and dubious as to the gnostic claim of association with apostolic Christianity.
In some Arab peasants in upper Egypt discovered a gnostic library containing some 53 works bound in 13 volumes, totaling more than 1, pages of papyri. There are gospels of Philip and Thomas, writings of James the brother of Jesus and John, and a revelation of Peter, just to name a few. There are also a number of writings associated with the names of ancient patriarchs, such as Adam, Seth, Shem, and Melchizedek.
In the Apocalypse revelation of Adam, Adam relates to his son Seth the experience of the fall, when Adam and Eve were deprived of the glory that they had once possessed. Then Adam explains to Seth how three men appeared and instructed Adam and Eve regarding the future history of the earth and the salvation of men.
The Paraphrase of Shem then recounts a vision of Shem in which he is shown the heavens in an ecstatic journey, followed by an account of the creation of the earth. Jesus is often portrayed in them as a heavenly being who descended to an evil material world controlled by evil rulers in order to grant salvation to fallen man through the bestowal of secret knowledge gnosis.
This secret knowledge is comprised of both doctrinal teachings and rituals or ordinances associated with those teachings.